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Full text of "The National cyclopaedia of American biography, being the history of the United States as illustrated in the lives of the founders, builders, and defenders of the republic, and of the men and women who are doing the work and moulding the thought of the present time"

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THE NATIONAL 

CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY 



VOLUME XIV. 




YORK 

, 





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THE NATIONAL 



CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN 
BIOGRAPHY 



BEING THE 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 



AS ILLUSTRATED IN THE LIVES OF THE POUNDERS, BUILDERS, AND DEFENDERS 
OF THE REPUBLIC, AND OF THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO ARE 
DOING THE WORK AND MOULDING THE 
THOUGHT OF THE PRES- 
ENT TIME 



EDITED BT 

DISTINGUISHED BIOGRAPHERS, SELECTED FROM EACH STATE 

REVISED AND APPROVED BY THE MOST EMINENT HISTORIANS, SCHOLARS, AND 

STATESMEN OF THE DAY 



SUPPLEMENT I. 



NEW YORK 

JAMES T. WHITE & COMPANY 



L., MEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 



UTOX, LENOX AND 
TN-OEN FOUNOATIONS. 
R 1910 



COPYRIGHT, 1910, 
BY JAMES T. WHITE & COMPANY. 

[All right! reserved.] 



THE SCIENTIFIC PflESS 
BERT DRUMMONO AND COMPANY 
BROOKLYN. N. V. 



INTRODUCTION 



This new volume of THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY 
has been issued to supplement the material in the- previous volumes in accordance 
with the general plan and scope which has characterized the publication as the 
most systematic and complete work on the subject of American biography ever 
issued. On this occasion it will not be out of place to call attention to the extent of 
that plan and scope as explanatory of the principal contents of the present volume. 

In compiling a Cyclopedia of Biography that should be truly national, that 
should comprehend every period of American history, and that should be representa- 
tive of every section of the country, it was decided to make it absolutely complete 
along certain well-defined lines. Whatever else it might contain, it was decided 
tLat such a Cyclopedia should include all the high government officials : the presidents 
of the United States and their cabinet officials, the heads of the various departments 
in Washington, all the United States senators, all the United States ministers and 
ambassadors to foreign countries, the governors of all the states, the chief -justices 
of the highest state courts, the justices of the United States Supreme Court, 
the heads of the various departments of the army, commissioners and delegates 
to important national congresses, conferences, etc., presidents of the universities 
and colleges, bishops of the various churches, directors of astronomical observa- 
tories, presidents of the leading scientific and learned societies and religious organi- 
zations, as well as clubs and social institutions of more than a.local fame. 

All these lists constitute a collection of official names that by virtue of their 
position one would naturally expect to find in a national reference work, and it was 
determined to procure their biographies for THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN 
BIOGRAPHY. The task was a herculean one, for the reason that a surprisingly large 
proportion of such lives had never been recorded before. But it was accomplished. 
The contents of this new volume, therefore, will be found to consist principal 1> -f 
biographies of those officials who have succeeded to their respective positions in the' 
above-mentioned classifications since the issuance of the previous volume. Begin- 
ning with the biographies of Presidents Roosevelt and Taft and thoir cabinet officers, 
these records include the new Director of the United States Mint, the Director of the 
Geological Survey, the Commissioners of Education, of Patents and of the Census, 
the ranking officer and Chief -of- Staff of the United States Army, the Adjutant- 
Geaeral, Surgeon-General and Chief of Engineers of the Army, the new Justice of the 
United States Supreme Court, the Chief-Justice of the Court of Claims and the 
Solicitor-General. There are forty-three United States senators; thirty-eight United 
States ministers to foreign countries; fifty-nine governors of states; thirty-eight 



vl INTRODUCTION 



college presidents; fifteen bishops of the churches, fourteen chief- justices or jurists 
and sixty-nine presidents of scientific and learned societies. 

Likewise the same standard respecting miscellaneous names has been maintained, 
and there also will be found the biographies of those prominent contemporaries who 
within the past decade have become distinguished in the church, at the bar, in liter- 
ature, in the arts and sciences, and in the commercial and industrial world. There 
are biographies of eighty-nine authors; thirty-five actors and musicians; twenty- 
nine artists and sculptors; eighteen inventors; seventy- three merchants; sixteen 
railroad presidents; seventy-seven lawyers; forty-two engineers and architects; forty- 
five physicians and surgeons ; eighty-six scientists, and thirteen recipients of notable 
medals and awards. 

As in the previous volumes the biographies will be found to be considerably 
longer than in other books of reference, due to the fact that they contain the American 
ancestries and family histories, and also most important of all some details of the 
subject's life work. The editors believe that the record of what a person has accom- 
plished or is accomplishing as a contribution to our national history or for the 
betterment of humanity or the advancement of mankind, constitutes the most valuable 
part of his life sketch, and so in the biographies of President Roosevelt and his cabinet 
will be found a detailed history of the entire Eoosevelt administration ; in the biog- 
raphy of Commander Peary, a full history of his Arctic explorations and discoveries; 
in the lives of the Wright brothers the details of their experiments in aviation and a 
description of their flying machine; in the life of Gifford Pinchot an account of the 
Forest Service; in the biography of one of the arbitration commissioners, the full 
details of the famous anthracite coal strike of 1902; in the biography of Charles E. 
Magoon an account of our relations with Cuba. In the life of J. Pierpont Morgan 
and the various officials of the United States Steel Corporation is given a history of 
the inception, growth and present status of that gigantic organization ; the biography 
of Elwood Worcester, Rector of the Emmanuel Church, presents an account of the 
so-called Emmanuel movement; in the life of the late Engineer Menocal will be found a 
history of the Nicaraguan Canal movement, and in Colonel Goethals', details of work 
on the Panama Canal ; in the lives of Gen. and Mrs. Booth a history of the Volunteers 
of America and the work they are doing; in President McCrea's biography an account 
Df','t'hp''n'ew '.tei-rAirju'.s/'iof the Pennsylvania Railroad and tunnels leading in and out 
bl''lv r e I w < tori! ;' idtlie 'biographies of the governors of the states a resume of recent 
state' t6jgi;iatj<j>ni;' 'in the lives of the college presidents the status of our leading 
educational .iijstitutipns ; in the life of one of the presidents of the American Colo- 
niza'ci0ri.%6ol<ky'.iB.. presented a brief history of Liberia, etc. Thus the new volume 
becomes a unique record of present-day events political, social, industrial, commer- 
cial and scientific that will prove most valuable to the student and the historian, not 
only for the personal element, but for the wealth of detail not obtainable to such a 
degree in any other work of reference. 

The various historical and other miscellaneous names found in this volume 
are accounted for by the fact that an appeal was made to those subscribers of THE 



1NTR01>LX'TION VI 1 

NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY who are making the most frequent 
use of the work, and thus are most familiar with its entire contents the daily 
newspapers and the leading public libraries for the suggestion of the names of any 
Americans whose omission had been brought to their attention. Such suggestions 
had the careful consideration of the editorial department, and in nearly every instance 
the omission was supplied. 

The same carefulness of preparation and verification that has madeTHE NATIONAL 
CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY so useful and reliable as a book of referen<v, 
has been followed in the preparation of the present volume. As the biographies are 
made up almost entirely of statements of facts, they are valuable in proportion to the 
accuracy of those facts, and na pains and expense have been spared to obtain the 
information from first sources, and to verify the records, dates, statistics and all state- 
ments, so that they may be depended upon as absolutely authentic and authoritative. 

The index of this volume contains in addition to the reference to the biographies 
the same elaborate and complete system of cross-references as was contained in the 
Conspectus and Index Volume. These include all references to a subject in other 
biographies and the index of the subject matter treated in the articles. 

THE PUBLISHERS 



THE NATIONAL 

CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN 

BIOGRAPHY. 



ROOSEVELT, Theodore, twenty-sixth presi- 
dent of the rnitnl Stales, was born in New York 
city, Oct. 27, 1858, son of Theodore and Martha 
(Bulloch) Roosevelt, of Dutch and Scotch-Irish 
ancestry. Klaas Martensen Roosevelt, the founder 
of the family in America, came from Holland in 
1(>4!I, and settled in New Amsterdam. His son, 
Nicholas, an alderman of the city, was of the 
Leislerian party, and, although a burgher of the 
"major right," espoused the popular cause in the 
contest of the colonies with the mother country. 
After him came Johannes and then Jacobus Roose- 
velt, father and son, who attained no special 
Trorninence; and, in the fourth generation, James 
. Roosevelt, a captain in the New York state troops 
during the Revolution. His son, Cornelius Van 
Schaick Roosevelt, married Margaret Barnhill, of 
Pennsylvania, a lady of Scotch-Irish blood, and 
granddaughter of Thomas Potts, a member of the 
continental congress; their son, Theodore Roose- 
velt father of the president, married a daughter 
of James Bulloeh, of Roswell, Ga. One great- 
grandfather of the president was Daniel Stewart, 
who joined the revolutionary army when a mere 
boy; was captured by the British but escaped from 
& prison ship, and later served as captain under 
Sumter and Marion. His mother's grandfather, 
James Bulloeh, was a captain of Georgia and \ ir- 
ginia troops in the same war, and the son of Archi- 
bald Bulloeh (q.v.), the first revolutionary governor 
of Georgia. A maternal uncle built the famous 
confederate privateer Alabama; and another uncle, 
I. S. Bulloeh, fired the last shot from her deck just 
before she was sunk by the Kearsarge. The Roose- 
velts have always been prominent on Manhattan 
Island, as couneilmen, organizers of business enter- 
prises, and leaders in public movements of every 
kind. Notable among them was Isaac Roosevelt, 
one of the founders of the Bank of New York (the 
oldest banking institution of that city), and a 
member of the convention which framed the federal 
constitution. Theodore Roosevelt, the president's 
father, accumulated an ample competence as a glass 
importer. He was a liberal supporter of charitable 
activities, and devoted a large share of his time to 
public affairs. During the civil war he took a 
leading part in organizing and equipping regiments 
for service; drafted and secured the passage in 
congress of a bill establishing unsalaried state 
commissions to deliver soldiers' pay to their wives 
and children at home. After the war he traversed 
the South as the head of the New York commission ; 
organized a soldiers' employment bureau for the 
purpose of finding situations for the hosts of dis- 
charged veterans, and the Protective War Claims 



Association, which collected money due to disabled 
and dead soldiers without charge. He also founded 
the Roosevelt hospital in New York for the treat- 
ment of diseases of the hip and spine, which is a 
last ing memorial to his unflagging interest in move- 
ments for ameloriating human suffering. In IS77 
he wa.= nominated for collector of the port of N'.-w 
York by Pres. Hayes, but was rejected by the 
senate because in accepting he declared he would 
administer the office in the interest of no party hut 
for the benefit of the whole people. He was also 
a devotee of outdoor life and vigorous sports, a fine 
sailor, an expert at driving four-in-hand, and a 
boon companion to his children. Thus the bent 
of the son's genius and the trend of his inclinations 
are easily accounted for. In his childhood and 
youth the future president was weakly and asth- 
matic, incapable of much exertion, either in study 
or play, consequently, his international eminence, 
at the age of fifty, in athletics, politics, economics 
ranching, soldiering, hunting, literature and public 
administration is fully as marvelous as the rise of 
William Wirt from stuttering bashfulness and 
stupidity, the evolution of Demosthenes from a 
crooked-shouldered and tongue-tied stripling, or 
the exaltation of Lincoln from the brambles of 
obscurity. His first readings were the books of 
Capt. Mayne Reid, Cooper's " Leatherstocking 
Tales" and Dr. Livingstone's "Travels in Africa, 
and from early boyhood he was fired with ambition 
to be a mighty hunter. But lacking the vigor and 
endurance essential to a great hunter, he set 
himself resolutely to acquire them: he rowed, ran, 
swam, boxed, took long and rapid walks, rode 
horseback and practiced calisthenics and shooting, 
until he had conquered his asthma and transformed 
himself into a model of youthful strength and 
energy. He was primarily educated under private 
teachers, and at the age of eighteen he entered Har- 
vard College, where he was active in field sports, 
a lively boxer and an excellent student. As an 
illustration of his inborn love of justice it is related 
that while at college he was requested to resign as 
teacher of a Sunday-school class, because he had 
rewarded one of his pupils with a dollar for whipping 
a boy who had pinched his sister, saying, " You did 
perfectly right, my boy, perfectly right." He was 
interested in college politics and was the most 
ceaseless and insistent reader in his class, but as a 
speaker, while forceful he was uninteresting and 
awkward. In the course of extensive historical 
reading he concluded that both the English and 
American histories contained numerous misstate- 
ments concerning the sea-fighting of the war of 
1812, and he proceeded to verify his theory by 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



the United btates, 1812-15' (1SS2), which was 
published when he was only a little more than 



delegation to the 
national convention at Chicago in 1884. He was at 
that time an avowed opponent of Pres. Chester A 



twenty-three years of age. So complete and im- Arthur, who was a candidate for a second term and 
partial was this history that a firm of British pub- also of James G. Blaine, the leading candidate but 
Ushers invited him to prepare the chapter on the worked heartily for George F. Edmunds, of Vermont 
war of 1812 for an elaborate work on the royal navy, who stood for t'he ideal of civil service reform With 
and accepted his contribution without change or George William Curtis and other reformers, he fought 
criticism. After graduating in 1880, Mr. Roosevelt strenuously but unsuccessfully to prevent the 
read law for a time, and then spent a year in Ger- nomination of Blaine. However, after a few weeks 
many, studying the German language and literature of recreation in the West, he returned to New York 
and touring the Swiss Alps. After his return in 1881, and supported him with characteristic vigor and 
he joined the New York Republican Association, wholeheartedness, to the intense disgust of his 
and was elected to the state assembly from the 21st former co-workers. At this time Mr. Curtis pro- 
district of New York city on a platform declaring phetically said of Mr. Roosevelt : " He has integrity 
for clean politics and clean streets. He attracted courage, fair scholarship, a comfortable amount of 
small attention in the legislature, and accomplished 



money 



Somewhat 




His request that the charges against this judge be cising or praising him." Upon Blaine's defeat by 
investigated was opposed by the party leaders. Cleveland, Mr. Roosevelt retired to his cattle ranch 
Consequently, on Apr. 6, 1882, he took the floor in the Bad Lands of North Dakota for the double 
and boldly demanded an impeachment. Although purpose of freely indulging his passion for outdoor 
overwhelmingly voted down, life and of improving his physical health and 
he persisted in his effort in strength. The loss of his wife early in that same 
th-? assembly, by interviews year may have had some influence also in sending 
and letters in the papers him into retirement. This ranch, which he made 
and by every means at his famous in his writings, lay along the Little Mis- 
command, until the people souri, on whose banks he erected his ample log 
of the state were thorough- house and log stable for his horse. Game of almost 
ly aroused and began im- all kinds was abundant in every direction. To the 
portuning their representa- north the wilderness was essentially untrodden and 

the Rockies beyond were wild and "unknown. Deer 
fed about the grounds ; grizzlies growled in the deep 
forests and scattered bands of buffalo grazed in the 
recesses back from the trails. Immense buffalo 




tive for action. On the 

eighth day of his campaign 

he introduced his resolutions 

to investigate the charges and . 

succeeded in passing them heads, huge grizzly skins and many other trophies 

by a vote of 104 to 6. The 

charges were not sustained 

or proven, but Roosevelt's 



of his prowess are treasured at Sagamore Hill, his 
Long Island home, as grateful realizations of the 
dreams of his boyhood. In contemplating Mr 

career and reputation as a Roosevelt's recognized skill as a hunter the fact 
reformer and active enemy of should be remembered that he is near-sighted and 
civic uncleanness was estab- compelled to wear specially ground eye-glasses so 
lished. He was reflected in that, as he has stated, his hand in the beginning 
the fall of 1882 and was pro- was "none too steady." He won in this his 

posed by the newspapers for speaker, but instead, beloved line, as he has in other lines by tenacious 
was overwhelmingly defeated and left in complete application and practice. That he loved the wild 
isolation by his party in the house. The situation pastime of the forests and the mountains with an 
thus described by himself: "I suppose that my overwhelming love is shown by this extract from 
head was swelled. I took the best mugwump his "Wilderness Hunter": "No one but he who has 
stand. 1 stood out for my own opinion, my own partaken thereof can understand the keen delight 
conscience, my own judgment to decide all things, of hunting in lonely lands. For him is the iov of the 
1 would listen to no argument, no advice. I took horse wellridden and the rifle well held ; for him the 




, Ji I - *" , " n Vl.lvt WOiDbGO IVlllg IHSllKtle UIlUeT 

he continues, was his 'first real lesson in politics." gray skies; of the melancholy niarshes- of the rush 
On further consideration, he concluded that "there of mighty waters; of the breath of the evergreen 
n-ere several other excellent people in the body, forest in summer; of the crooning of ice-armored 
with honest opinions of the right," and he joined in pines at the touch of the winds of winter- of cata- 
u P u ' y m tum hel I )in K him ' antl to - racts roaring between hoary mountain mosses; '.if 
ether they ' got things done." He investigated all the innumerable sights and sounds of the wil'der- 
the tenement cigar-makers, about whose conditions ness; of its immensity and mysterv and of the 
there had been bitter complaints, and secured the silences that brood in its remote ,'leptli " The kill- 
passage of the bill for an amelioration of the evil, ing of the huge grizzly whose broad hide adorns 
w;hich, however, the courts declared unconstitu- Sagamore Hill was one of the most exciting experi- 
tional; he also presented and had passed the first ences in his frontier life. He had made a camp alone 
civil service bill in the state. Although very at dusk on a small stream and had taken a short 
generally regarded as an ultra-radical, he was again turn through the brush to see if he could bag a 
elected in 188.3, and by way of continuing his grouse, when he came upon the bear and wounded 
reform activities, struck his first blow for civil him. The animal plunged into a thicket but a 
service reform, a cause long agitated by his father, moment later emerged with a rush "scarlet' strings 



OK AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



of froth hanging from his lips ; his eyes burning like 
embers in the gloom." Roosevelt fired and the 
bullet, as he afterward learned, cut the point of the 
enraged animal's heart. "Instantly," he wrote, 
"the great bear turned with a harsh roar of fury 
and challenge, blowing the bloody foam from his 
mouth, so that I saw the gleam of his white fangs. 
Then he charged straight at me, crashing and 
bounding through the laurel brush, so that it was 
hard to aim. I waited till he came to a fallen tree, 
raking him as he topped it with a ball which entered 
his chest and went through the cavity of his body, 
but he neither swerved nor flinched and at the 
moment I did not know that I had struck him. He 
came steadily on and in another second was almost 
upon me. I fired for his forehead but my bullet 
went low, entering his open mouth, smashing his 
lower jaw and going into his neck. I leaped to one 
side almost as I pulled the trigger and through the 
hanging smoke the first thing I saw was his paw as 
he made a vicious side blow at me. The rush of his 
charge carried him past. As he struck he lurched 
forward, leaving a pool of bright blood where his 
muzzle hit the ground; but he recovered himself 
and made two or three jumps onward, while I hur- 
riedly jammed a couple of cartridges into the 
magazine my rifle holding only four, all of which 
I had fired. Then he tried to pull up, but as he did 
so his muscles seemed suddenly to give way, his head 
drooped and he rolled over and over like a shot 
rabbit. Each of my first three bullets had inflicted 
a mortal wound." He became a part of the life 
of the plums, the forests and the mountains, meeting 
every man on his own level and learning much. The 
physical vigor for which he had always longed anil 
labored came to him in full measure now, and with 
it increased ambition and mental activity. In 
addition to his many long hunting excursions and 
his ranch responsibilities, he wrote "Hunting Trips 
of a Ranchman" (1SS5), and made notes for other 
books which followed later. He was par excellence 
a "mixer," even with the rude and turbulent, 
participating in the pleasures and labors of his 
fellows, yet always commanding that respect and 
deference which is the birthright of the superior 
mind. On one occasion, it is related, a drunken 
rowdy, mistaking him for a "tenderfoot," ordered 
him, with a promiscuous gun-play and a cyclone of 
profanity, to "treat the crowd." Roosevelt, rising 
and stepping briskly forward, as if to obey the 
command, suddenly shot out a left-hander that sent 
the bully over benches and boxes prostrate on the 
floor. Thereafter he was the most admired and 
respected man in the region. He was an active 
member of the Montana Stock Growers' Association, 
and helped to gather in the cattle rustlers, over 
sixty of whom were summarily dispatched at a 
single round-up ; he personally compelled dishonest 
sheriffs to give the ranchers fair treatment, or 
resign. As one result of his activity, he was once 
challenged by the Due de Mores, a French aristocrat 
who owned a ranch in that region, to fight a duel 
over some cattle difficulty. In answer, he sent a 
messenger saying he would reach the duke's ranch 
in an hour. The duke returned a horseman to meet 
Roosevelt with an invitation to dinner, which was 
accepted, and the two became firm friends. In the 
autumn of 1886 a convention of citizens in New 
York placed Roosevelt in nomination for mayor, 
and soon after the regular Republican organization 
endorsed the selection . All of this was done without 
his knowledge and while he was "roughing" it in 
the West. The Democrats having nominated Abram 
S. Hewitt and the single-taxers Henry George, the 
ensuing campaign was unusually bitter. On hearing 
of his nomination Mr. Roosevelt instantly left the 
trail and, hastening to New York, plunged into the 



campaign with all his might. He pleaded for a 
divorce of municipal from state and national 
politics; argued that labor and capital alike were 
interested in an honest and economical city govern- 
ment, and promised that, if elected, he would 
administer the office "without heed to anything 
whatever but the general welfare." He was not 
elected, however, the returns showing a vote i>f 
90,552 for Hewitt, 08,110 for George and (10, 4:35 for 
Roosevelt. The ensuing two and a half years were 
devoted to literature, traveling and hunting, though 
immediately following the election he hastened to 
London, where he married his second wife. Roose- 
velt's national reputation began when Benjamin 
Harrison, who had defeated Grover Cleveland for 
the presidency in 1888, appointed him a member of 
the U. S. civil service commission. At that time 
the commission was a very unpopular institution, 
being regarded as a sort of alien device for creating 
and protecting an official aristocracy, and nearly 
every newspaper and politician in the country was 
agains tit. Immediately Roosevelt took his seat, 
however, all was changed. He answered the critics 
of the commission wherever and whenever they 
appeared, be they pri- 
vate individuals or sen- 
ators and cabinet offi- 
cers, and he struck out 
with his hardest blows. 
He promulgated the 
doctrines that all ap- 
plicants should have 
an equal chance, that 
no employe's should be 
discharged "so long as 
they performed their 
duties faithfully and 
courteously," and that 
he would put no person 
in public office into 
whose hands he would 
not put his own private 
affairs. He made a 
report on what he 
termed "blackmail" 
in the New York cus- 
tom house, that vicious 
practice compelling 
employes to contri- 
bute a certain per 
cent, of their salaries to the campaign fund, and 
recommended the enactment of laws which would 
render "such an iniquity impossible." He elimi- 
nated one of the most material objections to it by 
ordering that examinations for federal positions of 
any sort could be taken in the several states, in- 
stead of necessarily in Washington, thus saving 
applicants the heavy expense of a journey to the 
capital. This order marked the turning point in 
civil service reform. Without it, and another of 
his rulings, the commission doubtless would have 
been abolished. That other one put a stop to using 
the same set of questions for applicants for all sorts 
of positions, and substituted examinations framed 
especially for the purpose of developing fitness for 
each particular kind of service. Notwithstanding 
these radical improvements, the commission con- 
tinued to be unpopular, but Roosevelt kept up a 
ceaseless and spirited defense of the various objec- 
tions and criticisms, his championship extending to 
newspapers, magazines, public lectures, hearings 
and addresses, private letters and official recom- 
mendations. When John Sharp Williams objected 
to the appointment of negroes in the railway mail 
service, he said "the commission would not make 
any discrimination whatsoever for or against any 
man because of his color any more than because 




THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 



of his polities or religion." He continued in his 
position until May, 1895, when he was appointed 
by Mayor Strong president of the New York board 
of police commissioners, which made him ex-officio 
a member of the New York board of health, and 
although strongly urged by the president and his 
fellow commissioners to decline the new appoint- 
ment, he felt it his duty to accept it. When he 
entered the civil service commission he found less 
than 14,000 employe's under civil service rules, and 
when he resigned there were 40,000, and the object 
and workings of the civil service law were pretty 
fully understood by the public. Mr. Roosevelt's 
career as head of the police board of New York was 
more turbulent than anything that had preceded 
it. A vast system of blackmail upon the saloons, 
brothels, policy shops, gambling houses, and even 
push-carts, was in vogue by the police, under the 
management and for the benefit of local politicians. 
This blackmail contribution amounted to several 
million dollars annually and made the political 
party collecting it practically invincible. The money 
was paid in most cases for immunity when violating 
the laws. Roosevelt's first move was to demand 
the resignation of the chief; his next, the promul- 
gation of civil service regulations, and an order to 
enforce the law closing the saloons on Sunday. 
Opposition was raised from all quarters, but he paid 
no attention to the clamor and in a few weeks the 
saloons surrendered, and the warden of Bellevue 
hospital reported that for the first time in its history 
it had no drunken brawl cases from Sunday carous- 




ing. He also closed the police station lodging-houses, 
stopped the sale of intoxicants to children, and 
throttled the pernicious levying of blackmail. To 
make sure that his orders were being carried out and 
that the police were doing their duty, he personally 
patrolled the lanes and alleys a number of nights, 
often unaccompanied, and in order to learn what 
effect his policies were having upon the poor he 
visited the slums and inspected the tenement houses. 
He made a rule that police uniforms ruined in saving 
or protecting life, while the men were on duty, 
should be paid for by the board; he summoned 
members of the force who had performed extra 
hazardous services or acts of bravery, or who had 
risked their lives for others, congratulating and 
promoting them, and he called a public meeting of 
laboring men to explain to them the sworn duty of 
the police in times of strikes or riots, and to promote 
a better understanding between those two bodies. 
Suddenly, in April, 1897, he was appointed by 
Pres. McKinley assistant secretary of the navy 
under John D. Long, and he surprised everybody 
by accepting. He also surprised the conservatives 
with whom he came in contact by the vigor with 
which he attempted to strip the "barnacles" from 
the service, establishing precedents, creating new 
duties, and preparing for a possible contest with 
Spain which he believed to be inevitable in the near 
future. He asked for an appropriation of a million 
dollars for target practice, and then a half million 
more; he wanted the bunkers kept filled with coal 
and the magazines with ammunition, and he wanted 



the men to practice. Pres. McKinley, who was 
doing his utmost to avert war, did not relish the 
Roosevelt belligerency, and referred to his assistant 
secretary of the navy as "the war party." Sen. 
Hanna, of Ohio, pleaded for peace, for deliberation, 
for diplomacy, to which Roosevelt made what the 
country regarded as a "hot-headed" reply. The 
coming war, he said, was a moral issue, a stroke for 
humanity. For the nation to do right, he declared, 
was far more essential than for it to nurse its business 
and its commerce; "better lose a thousand bankers 
than one Farragut; better never have had all our 
railroad magnates than lose one Grant; better 
never have known commercial and industrial great- 
ness than miss Lincoln from our history." He was 
made president of the strategetic board, in which 
position his activities were ceaseless, his energy 
prodigious. He was "running over with enthusi- 
asm, suggestion and effort," wrote former Secretary- 
of-the-Navy Long. He knew that the country was 
without a standing army or the equipment for an 
army of any kind; he believed that war was inevit- 
able and he made a complete plan of operations, 
at the same time urging, energizing and aiding the 
various bureaus of the navy department, especially 
the bureau of equipment. After war was actually 
declared he determined to leave the department and 
"get into the fight," on the ground that as he "had 
done what he could to bring on war he had no 
business, now that it had come, to ask others to do 
the fighting and stay at home himself." He there- 
fore helped organize what became popularly known 
as " Roosevelt s Rough Riders" technically First 
Volunteeer Cavalry of which he was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel, with Leonard Wood as colonel, 
on May 6, 1898. The men were recruited in 
Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Indian Ter- 
ritory. Over ninety per cent, of them had herded 
cattle or followed the trail on horseback in the West. 
In their ranks were preachers, Indians, college 
athletes, "trailers" almost all classes, but all of 
one type, to whom rifle and revolver were as knife 
and fork. On July llth, Col. Wood having been 
promoted to brigadier-general, he was advanced to 
the command of the regiment. In the most noted 
action in which this intrepid body participated, the 
charge up San Juan hill, Roosevelt led the charge 
thirty yards in advance of his men, although his 
horse had been shot under him in the opening fire. 
He also distinguished himself at Las Guasimas. 
Roosevelt was greatly admired by his men, winning 
their love and devotion not only because he knew 
them and their ways, ever appreciating their rough- 
diamond qualities, nor because he always saw them 
provided with the best within reach, at no time far- 
ing better than they, but because he was the true 
chieftain, the bravest of the brave. A few months 
after the regiment was disbanded in September, 
1898, he published "The Rough Riders," in which 
the merits and doings of the command as a body 
and as individuals are enthusiastically set forth 
with many illustrations. The appendix of this 
book contains the famous "round robin " of Aug. 3, 
1898, which Roosevelt addressed to the war depart- 
ment in response to the order from Washington to 
move the army from Santiago de Cuba on the coast 
to the interior. In it he declared that as the troops 
were so debilitated by fevers and the effects of the 
hot climate, only 20 per cent, of them being fit for 
duty, such a move would be suicidal and that the 
only thing that would prevent wholesale destruction 
was instant removal to the coast of Maine or some 
similar locality beyond the reach of yellow fever 
germs. It was a bold move but it was effective, 
and as the war was really over the regiment was 
soon afterward brought home. In 1898 Roosevelt 
was elected governor of New York. His policy as 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



governor was marked by the same vigor and fear- 
lessness of action that had characterized his previous 
political career. He recommended a tax upon the 
franchises of public utility corporations which the 
legislature reluctantly provided; he made a personal 
investigation of the tenement houses and then 
induced the legislature to create a tenement house 
commission ; he personally saw that the factory and 
tenement inspectors performed their full duties 
vigilantly, and, as he had promised in his inaugural 
message," did all that he could, as occasion arose, 
"for the betterment of social conditions." On 
McKinley's renomination in 1900, two antago- 
nistic forces in the Republican party united to give 
the nomination for vice-president to Goy. Roosevelt: 
the New York politicians who did not like his activ- 
ity, energy and fearlessness and who wanted to get 
him out of the state, and the rough-rider and 
radical elements of the West who admired his style. 
He himself had no inclination toward the unsatisfac- 
tory office of vice-president, desiring rather another 
term as governor of New York, in order to com- 
plete certain reforms then under way or in con- 
templation. Neither Pres. McKinley nor Mark 
Ilanna, the leader of the Republican party, wanted 
Roosevelt. But the two forces mentioned, adroitly 
led by Senators Quay, Payne and Platt, were resist- 
less. Roosevelt was nominated on the first ballot, 
anil personally taking the stump made a telling 
canvass. He spoke continuously for many weeks 
and materially strengthened the" ticket, which was 
elected by a vote of 7,207,923 to 0,358,133 and 292 
to 155 in the electoral college. During his brief 
service as vice-president, Roosevelt, besides preach- 
ing on several occasions and making numerous 
addresses, delivered his now famous lecture, ''The 
Strenuous Life," before the Hamilton Club of 
Chicago. Pres. McKinley was assassinated at the 
Pan-American exposition on Sept. 6, 1901. Roose- 
velt, who had been spending a vacation in the 
Adirondack mountains, hurried to Buffalo, arriving 
on the day of death, September 14th, and took 
the oath of office, administered by Judge John 
R. Hazel, at the house of Ainsley Wilcpx. Im- 
mediately he issued a proclamation setting aside 
September 19th as a day of mourning and prayer; 
and requested the McKinley cabinet to remain with 
him, announcing that he should continue the 
McKinley policies unbroken. His cabinet at that 
time consisted of John Hay, secretary of state; 
Lyman J. Gage, secretary of the treasury; Elihu 
Root, secretary of war; Philander C. Knox, attor- 
ney-general; Henry C. Payne, postmaster-general; 
John D. Long, secretary of the navy; Ethan A. 
Hitchcock, secretary of the interior, and James 
Wilson, secretary of agriculture; all of whom, ex- 
cepting Postmaster-General Payne were held over 
from the McKinley administration. Other changes 
during Roosevelt's first term were the appointment 
of Leslie M.Shaw to succeed Secretary-of-the-Treas- 
ury Gage, resigned, Feb 2, 1902, and that of William 
H! Moody to succeed Secretary-of-the-Navy Long, 
resigned, May 1, 1902, and the appointment of 
George B. Cortelyou as the first secretary of the 
newly established department of commerce and 
labor, Feb. 23, 1903. On Feb. 21, 1904, William H. 
Taft succeeded Elihu Root as secretary of war, and 
on the following July 1st, William H. Moody was 
transferred to the office of attorney-general to suc- 
ceed Philander J. Knox; Paul Morton appointed to 
take his place as secretary of the navy, and Victor 
II. Metcalf became secretary of commerce and labor 
to succeed George B. Cortelyou, who as chairman 
of the Republican national committee, managed 
Mr. Roosevelt's campaign for reelection during 
that fall. Postmaster-General Payne died on Oct. 
10th, and Robert J. Wynne, his first assistant, filled 



out his term. In his first message to congress 
Roosevelt recommended registration to prevent 
immigration of anarchists; outlined his views 
on the necessity of controlling great corporations, 
recommending the creation of a department 
of commerce and industries, the head of which 
should be a cabinet officer; recommended wider 
lorest reservations, and the establishment of gov- 
ernment reclamation and irrigation works. His 
first term was essentially a continuation of the 
McKinley administration, and lie endeavored as far 
as possible to carry out the known policies of his 
lamented predecessor. Probably the most im- 
portant and historic occurrence during his first 
administration was the definite decision to construct 
an isthmian canal at Panama, the removal of the 
obstacles in the way of building the canal, and the 
actual beginning of the gigantic undertaking, in- 
volving an expenditure of over $300,000,000. The 
question of a canal connecting the Atlantic and 
Pacific had been under consideration for over 150 
years. The United States government first took 
up the subject in 1850, and after that time numerous 
commissions were appointed to determine the 
most satisfactory route by actual serveys. It was 
finally decided to build a lock canal forty-six and 
one-half miles long across the isthmus of Panama, 
after the practicability of such an undertaking had 
been assured by an international board of French, 
English, German, Russian and American engineers, 
ami congress authorized the president to acquire 
the rights, franchises, concessions, unfinished work, 
plants and other property owned by the Panama 
Canal Co. of France, at a cost not to exceed $40,- 
000,000, to be paid, provided a satisfactory title 
could be obtained and then only after a satisfactory 
right of way should have been obtained by treaty 
with Colombia. Attorney-General Knox went to 
Paris to ascertain the legal status of the French 
canal company and its rights to make the proper 
transfer. Meanwhile the terms of the Clayton- 
Bulwer treaty between the United States and 
Great Britain respecting such a canal having 
proved a hindrance, a new agreement was entered 
into the second Hay-Pauncefote treaty, which was 
signed Nov. 18, 1901. A treaty was then drawn 
up between the United States and Colombia respect- 
ing the construction of the canal, and was signed at 
Washington in January, 1903. The Colombian con - 

fress, however, relying on the limitation of the 
'rench contract, demanded a heavy cash payment, 
and finally in the following September rejected the 
treaty. Less than two months later a revolt broke 
out in the state of Panama, Colombia, and on Nov. 
3, 1903, Panama declared its independence, at the 
same time signifying its willingness to negotiate a 
treaty similar to the one rejected by Colombia. 
On Nov. 18, 1903, such a treaty was signed at 
Washington by Sec. Hay and Panama's newly 
appointed minister plenipotentiary, by which the 
United States recognized Panama's independence, 
and for the purpose of protecting her own interests 
in the great undertaking, guaranteed its mainte- 
nance. Following the ratification of this treaty, 
the president appointed an isthmian canal commis- 
sion to take charge of the construction of the nnal 
and to govern the canal zone, consisting of Rear- 
Adm. John G. Walker, U. S. N. (retired), chairman ; 
Major-Gen. George W. Davis, U. S. A. (retired); 
William Barclay Parsons, New York; William H. 
Burr, New York; Benjamin M. Harrod, Louisiana; 
Carl Ewald Grunrky, California, and Frank J. 
Hecker, Michigan. John F.Wallace, who was general 
manager of the Illinois railroad system, was ap- 
pointed chief engineer, and resigned his connection 
with the railroad to accept the position. On Apr. 
22, 1904, the property rights of the Panama Canal 



6 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



Co. of France were duly transfered to the United 
States, and on May 9th $40,000,000 was paid over 
by the United States. Pres. Roosevelt then ap- 
pointed Gen. Davis of the commission to be the 
governor of the canal zone. The engineering prob- 
lems connected with such a gigantic undertaking 
were so great that considerable difficulty was ex- 
perienced in securing the services of a chief engineer, 
but that difficulty was happily solved by placing 
the scientific work in charge of a regular engineer 
of the United States army, Col. George W. Goetlials, 
(q.v. for details). Although the completion is still 
some years in the future, it is not too much to say 
that the name of Roosevelt will always be associated 
with tftis great beneficent highway of maritime 
commerce. The administration was accused of 
having advance knowledge of the Panama uprising 
and was criticised for the hurriedness in recognizing 
her independence. It should he noted in this con- 
nection that on Jan. 9, 1909, three treaties were 
signed, one between the United States and Panama, 
one between the United States and Colombia and 
one between Panama and Colombia, by which all 
outstanding difficulties arising from the Panama 
revolution were adjusted in a way honorable and 
satisfactory to each of the contracting parties. One 
of Pres. Roosevelt's first notable leaps beyond pre- 
cedent was calling a halt to the great anthracite coal 
strike of 1902, and at the sug- 
gestion of Secretary-of-State Root 
appointing a commission consist- 
ing of Judge George Gray, Carroll 
D. Wright, Edgar E. Clark, Gen. 
John M. Wilson, Bishop John L. 
Spalding, Thomas H. Watkins and 
Edward \V . Parker, to investigate 
both sides of the controversy and 
report upon the whole situation 
with findings which he pledged 
both sides to accept as a just basis 
for a peaceful continuation of 
work. (For details, see Parker, 
Edward W.) The judgment of 
that commission constituted the 
basis of operations in the vast 
anthracite region until the spring 
of 1909, when a new agreement 
took its place. The Interparlia- 
mentary Union at its meeting in St. Louis, Mo., 
in September, 1904, in connection with the Louis- 
iana exposition, addressed a unanimous request to 
Pres. Roosevelt to call a second peace conference at 
the Hague, and in October of 1904 he issued invita- 
tions to all the powers signatory to the first Hague 
convention to send delegates to a second conference, 
suggesting that it be held at the Hague. Favorable 
replies were received, but the Russian government 
proposed that the meeting be deferred until the 
conclusion of the war with Japan. The meeting of 
the second international peace congress took place 
at the Hague, June 15, 1907. The Cuban situation 
was also inherited from Pres. McKinley's adminis- 
tration. After the conclusion of the Spanish- 
American war the island of Cuba was under the 
military control of the United States for three 
years, being ruled by military governors appointed 
by the president. On May 20. 1902. the govern- 
ment and control of the island were turned over to 
the president, T. Estrada Palma and the congress 
of the newly inaugurated republic, but before long 
internal dissensions arose and the situation became' 
so alarming that Pres. Palma called upon Roosevelt 
to interfere under the conditions of thePlatt amend- 
ment to the treaty of Paris, which gives the United 
States the right to intervene for the preservation of 
Cuban independence and the maintenance of law 
and order (see Magoon, Charles E.). Charles E. 




Magoon was made provisional governor and took 
entire charge of the administration, remaining there 
until Jan. 28, 1909, when the rehabilitated republic 
was turned over to a new administration under the 
presidency of Gen. Gomez, and the evacuation of 
the island by the American troops took place soon 
thereafter. A new department, that of commerce 
and labor, was added to the machinery of adminis- 
tration, for the purpose of allowing the government to 
supervise great aggregations which modern condi- 
tions have developed in both capital and labor, and 
the first secretary was George B. Cortelyou, ap- 
pointed Feb. 23, 1903. It conducted many investi- 
gations which developed information of practical 
advantage to the nation, the best known of these 
being the packing industry of 1904, the report of 
which resulted in several indictments and the pas- 
sage of a law creating a general system of meat and 
factory inspection and tagging (see Garfield, James 
R.) ; and the famous food and drug act, passed June 
30, 1906, under the provisions of which no adulter- 
ated or misbranded foods may be imported or carried 
in interstate commerce. Roosevelt's first adminis- 
tration was highly creditable and won not only 
widespread approval at home, but the admiration 
of the whole civilized world, so that at the Chicago 
convention in 1904 he was enthusiastically nomi- 
nated to succeed himself, and was elected in Nov- 
ember over Alton B. Parker by a vote of 7,021,985 to 
5,09S.9X.'>. and :li to 140 in the electoral college, the 
largest plurality i 2.523,750) ever given to a candi- 
date for president Most of the cabinet officers con- 
tinued in office, the single exception being the ap- 
pointment of George B. Cortelyou to be postmaster- 
general. John Hay died on July 1, 1905, and Elihu 
Root succeeded him as secretary of state. The 
most brilliant achievement of his second administra- 
tion was his role of peacemaker between Japan and 
Russia, which brought to an end the bloodiest con- 
flict of modern times. After a series of Russian 
reverses culminating in the decisive battle of Mukden 
and the annihilation of the Russian navy, Pres. 
Roosevelt arrested the attention of the civilized 
world by sending (on June 8, 1905) the following 
identical note to the Japanese and Russian govern- 
ments: "The President feels that the time has come 
when in the interest of all mankind he must en- 
deavor to see if it is not possible to bring to an end 
the terrible and lamentable conflict now being 
waged. With both Russia and Japan the United 
States has inherited ties of friendship and good-will. 
It hopes for the prosperity and welfare of each, and 
it feels that the progress of the world is set back by 
the war between these two great nations. The 
President accordingly urges the Russian and Jap- 
anese governments, not only for their sakes, but 
in the interests of the whole civilized world, to open 
direct negotiations for peace with one another." 
The despatch went on to suggest that these peace 
negotiations be conducted directly and exclusively 
between the belligerents, and tendered his services 
as an intermediary if the powers concerned felt that 
they would be of aid in arranging the preliminaries. 
Both nations gave instant heed, and on June 12th 
agreed to the appointment of plenipotentiaries who 
were to meet in the United States and formulate 
terms "of a just and lasting peace." The envoys 
were received by the president at his home at 
Oyster Bay, and on August 9th following the first 
official meeting was held at Portsmouth. N*. H. 
When, during the progress of the negotiations a 
deadlock arose over some of Japan's demands 
Roosevelt appealed directly to the emperors of both 
nations, and persisted in his efforts until Japan 
receded from her demand for recoupment and so 
modified other items that an amicable convention 
was finally concluded. The treaty of Portsmouth 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



was signed Sept. 5, 1905. This accomplishment is 
regarded by many as Roosevelt's greatest achieve- 
ment, and he himself considered it as such. There 
can be no doubt that his initiative in securing a 
cessation of hostilities and his service in making 
possible the treaty of Portsmouth constituted the 
greatest contribution to the cause of peace in our 
day and generation. In' other ways also has he 
been the bearer of the olive branch, notably when 
the French and German governments were at 
sword's point over the Morocco situation, he made 
possible the Algeciras conference. By offering the 
good offices of the United States at a. critical time, 
when Argentina and Chili were fast approaching 
warlike conditions, and when Brazil and Argentina 
were on the point of hostilities over the Uruguayan 
question, he spoke the words of calm counsel which 
started matters towards a peaceful understanding. 
In recognition of the great service to the cause of 
peace he was awarded the Nobel peace prize on 
Dec. 10, 1906, under the fifth clause of the Nobel 
will: "To the one who shall have most or best pro- 
moted the fraternity of nations, the abolishment or 
diminution of standing armies and the formation 
and increase of peace congresses." The prize 
(840,000) he devoted to a "Foundation for the 
Promotion of Industrial Peace," a general instru- 
mentality for arbitrating the differences between 
capital and labor. Furthermore Roosevelt's ad- 
ministration was notable for the numerous treaties 
of peace negotiated with the various nations of the 
world. There were such treaties with practically 
all of the world nations excepting Germany and 
Russia (see Root, Elihu). And in November, 1907, as 
the result of the joint action of the United States 
and Mexico, there was convened in Washington 
a notable peace conference between representatives 
of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Mexico and the United States. During 
its fourteen sessions eight conventions or treaties 
were subscribed to as follows: (1) a general treaty 
of peace and amity; (2) an additional convention 
to the foregoing treaty, by which the five republics 
bound themselves to maintain peace, to preserve 
complete harmony, and to arbitrate their differences 
before a Central American court of justice, the 
provisions of which were made in the third conven- 
tion ; (3) a Central American court of justice to con- 
sist of a judge from each of the contracting nations, 
and to be a genuine judicial tribunal for passing 
judgment on all questions that may be brought 
before it, acting in accordance with the principles of 
international law; (4) extradition; (5) on future 
conferences; (6) on communications; (7) the estab- 
lishment of an international Central American 
bureau, and (8) the establishment of a pedagogical 
institute. This treaty, which was signed Dec. 20, 
1907, was considered a most important one in the 
light of international peace. MeKinley's policy of 
the open door to China and the maintenance of 
China's territorial integrity was carefully and loy- 
ally continued. By an exchange of notes dated 
Nov. 30, 1908, between Japan and the United 
States, each country solemnly declared its adherence 
to the principles of equal commercial opportunities 
in China and the integrity of China's territory, which 
put an end to the rumors of war by which the 
thoughtful in both countries were worried and per- 
plexed. The Alaska boundary dispute was settled 
in favor of the United States by a special commis- 
sion, and other minor matters long in controversy 
with Canada were satisfactorily adjusted. A eon- 
1 vention with the Dominican republic, which was 
concluded Feb. 8. 1907, concerning the aid of the 
United States in the collection and application of 
the customs revenues of that republic, carried to 
successful completion the negotiations begun by 



Sec. John Hay. Other matters connected with 
foreign relations were the development of the civil 
government in the Philippines, and the trade and 
commerce with those islands, Porto Rico, and 
Hawaii; establishment of better relations with the 
republics of South America (see Root, Elihu); civil 
government firmly established in Porto Rico ; insur- 
rection quelled and formal government installed in 
the Philippines under a military commission which 
inaugurated local legislative elections and internal 
home rule, and the reorganization of our consular 
service. Pres. Roosevelt's administration at home 
was preeminent in the fact that he seized on a pro- 
pitious moment, when scandalous exposures had 
aroused the public against chicanery and corruption , 
to give the American people a moral shaking up and. 
bring home to the nation his doctrines of business 
honesty and righteousness in public life doctrines 
that he had persistently advocated throughout his 
whole career. With boundless energy and unflag- 
ging zeal, he swelled the tide of their anger until 
by punishment actually inflicted or through the 
deterrent fear of it, hosts of wrong-doers were 
driven into honest ways, old abuses were stamped 
out, and a sounder and fairer standaid of business 
conduct established. This policy of reform may 
be analyzed as follows: equality o'f opportunity and 
the denial of special privileges; equality upon the 
highways of commerce, the prevention of rebates, 
discriminations and devices by which certain favored 
shippers are granted advantages or privileges not, 
irivi'n to their competitors; recognition of the obli- 
gations which men owe to one another, which 
capital owes to labor, and labor to capital : conserva- 
tion and wise use of our natural resources ; vigorous 
and impartial enforcement of the law; efficient 
publicity, that is, giving to the public accurate 
information upon matters which concern it, and 
governmental legislation of interstate business to 
pervent the abuse of industrial or corporate power. 
It had long been known that there were flagrant 
violations of the Sherman anti-trust law. _ One of 
the first prosecutions was against the Northern 
Securities Co., a holding concern controlling the 
stock of competitive railroads of the Northwest, 
which the courts dissolved (see Hill, James J.) 
Other convictions followed this, and then prosecu- 
tions were begun for rebating, the most prominent 
of them being that against the Standard Oil Co.. 
which was convicted and fined 829,240,000, although 
that judgment was reversed on appeal Additional 
laws were enacted regulating railroad rates, for- 
bidding a discrimination in rates and rebates, and 
enlarging the powers of the interstate commerce 
commission. The movement for the conservation 
of natural resources was the logical development 
from the experience of the interior department in 
administering the public domain. It was discovered 
that numerous frauds had been perpetrated by 
which private interests obtained possession of a 
large part of public lands, especially those rich in 
metals, minerals and forests. Prosecutions were 
carried on against these persons, including members 
of ths United States senate, and many convictions 
were secured. Realizing the seriousness of the rapid 
disappearance of the forests and the consumption 
of the mineral resources, Pres. Roosevelt issued 
an invitation in November, 1907, to the governors 
of the states and territories of the United States to 
meet him at the White House, Washington, in the 
following May, to discuss the question of means to 
conserve the natural resources of the country. Invi- 
tations were also extended to ex-Pres. Cleveland, 
William Jennings Bryan, Andrew Carnegie, James 
J. Hill, John Mitchell, Judge George Gray and other 
prominent men of affairs. The meeting took place 
May 13, 1908. during which Roosevelt in an address 



8 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP-EDIA 



reviewed the treatment of natural resources through- 
out the world, especially the use and waste of them 
in the United States during the past century. A 
wise use of them, he said, was the great material 
question of the present time and the conference was 
summoned ''because the enormous consumption of 
these resources and the threat of imminent ex- 
haustion of some of them called for common effort and 
action." He appointed a committee on resolutions 
composed of Gov. Blanchard of Louisiana, chairman, 
and Govs. Cutler of Utah, Davidson of Wisconsin 
and Ansel of South Carolina, and that committee 
reported a declaration " that the great prosperity of 
our country rests upon the abundant resources of the 
land chosen by our forefathers for their homes : that 
the country's future is dependent upon the con- 
tinuation of these natural resources; that they are 
now being threatened with exhaustion," and urged 
the continuation and extension of forest policies 
adapted to secure the husbanding and renewal of the 
diminishing timber supply, the prevention of soil 
erosion, and the protection of headwaters, and 
recommended the enactment of laws looking to the 
prevention of waste in the minirg and extraction of 




coal, oil, gas and other minerals. It aleo recom- 
mended the appointment of commissions by the 
several states and by the federal government to 
act on the conservation of the natural resources ami 
to cooperate with each other in this work. Accord- 
ingly on June :ird following, Roosevelt appointed a 
national conservation commission consisting of an 
executive committee, of which Clifford Pinchot (q.v.) 
was chairman, and sub-committees on waters, for- 
ests, lands and minerals. The general purpose of 
this conservation commission is to collect and dis- 
seminate information concerning the natural re- 
sources of the United States, with advice and sug- 
gestions as to the best methods of conservation, 
and thus cultivate public sentiment in the practice 
of economy in such resources, and to so shape 
legislation, both national and state, as will most 
fully carry out these ends of conservation. One of 
the last big accomplishments of the Roosevelt 
administration was the meeting of a similar but 
international conference of representatives of Can- 
ada, the United States and Mexico on the same 
subject. In addition to the above Roosevelt ap- 
pointed the Keep commission to investigate and 
reform the workings of the several executive depart- 
ments at Washington; appointed an inland water- 
ways commission to promote the improvement of 
the Mississippi and its tributaries; selected a rural 
life commission to investigate the home life and 
general condition of the American- fanner, for the 
purpose of inaugurating measures for the better- 
ment and uplift of the farmer anil his family; 
caused a searching investigation of the post-office 
department to be made, which developed sensa- 
tional conditions of corruption and resulted in many 
dismissals and seve-al penitentiary punishments 
(see Bristow, Joseph L. ) ; sent Sec. Tuft to Uonn to 
settle the friars' land controversy in the Philippines 
by personal negotiation with the Pope; went in 



person to investigate conditions of the Panama, 
canal work (the first time a president of the 
United States ever journeyed beyond the limits of 
his country) ; sent Sec. Root on a tour of the South 
American states, Mexico and Canada in order to 
promote a better understanding and more cordial 
relations among Pan-American governments; dis- 
patched Sec. Taft to Cuba, Panama, the Philippines, 
China, Japan and Russia in order to eliminate the 
possibility of friction in dealing with matters of 
international concern ; sent a formidable section of 
the navy down the Atlantic and up the Pacific coast 
of South America, thence to Australia, Oceania, 
Japan, Asia and Europe via the Suez canal in order 
to show mankind that the United States could care 
for herself with a large share of her fleet on the 
eastern hemisphere and that she had the means, the 
machinery, the motive power, the men and the 
nerve to make the first girdle of the entire earth 
with a line of battleships (see Sperry, Charles S.) ; 
forced a way to get before the Czar of Russia the 
American protest against the massacre of Jews at 
Kishenev, in 1903, when all other nations had failed, 
and that too without offending the Russian govern- 
ment ; advocated an inheritance tax in a speech 
made when the cornerstone for the new office build- 
ing for the house of representatives was laid; con- 
sistently denounced the wrong-doings of the 
"wealthy criminal class"; closed the post-office at 
IndianoLa, Miss., because its patrons formed a mob 
and threatened the life of its colored postmistress 
unless she should abandon the office; summarily 
discharged without trial or honor an entire company 
of negro soldiers at Brownsville, Tex., (1906) be- 
cause some of them had been accused of pro- 
miscuous shooting in the town, but subsequently 
revoked that portion of his order which assumed to 
deprive the dishonored soldiers of all right to hold 
offices of honor or trust ; commissioned several 
Democratic officials in the South because he regarded 
them as more fit than their Republican rivals, and 
selected William H. Taft to be his successor in the 
presidential chair. He recognized in Taft the best 
qualifications for continuing the reform policies 
begun by himself, and the result of the ensuing 
election showed that the American people had faith 
in his judgment. He made this selection two years 
in advance, and in spite of vehement protests by the 
people against the strongly unrepublican idea of a 
president dictating his own successor, brought about 
Taft's nomination and took a lively interest in the 
campaign which elected him. He wrote letters 
attacking the opposing candidate, William J. Bryan, 
J. B. Foraker, Samuel Gompers, president of the 
American Federation of Labor, and Charles N. 
Haskell, governor of Oklahoma and treasurer of the 
Democratic national committee. He defended 
Taft's so-called "injunction record" on the federal 
bench, answered himself the attacks on the candi- 
date, and pointed out and extolled his qualifications 
as well as the principles which he represented, with 
masterful force and fearlessness. His strictures 
drove the treasurer of the Democratic national 
committee from office because he was alleged to have 
been connected with the Standard Oil Co. ;. he forced 
the manager of the Republican campaign speakers' 
bureau to retire becavise he had been indicted as one 
of the constituent parts of the powder trust, and he 
stimulated to abundant success the fund-raising 
efforts of his party after the managers had failed in 
that direction. Mr. Roosevelt earned the reputa- 
tion of being the most daring and most powerful, 
as well as the most successful political leader who 
ever sat in the White House "There goes the best 
politician in Washington," once said Pres. Cleveland, 
when Roosevelt was only civil service commissioner. 
He reconstructed the public mind in regard to the 



OF AMKIUCAX BIOGRArilY. 



of 

IKLllUIIill IJCiJll_"u iiii'i gw-t- *> i> " "' -- u.-w.. U|)OI 

himself a great deal of adverse criticism, especially 
during tin- hitter part of his administration, even 
his critics admit that his intentions were good, 
sound and wholesome. In all his policies he sin- 
cerely sought to promote the- public welfare and to 
maintain that high standard of righteousness and 
hontsty of thought and purpose that characterize t lie 



,-ha, ter of public offices; he raised the nation's world power in all that concerns the welfare of the 
< Hm hrd of ho L.vi,. business, and, nade respe,.,- civilized world, particularly ,n the promo.,,,,, - 
abilitv7or public station a necessity The relations national peace and .good-will. __ While lie drew ,,, 
between capital and labor and such questions as 
employers' liability and the employment of women 
and children are regarded from a vastly more 
enlightened and sensitive standpoint than when he 
first entered the White House. The tone of public 
life has been correspondingly raised. Young men 

nf education and wealth no longer leave politics to iiunei,jr ui muu 6 m..iiu ,.,..,.....- ....... _ 

?he pohS "hey have learneS from him a higher American nation as a w hol- In summarizing his 

of civic duty His vigorous hand-to-hand achievements Lyman Abbott in I he Outlook 
methods became "known under ?he sobriquet of "The said: "I admire him for Ins combination of quah- 
Big Stick," and he coined or popularized many words 
and expressions which became universally popular, 
such as the strenuous life, mollycoddle, be ready, 
hit the line hard, frazzle, wealthy criminal class, 
predatory wealth, square deal, undesirable citizens, 
etc.. etc. No president ever attempted such a wide 
participation and controlling interest in public 
affairs; no one ever made so many addresses, sent 
so many messages to congress, broke so many pre- 
cedents, relied so little on the recommendations of 
senators and political leaders, indulged in so many 
writings, gave out so many statements, met so many 
constituents of all grades, engaged in so many per- 
sonaleven turbulent controversies, wrote so many 
i_:_ u r ,1 , i..,,,- iim-ir intrt tlio niihlin nnnts. 



SUIKH c vcu uu&uv 

letters which found their way into the public prints 
exercised so much active sway over the army and 



exercised so mucu nuuivc o^j v. j - 

navy and the executive departments, executed so 
many reforms in the conduct of public business, 
advocated such advanced forms of social and in- 
dustrial democracy, instilled so much strenuous 
activity into everyday military affairs, treated mere 
wealth and financial power with so much contempt 
and the oppressions of wealth with such destructive 
severity, preached so steadily and earnestly for 
labor, health, activity and right living and for down- 
right honesty, reached out so intrepidly and effect- 
ively into the domain of world politics, was on 
terms of personal intimacy with so large a number 
of foreign diplomats, or took such an active and 
decisive hand in partisan politics. He sent 421 
messages to congress, regular and special, and vetoed 
forty bills His official proclamations and execu- 
tive orders number almost 900, and his published 
letters, addresses, "talks," interviews, "authorit: 
tive" statements and speeches relative to public 
affairs were almost literally innumerable. Upon 
the expiration of his term in 1909, he became a 
contributing editor of "The Outlook," engaged to 
deliver the George Romanes lecture at Oxtord, 
England in 1010, accepted invitations to lecture 
at the Sorbonne, Paris, and the University of Berlin 
in the same year, and made preparations for an 
extensive hunting trip in Africa. This trip to 
Africa was called a scientific expedition, outfitted 
by the Smithsonian Institution, to gather natural 
history materials for the new United States na- 
tional museum at Washington, which was very 
deficient in examples of wild life on the dark conti- 
nent Besides Roosevelt and his son, Kermit, the 
party consisted of Maj. Edgar A. Mearns Edmund 
Heller and J. Alden Loring, representing the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and R. J. Cunmghame, guide. 1 
remained in Africa one year, during which some / ,00' 
specimens of wild animals were secured, and before 
his return an accovmt of his adventures appeared 11 
" Scribner's Magazine." Whether or not he has yet 
reached the zenith of his powers, Roosevelt will un- 
questionably and unreservedly be accepted as one of 
America's most brilliant and effective statesmen, 
and his administration will shine out in the per 
spective of national history as one of the most 
illustrious, both for the great upward stride it has 
taken towards a higher civilization as well as tor the 
recognition it has won for the United States as a 



ties: his intensity of conviction and his poise, of 
judgment, his high ideaU and his practical realiza- 
tion of them, his inexhaustible energy and his un- 
tiring industry, his alertness of mind and his 
sobriety of judgment, his grasp of great principles 
and his mastery of details, his chivalrous friendship 
and his transparent candor, his leonine courage and 
his gentle courtesy. ... He is looked upon with 
decrees of hostility varying from a passionate 
enmity to a mild aversion, by the various classes 
whom he has antagonized. . . But he has also 
arovised a passionate devotion to himself among a 
great and, I believe, increasing number of his fellow 
citizens, who admire him as a statesman and love him 
as a preacher of righteousness. His astuteness as a 
politician will be forgotten; his policies wUl be 
incorporated in the growing constitution of the 
nation and presently the world will think they were 
always there; but his influence as a moral reformer 
will ever remain in the higher civic ideals and the 
quickened patriotic life of a great people In 1J 
Mr Roosevelt formed a connection with the New 
York publishing firm of G. P. Putnam's Sons, and 
an active partnership continued through several 
years, during which he put out in rapid succession a. 
number of substantial books, followed later by addi- 
tional contributions to American literature. He is 
the author of the following: " The Naval War of 
1812" (1882); "Hunting Trips of a Ranchman 
(1885)' "Life of Thomas Hart Benton" (1887); 
"Life of Gouverneur Morris" (1887); "Ranch Life 
and Hunting Trail" (1888); " Essays on Practical 
Politics" (1888) ;"New York," in " Historic Towns 
(1890); "American Big Game Hunting 
"The Wilderness Hunter" (1893); "Hero Tales 
from American History" (with Henry Cabot Lodge) 
(1895); "Hunting in Many Lands (1895); Win- 
ning of the West," four volumes (1896), the most 
important of his writings; "American Ideals and 
Other Essays" (1897), a collection of magazine 
articles; "Trail and Camp-fire" (1897) ; "BigGame 
Hunting in the Rockies and on the Great Plains 
(1899) ; " The Rough Riders " (1899) ; "The Stren- 
uous Life" (1900), a collection of essays and ad- 
dresses; "Oliver Cromwell" (1900); "Good Hunt- 
ing in Pursuit of Big Game in the West" (1907)J 
" Addresses and Presidential Messages, 1902-1904, 
(1904); "Out Door Pastimes of an American 
Hunter" (1906); besides portions of works like 
Vol VI in "History of the Royal Navy of Eng- 
land," and the "Deer and Antelope of North 
America "(1902) in "The Deer Family." Amonghis 
many popular magazine articles and addresses 
are- "American Ideals," "True Americanism 
"The Manly Virtues and Practical Politics, 
College Graduate and Public Life," " Phases of State 
Legislation," "How Not, to Help our Poorer 
Brother," "The Monroe Doctrine," " Washington s 
Forgotten Maxim," " National Life and Character 
"Social Evolution." "The Law of Civilization and 
Decay" "Expansion and Peace." "Latitude and 
Longitude of Reform," "Fellow Feeling a Political 
Facto-," "Civic Helpfulness," "Character and 
c.,^o " "Eighth and Ninth Commandments in 



10 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



Politics," "The Best and the Good," "Promise and 
Performance," and ''Christian Citizenship." These 
together with his official messages and papers, 
political speeches, public addresses, controversial 
and other writings, constitute the most notable, as 
it is the most virile, bulk of literary work in American 
history. His books are characterized as "marked 
by felicity, vigor and clearness of expression, with 
descriptive power." and his historical writings are 
praised for their "accuracy, breadth and fairness." 
Mr. Roosevelt dictates with great facility and rapid- 
ity and spends no time in recasting and polishing, 
and none in making indexes. He can break into 
important dictation to receive a caller or attend to 
pubhc business and at the end of the interruption 
take up the thread of his work instantly, as if noth- 
ing had happened. His composition is direct, clear 
and rugged, but often rough and sometimes un- 
grammatical. Mr. Roosevelt was married first on 
Oct. 27, 1880, to Alice Hathaway, daughter of 
George Cabot Lee, of Boston, who died Feb. 1-4, 18S4, 
leaving a daughter, Alice, now the wife of lion. Nich- 
olas Longworth of Cincinnati, O.; and second, in 
London, on Dec. 2, 1886, to Edith Kermit, daughter 
of Charles Carow of New York, who is the mother of 
five children, Theodore J., Kermit, Ethel Carow, 
Archibald Bullock and Quentin Roosevelt. The 
ideals of his private life, like those of his official life, 
were always high. He believes in work, in sacri- 
fices, in justice, in self-respect, in truth-telling, in 
faithful public service, in keeping close to nature, in 
the open fight, in the square deal, in domestic virtue, 
iu decent living. He romps with his children, he 
takes a long ride or walk every day no matter wh.-it 
the weather; he fences, boxes, wrestles and plays 
tennis; he attends church regularly (Reform' 1 . 1 
Dutch); he is an omnivorous reader; he writes and 
speaks prolifically; he has many birds and animals 
about his home; he leads a clean, sensible, natural 
life. There can be no doubt that from early man- 
hood Mr. Roosevelt loved to serve (or rather 
govern) the people to do them good ; and he loved 
fame. He gave a good index to his character in his 
reply to an inquiry by Jacob A. Riis as to why he 
went into politics, when lie said: "1 wanted to 
belong to the governing class and not the governed. 
When I said I wanted to join the Republican asso- 
ciation I was told that I would meet the groom and 
the saloon-keeper there; that 
politics were low and that no 
gentleman bothered with them. 
I replied that if that \vas so 
the grooms and saloon-keepers 
were the governing class. ' You 
have all the chances, the edu- 
cation, the position,' I said, 
'and yet you let them rule,' 
and I joined the association." 




ROOSEVELT, Edith Ker- 
mit Carow, wife of Theodore 

lioo.-evelt, Was bom at the 

home of her grandfather, Gen. 

Tyler, in Norwich, Conn., Aug. 
<i. Isiil, daughter of Charles 
and Gertrude Elizabeth I Tyler) 
Carow. Her father was the 
son of Isaac Carow, a wealthv 

. ship . g merch . mt of Xew 

York, and he also resided in 

that city, where Miss Carow was educated at 
Miss Comstock's private' school. She was mar- 
ried to Theodore Roosevelt at St. ( leorijc's ( 'hurch, 
Hanover Square, London, Eng., Dec. 2, 1886. The 
marriage proved to be a happy one, and during 
her husbands remarkably energetic ami successful 
career she has been a sympathetic and judicious 



helpmate. More especially her influence at the 
White House during Pres. Roosevelt's administra- 
tion in 1901-09 was socially conservative and 
upheld the highest standards of refinement. She 
has not publicly indorsed or officially concerned her- 
self with any of the ideas or methods attributed to 
the "new woman," but has been wholly domestic 
in her tastes and ways of life. 

FAIRBANKS, Charles Warren, vice-president 
of the United States, was born near Unionville 
Center, Union co., O., May 11, 1852, son of Loriston 
Monroe and Mary (Smith) Fairbanks. His first 
American ancestor was Jonathan Fayerbanek, who 
landed in Boston in 1033 with his wife Grace Lee. 
He was a native of Sowerby, in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire and a Puritan of the extremes! stamp. 
Not liking certain ways of the church in Boston, he 
pushed on to Dedham, Mass., where he erected a 
large house of massive oaken timbers, which is still 
standing. Charles Warren Fairbanks is the ninth 
descendant from Jonathan. His grandfather, Lu- 
ther, was born at Barnard, Vt., and his father, 
Loriston Monroe, was also born at Barnard (1824), 
but worked his way to Union county, O., in 1837, 
where he was a farmer, wheelwright and wagon 
maker. He remained on the farm until 1870, when 
he moved to Delaware so as to afford a better educa- 
tion for his children. The boy was an unusually 
serious young farmer, with a predominating love 
for books. At the age of fifteen he was ready to 
enter the Ohio \Vesleyan University at Delaware, 
and was graduated there in IST'J. YVith the help of 
his uncle, William Henry Smith, who was general 
manager of the \Ve>tern Associated Press, he secured 
a position as agent of the press association at Pitts- 
Imrg, Pa., ami later at Cleveland, O. Here he 
found ample time while agent to pursue the study 
of law, and after taking one term in the Cleveland 
Law School was admitted to the bar by the su- 
preme court of Ohio in 1874. He began "the prac- 
tice of his profession in Indianapolis, which has 
ever since been his home. He is said to have had 
but one criminal case during his whole law experi- 
ence, his conspicuous bent being in the direction of 
industrial, transportation and commercial affairs. 
Large institutions in Indiana and the surrounding 
states became his clients and he conducted their 
-nils and guided their operations with quiet and 
cautious judgment. For some time he kept aloof 
from politics, except to take part in the caucuses 
and movements of his party in his immediate 
neighborhood, but in 1888 he took charge of the 
presidential campaign of his friend, Walter Q. 
Gresham. At this time Indiana had two candi- 
dates for the presidency Judge Gresham and Gen. 
Benjamin Harrison, and one of the most strenuously 
contested state campaigns followed, the result 
being that the Indiana delegates voted for (Jen. Har- 
rison. Judge Gresham in tin 1 meantime had secured 
enough delegates i i other states to give him second 
place when the balloting opened in the Republican 
national convention at Chicago, John Sherman of 
Ohio leading. James G. Blaine had the next largest 
following, which was thrown to Harrison to prevent 
the nomination of Sherman and controlled the 
nomination. .Mr. Fairbanks has been an influential 
participant in every campaign of his party since 
that time. He has been a delegate to all of the 
national conventions since 18S8 (except in 1908; 
when he was a candidate for the presidency), and 
generally he was chairman of the Indiana 'delega- 
tion. He had charge of ilie Harrison forces in 1892 
at Minneapolis, and was victorious, though his 
candidate was defeated by Cleveland at the polls. 
He secured the Indiana delegates for M.-Kinley in 
1896 and at the latter's express reque^ was made 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



11 



temporary chairman of the St. Louis convention, at 
which MeKinley was nominated, and delivered what 
is known as the "keynote" speech of the exciting 
campaign. In 1892, in a speech before the Indiana 
state convention, Mr. Fairbanks warned his party 
and the country against the tendency of both 
parties toward free silver, and in 1890 he prepared 
and pushed through the convention of his state one 
of the first anti-free silver platforms adopted in 
this country. The party leaders attempted to 
induce him to omit any reference to silver, fearing 
that an anti-silver plank would defeat the ticket, 
but he carried it to a decisive victory, recovering 
the legislature of his state from the Democrats and 
receiving the election to the U. S. senate on Jan. 20, 
1897, by the unanimous vote of the Republican 
members. He took his seat while Major MeKinley 
was being sworn in as president. In the convention 
which met in Philadelphia in 1900 he was made 



\\ 111(11 IHCL in iiiii.iv.i'-n-' i ~ ; 

chairman of the committee on resolutions which 
reported the "sound money" platform on which 
MeKinley was renominated and reelected by a 
triumphant majority over Bryan. In 1902 he was 
a candidate to succeed himself and carried the 
legislature by the largest majority but one in it 
history and was unanimously reelected on Jan. 20, 
1903. In the senate he served as chairman of the 
committee on immigration and on the committees 
on census, claims, geological survey and public 
buildings and grounds until 1901, when he was made 
chairman of the con mittee on public buildings and 
grounds and a number of the committees on geo- 
logical survey, immigration, relations with Canada, 
tlii- judiciary, Pacific islands and Porto Rico. In 
1903, while* continuing as chairman of the com- 
mittee on public buildings and grounds, his other 
assignments were changed to Canadian relations, 
coast and insular survey, foreign relations, geological 
survey, immigration and the judiciary. His first 
speech in the senate was in opposition to Sen. 
Morgan's resolution directing the president to 
reconize the belligerency of the Cuban insurgents. 
In 1902, when the French West India island of 
Martinique was devastated by the terrible eruption 
of Mont Pelle?. he presented a bill appropriating 
8100,000 for the relief of the sufferers, which was 
promptly passed by both houses and for which ser- 
vice he received the thanks of the French republic. 
'When the bill that provided for constructing the 
Panama canal was under consideration he offered 
an amendment which called for issues of bonds 
to defray the expense of the enterprise, thereby 
eliminating the danger of having to suspend the 
work of construction for the want of ready funds 
and scattering the cost over the future instead of 
loading the entire burden upon the people of to-day. 
He favored widening the scope of the Hague 
tribunal and advocated mixing Filipinos with 
United States officers in the Philippines in order 
to teach the natives the arts of self-government, 
instead of placing the entire administrative burdens 
upon them before they were prepared to bear them. 
Under the protocol of May, 1898, a joint high com- 
mission was to be appointed by the United States 
and Great Britain for settling the Alaska boundary 
dispute and eleven other matters that had been 
irritating the two countries, such as the fisheries 
contentions, reciprocal mining rights, bonding goods 
for transit through each other's territory, revamping 
the Bagot agreement of 1817 restricting the arma- 
ment of vessels on the Great Lakes, reciprocity, etc. 
Sen. Fairbanks was made a member and chairman 
of this commission, the other members being 
Nelson Dingley, John W. Foster, John A. Kasson, 
Charles J. Faulkner and T. Jefferson Coolidge. 
Sessions were held both in Quebec and \\ ashmg- 
ton during the last months of 1893. The com- 



mission failed to agree on the matters that they 
were called upon to settle because Great Britain 
would noi consent to conclude any of the j.oiiils ai 
issue unless the United StaU- would agree to sub- 
mit the boundary question to arbitration. Tin- 
commission adjourned without accomplishing any 
tiling, Great Britain rejecting the offer of the United 
States to submit the boundary issue to a jury com- 
posed of an equal number of distinguished lawyers 
and statesmen from each country. Thereupon 
Pres. MeKinley sent Mr. Fairbanks to Alaska for 
the purpose of familiarizing himself with facts as 
they actually existed. In a 
confidential report to the gov- 
ernment in 1901 and as chair- 
man of the American section 
of the commission he recom- 
mended that the joint com- 
mission reassemble. In mak- 
this recommendation he 




observed: "We cannot submit 
to a foreign arbitrator the de- 
termination of the Alaska coast 
line under the treaty between 
the United States and Russia of 
1867. That coast line was es- 
tablished by the convention of . 
1825 between Great Britain and : 
Russia. This line has been care- 
fully safeguarded by Russia, 
and" the United States has in- C.. i 
variably insisted that it should 
not be broken. Its integrity was never questioned 
by Great Britain until after the protocol of May, 
1898. Much as we desire to conclude the quest ions 
which we have practically determined, we cannot 
consent to settle them upon the condition that we 
must abandon to the chance of an European arbi- 
trator a part of the domain of the United States 
upon which American citizens have actually built 
their homes and created industries long prior to any 
suo-o-estion from Great Britain that she had any 
claim of right thereto." Mr. Fairbanks then pro- 
posed a joint commission or jury of distinguished 
persons selected equally from both countries, with- 
out any independent arbitrator, and the proposi- 
tion, though previously rejected, was now accepted 
by Great Britain. Such a commission met in 1908, 
(see pp. 13-14, Root, Elihu,) and the result of an ex- . 
haustive hearing before this international jury of six 
was a verdict in favor of the American contention as 
to the interpretation of the treaty of 1825. On June 
23, 1904, Sen. Fairbanks was unanimously nomi- 
nated for vice-president on the ticket with Theodore 
Roosevelt. The Republican nominees were elected 
by a very decisive majority and Mr. Fairbanks 
resi<med from the senate and took the oath of office 
as vice-president on Mar. 4, 1905. During 1907 
some of the more active of his friends brought Mr. 
Fairbanks forward as a. candidate for the presi- 
dency. Pres. Roosevelt had already decided to give 
the nomination to Hon. William H. Taft, his secre- 
tary of war, and was actively engaged in making his 
programme effective. Many persons were opposed 
to having the president dictate his successor and 
they undertook to prevent him from doing so by 
promoting the candidacy of Mr. Fairbanks in 
Indiana, Speaker Cannon in Illinois, Sen. La 
Follette in Wisconsin, Sen. Knox in Pennsylvania 
and Gov. Hughes in New York. He received tony 
votes on the first ballot for president in the Chicago 
convention. The next ballot resulted in the nomina- 
tion of Taft . Mr. Fairbanks bore an active part in the 
campai-m and contributed to the influences which 
carried liis state for Taft and the entire Republican 
ticket. Very soon after retiring from office, accom- 
panied by Mrs. Fairbanks, he proceeded to the 



12 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 



orient, where he made an exhaustive study of Japan, 
China, Korea, Manchuria and Siberia, with a view 
to becoming familiar with their internal affairs and 
discovering correct principles for the far eastern 
policy of the United States. He has for years been 
a popular orator and has delivered numerous public 
addresses at military, civic, religious and educational 
gatherings. He was one of the most democratic 
senators who ever sat in the capitol. His door was 
open to everybody, without distinction of party or 
station, and he seemed to take genuine pleasure in 
helping any whose cause was just, ana extending his 
assistance willingly and at once. His patience as 
well as his time for listening to others seemed to be 
unlimited. Mr. Fairbanks has given considerable 
sums in aid of his alma mater, the Ohio Wesleyan 
University, and has been a member of its board of 
trustees since 1885. In 1907 he received the degree 
of LL.D. from the Northwestern University. He 
was married Oct. 6, 1874, to Cornelia, daughter of 
Judge P. B. Cole of Marysville, O., a schoolmate and 
graduate of the Ohio Wesleyan University. Mrs. 
Fairbanks, who is a woman of fine ability, has been 
her husband's partner in most of the important 
events of his life, and has promoted his welfare in 
many ways. Theyhavefour sonsand onedaughter. 

HAY, John, secretary of state. (See Vol. XL, 

P. 12.) 

ROOT, Elihu, secretary of state, was born in Clin- 
ton, Oneida co., N. Y., Feb. 15, 1845, son of Oren 
and Nancy Whitney (Buttrick) Root. The house in 
which he was born is now known as Knox Hall of 
Hamilton College, and contains the college scientific 
and other collections which were originally brought 
to the institution by Mr. Root's father who for 
years held the chair of mathematics, astronomy, 
minerology and geology there. His first American 
ancestor was John Roote, who came from Badby, 
Northamptonshire, England and was one of the 
settlers of Farmington, Conn., in 1640. From him 
the line of descent is traced through his son Thomas, 
who married Mary Spencer, and died in Westfield, 
Mass.; their son John, of Westfield, who married 
Mary Leonard; their son Hewit, who married Ex- 
perience Pomeroy, and died in Great Harrington, 
Mass.; their son James of Great Barrington, who 
married Lydia - and died in Vrrnon, X. Y., 
and their son Elihu, who married Ochsa Pomeroy, 
and was the grandfather of the subject of this sketch. 
Mr. Root's early childhood was spent in Seneca Falls, 
where his father was principal of an academy; but in 
1850 the latter returned to his 
chair in Hamilton College, and 
young Root attended the Clin- 
ton grammar school until IStiO. 
when he entered Hamilton Col- 
lege. He was a prize speaker 
in his sophomore year; won 
the first prize in mathematics 
and was graduated in 1X04 as 
valedictorian of his class. In 
isi.t ti.5 he taught in thear:id 
emv at Rome, X. Y.. and in 
1867 was graduated LL.B. at 
the New York University Law 
School. During his second 
year there were but three in 
the law class, so that Mr. 
Root received ample personal 
attention from Dr. John N. Pomeroy, one of the prp- 
foundest law teachers of the time. After a year in 
the office of Man & Parsons of New York city he 
formed a partnership with John H. Stralian 
and a year later became associated with Willard 
Bartlett. The first litigation that gave to Mr. 
Root any wide notoriety was the civil and criminal 




prosecution of the notorious Tweed ring. He was 
counsel for and succeeded in defending certain 
members of that gang, in consequence of which 
he has been unjustly denounced for being connected 
with the Tweed ring. He acted in his capacity 
as an attorney merely, and his associates in the 
cases were such distinguished lawyers as Judge 
William Fullerton and David Dudley Field. He 
was personal counsel for Chester A. Arthur from 
the time he was collector of the port of New York 
until the end of his life, and in 1883 he was appointed 
by Pres. Arthur to be U. S. district-attorney for 
the southern district of New York. While in this 
office he prosecuted many important cases, the 
most notable being that which resulted in sending 
James D. Fish, president of the Marine National 
Bank to jail for ten years for his operations in 
connection with the firm of Grant & Ward. In a 
speech made at a Lotos Club dinner, Jan. 24, 1885, 
a few hours after dynamiters had blown up West- 
minster hall and damaged the house of commons 
and other buildings in London, Mr. Root showed 
his wonderful grasp of international law by going 
over the entire subject as it applied to the allegation 
that the dynamite plot had been hatched in the 
United States and the explosive itself manufactured 
here. He pointed out that law officers like himself 
had no authority to act in such a case except 
under that conferred by the law of 1818, and knew 
no crimes save those defined in 1778, long before 
dynamite had been invented. With our laws as 
they were, he declared, conspirators could meet in 
broad daylight, hatch their plots openly, manu- 
facture their explosive in plain sight and select 
their agents to go abroad and use it and no 
punishment could be made to reach them. Out 
of this address grew corrective legislation by 
which dynamiters and anarchists may be appre- 
hended 'or extradited. In November, 1893, he 
was elected one of fifteen delegates at large to the 
New York state constitutional convention. Joseph 
H. Choate was made president of the convention 
and Mr. Root chairman of the judiciary committee, 
which gave the final touches to every paragraph 
and fitted the various portions together as a 
complete and homogeneous instrument. This is 
the first constitution to provide for civil service 
reform; it forbade the use of railroad and other 
franks and passes by public officers; provided for 
laws to prohibit book-making and pool-selling 
and also erected a barrier which will prevent the 
city of Xew York, with its growing preponderance 
of population, from ever controlling either branch 
of the state legislature. It is one of the model 
constitutions of the republic. During McKinley's 
administration, peculiar and significant circum- 
stances combined to make the appointment of 
a man like Root as secretary of war imperative. 
Gen. Russell A. Alger had emerged from the active 
hostilities of the war with Spain in poor health and 
discouraged by an inefficient administrative or- 
ganization that had resulted in serious scandals; 
there was dissatisfaction and complaint on all 
sides as the result of the government's policy in 
the Philippines and its handling of the insurrection 
there; and in Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippine 
islands there were motley and unrequited popula- 
tions which required new forms of civil government 
while the territories in which they resided were 
being held by the military forces. Pres. McKinley 
had previously offered the mission to Spain to 
Mr. Root, but he declined the post. When in July, 
1899, Secy. Alger resigned the war portfolio, it 
was tendered to Mr. Root and lie accepted it at 
once, attending a meeting of the full cabinet on 
July 27th. The conditions into which the new 
secretary was suddenly ejected were most trying. 



OF AMERU'AN BIOGRAPHY. 



13 



Nelson A. Miles, tho general commanding the 
army, had been almost completely ignored l>y tin: 
administration. Orders to the army were issued 
in his name but he never saw them until after their 
publication and the various bureaus ot the depart- 
ment, siding with or against him, were divided 
into actively hostile camps. Before noon of his 
first day's incumbency, ignoring the merits of 
past or existing controversies. Mr. Root made an 
extended call upon Gen. Miles and the bureau 
chiefs communicating to each the outlines of his 
plans. Thus in a few hours he restored official 
if not personal harmony, habilitated Gen. Miles 
with whatever functions belonged to the anomalous 
office of the "general commanding the army," 
and inaugurated an era of cheerful cooperation. 
Having quelled the insurrection in the war depart- 
ment he turned his attention next day to the 
insurrection led by Aguinaldo in the Philippines, 
calling upon Gen. Miles and all of the appropriate 
subordinate officers and chiefs for information 
concerning transportation, arms, subsistence, the 
supply of available officers of experience, etc. 
On August Sth he announced that all the men 
that might be required to suppress the Philippine 
disturbances would be sent there at once and on 
the 17th issued the order for recruiting ten addi- 
tional regiments. The forces in the Philippines 
were soon augmented to nearly 70,000, with 
free orders to pacify the islands, and Mr Root 
turned his attention to preparing a form of civil 
government to be administered by military in- 
strumentalities without using or showing the 
bayonet. There was already a Philippine com- 
mission in the islands and the outlines of the new 
form of government to be administered by it 
were embodied by Sec. Root in " Instructions 
of the President to the Philippine Commission." 
These instructions were signet! by McKinley as 
president, but they were conceived and written 
entirely by Sec. Root. When congress met 
and took up the task of legislating for the govern- 
ment of the islands it simply enacted Mr. Root's 
"instructions" just as they stood. This state 
paper, which has been universally praised for 
its remarkable completeness in every detail, is 
virtually a constitution as well as code of statutes 
for establishing courts and administering justice, 
managing local municipal corporations and schools, 
laying and collecting taxes, projecting public 
improvements and promoting trade and agriculture 
in short it provided for everything required 
to create and carry on a Republican form of gov- 
ernment in a land where such processes were 
utterly Tin known. Sec. Root also prepared for 
Porto Bico a code of government which was 
enacted into law and on May 1, 1900, a complete 
form of territorial government was inaugurated, 
with a governor, secretary of state, legislature or 
congress, courts, and schools. Early in 1900 a 
powerful sect known as Boxers ("The Fist of 
Righteous Harmony") began a destructive and 
murderous demonstration against all foreigners 
in China, and continued their aggressions until 
they had successfully besieged Pekin and cut 
it off from communication with the outside world. 
The German and Japanese chancellors hud been 
murdered in the streets and the other foreign 
representatives, including TJ. S. minister Conger, 
and his family and suite, were under incessant 
bombardment in the British legation compound. 
During a portion of the Boxer difficulties in China, 
Sec.-of-State Hay was ill, and besides getting 
soldiers from the Philippines to Pekin (under 
command of Gen. A. R. Chaffee) Mr. Root exercised 
supervisory control over the state department, 
thus doubling his already onerous and delicate 




duties. Hon. John D. Long in his " Xew American 
Navy," declares that for a time Mr. Root w:n 
compelled to act essentially as "secretary of war, 
attorney-general and secretary of state," in con- 
nection with the most important diplomatic and 
legal as well as military all'airs in dealing with 
our colonial complications. The American soldiers 
led the way in rescuing the beleaguered am- 
bassadors, and Washington procured tin: first 
authentic information which the world received 
that disclosed whether any ambassadors survned 
to be rescued. In this strange experience the 
United States led the world in 
absolute correctness of conduct 
as well as effective measures 
of relief. _ On Dec. 10, IS'.is, 
Spain relinquished her sov- 
ereignty over Cuba, and the 
1'nited States through the war 
department, assumed tempo- 
rary control of the island. 
Owing to the wealth, popula- 
tion and importance of Cuba 
and the delicate relations sus- 
tained toward her by this 
country as a protectorate power 
merely, the task of adminis- 
tering her affairs and preparing 
the people for self-government 
was one of extreme difficul- 
ty. From the time he entered 
the war office until May, 20, 

1902, when he turned the 
island over to Pres. Palma 

without hitch or error, Mr. Root never took his 
eyes or thoughts from Cuba. In 1902 the great an- 
thracite strike occurred. All means failing to effect 
a settlement, a general appeal was made to Pres. 
Roosevelt to interfere in behalf of the suffering 
public. Such an interference was resented by mine 
owners and operators as outside of the duties of the 
executive and utterly without warrant of law, the 
courts being open to both sides for whatever proceed- 
ings might be found necessary and proper to de- 
termine rights or redress wrongs. In October the 
deadlock seeming to be hopeless, and the operators 
and owners declining to hold further conferences 
with "politicians," Sec. Root sought an inter- 
view with J. P. Morgan as a controlling influence 
in the coal carrying roads and laid before him a 
plan which he agreed to consider in conjunction 
with the heads and managers of such roads and 
other coal mine operators. His proposition was 
immediately accepted and the coal interests 
united in a written request to Pres. Roosevelt 
to appoint a commission which should review 
all questions at issue between miners and operators 
and render findings thereon which should be 
binding upon both parties for three years. In- 
stantly the president appointed the commission. 
The striking miners accepted it and the terms under 
which it was appointed and then returned to 
work pending a judgment. Biographers, mag- 
azine writers and public speakers have been unan- 
imous in giving Pres. Roosevelt the credit for 
settling this prodigious controversy when, in fact, 
it was the work of the just and constructive mind 
of Sec. Root. He served on the Alaska boundary 
commission which met in London in September, 

1903, for the purpose of disposing of the new Can- 
adian claim to territory and sea coast in Alaska 
that had been ceded to the United States by 
Russia in 1S67 according to the terms of the 
treaty of 1825 between Russia and Great Britain, 
and never disputed until gold in large quantities 
was discovered on the coastal strip that both 
countries had always mapped as belonging to the 



14 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



United States. The Canadian claim was rejected, 
and by a convention signed Oct. 20, 191)3, the 
contracting parties agreed upon a joint survey 
of the boundary according to the terms of the 
original treaty of 1825. The survey having 
been completed and a report thereof rendered, a 
treaty in accordance with its terms was signed 
by Sec. Root on April 8, 1908. Militarists believe 
that his greatest achievement as secretary of 
war was the initiating and carrying through of the 
work which resulted in reorganizing the entire 
military establishment of the United States by 
abolishing the office of " general commanding the 
army" (as well as the numerous independent 
bureaus, each working in the war department 
without knowing what the other was trying to 
do), and substituting therefor a general staff, 
headed by a chief of staff who represents and 
advises the secretary of war and synchronizes 
the activities of the several staff bureaus. The 
first bill for achieving this purpose was defeated 
in congress, but instead of complaining and retir- 
ing, Mr. Root assumed that he had failed to set 
forth the merits of the proposition in full and 
immediately began a re-preparation of his case. 
The second bill was passed at the next session 
of congress and became a law Feb. 16, 1903. 
General staff details are made for four years and 
are so arranged that there is a constant interchange 
of duty between the field and the staff bureaus. 
In some opinions that part of his work in reform- 
ing the administration of the military establish- 
ment which assimilates the state militia with the 
regular forces is more important. It divides the 
militia into the organized and the unorganized. 
The former, if it adopts and uses the rules and 
regulations of the U. S. army, is entitled to share 
in the funds appropriated by congress and may 
draw arms, ammunition, supplies etc , from the 
I . S. army stores and otherwise enjoy the federal 
bounty. The officers of the state militia com- 
panies so participating may attend federal military 
schools for tuition, and be examined for com- 
missions and promotions, and state military 
forces may participate in regular army manoeuvres. 
The army is now a more efficient and homogeneous 
body than it was ever before. When the last soldiers 
of the original army of occupation had been with- 
drawn from Cuba, and civil government had been 
fully established in the Philippines and Porto 
Rico, Mr. Root resigned from the cabinet on Feb. 
1, 1904, and resumed his law practice in New York. 
Retainers in the most important causes began to 
come to him at once among them for the Hill- 
Morgan interests in the Northern Securities cases, 
from Mayor Weaver in his fight against civic cor- 
ruption in Philadelphia, and to act as counsel for 
several great corporations. Edward II. Harriman 
thus described the great value of Mr. Root's 
counsel: "Other attorneys tell us what we can't 
do; Mr. Root tells us what we can do." On July 
1, 1905, Secy. John Hay died. Pres. Roosevelt 
requested Mr. Root to represent the state depart- 
ment at the Hay funeral in Cleveland, O., and 
he accepted. This was taken to mean that the 
president desired to have Mr. Root succeed Mr. 
Hay, and that desire ultimately prevailed Mr. 
Root taking the oath of office on July 20, 1905. 
To leave a practice worth 8200,000 a year or more, 
as well as congenial business and social relations 
for exacting routine labors and prescribed social 
formalities which were anything but congenial, 
shows Mr. Root's strong loyalty to Pres. Roosevelt 
and to public duty. Taking office in the midst 
of the peace negotiations between Russia and 
Japan which II:K| boon brought about by the 
United States, his first administrative move was 



to inaugurate an up-to-date system of filing, 
indexing and handling the archives. Having no 
specific clerical force or appropriation for this 
purpose, he began by borrowing from or exchang- 
ing with war department clerks, and when the 
much-needed reform had been thus put under 
way he went to congress and explained the press- 
ing necessity for such an increase in the clerical 
force as would enable the department to meet 
promptly and effectively the steadily increasing 
demands that were being made upon it. Con- 
gress responded favorably and the state depart- 
ment, is now as near an up-to-date business ma- 
chine as any other branch of the government 
service. While bringing about this reform he 
urged upon congress the extreme desirability of 
reorganizing the consular service by creating 
classes or grades under rules which would enable 
him to shift consuls and diplomatic agents from 
post to post, assigning stations according to aptitude 
or experience and appointing higher officers by 
promotions from below according to merit. So 
far as he could, he put this plan into actual practice 
while waiting for congress to act, and when the 
new law (approved April 5, 1906) became effective, 
all consular fees were abolished and a system of 
graded salaries was established in their stead. 
The consular service is now managed upon a 
business basis according to merit and adaptability. 
In the summer of 1906 Mr. Root made a tour of 
the South and Central American republics. The 
primary object was to attend the third interna- 
tional conference of American republics at Rio 
de Janeiro as United States delegate, but sailing 
in the U. S. cruiser "Charleston." he took occasion 
to pay friendly visits to Brazil, Uruguay, Argen- 
tina, Chili, Peru, Panama and Colombia, for the 
purpose of explaining the scope and meaning 
of the Monroe Doctrine, learning the wishes and 
wants of their people and pledging the good will 
and cooperation of the United States. In aa 
address delivered at the conference Mr. Root 
declared: "We wish for no victories but those of 
peace; for no territory except our own; for no 
sovereignity except sovereignly over ourselves. 
We deem the independence and equal rights of 
the smallest and weakest member of the family 
of nations entitled to as much respect as those of 
the greatest empire, and we deem the observance 
of that respect the chief guaranty of the weak 
against the oppression of the strong. We neither 
claim nor desire any rights or privileges or powers 
that we do not freely concede to every American 
republic." The utterance of this sentiment was 
deeply gratifying to South Americans, who had 
often been told by European intriguers that the 
United States "presumed" to assume some sort 
of unwarranted and degrading suzerainty over 
their republics for purposes of her own. Mr 
Root was everywhere received with open armed 
cordiality, and succeeded in eliminating the suspi- 
cion and reserve that formerly had characterized 
the relations between the northern and southern 
continents. During the drlibor.-itions of the con- 
conference Mr. Root promised to use his utmost 
endeavors to commit the Hague tribunal to 
the doctrine enunciated by Dr. Drago that force 
should be used no longer for the collection of national 
debts and that in the international high court of 
arbitral justice each sovereign it y should have an 
equal representative regardless of size, wealth or 
population. No other act of America ever did 
so much to unify, strengthen and win the gratitude 
of the South American republics. On Nov. 20, 1(106, 
he delivered a comprehensive address before the 
Trans-Mississippi commercial congress at Kansas 
City in which he said: "The people of the United 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



15 



States have for the first time accumulated a surplus 
of capital beyond the requirements of internal 
development. That surplus is increasing with 
extraordinary rapidity. We have paid our del its 
to Europe and have become a creditor instead of 
a debtor nation. We have faced about. \\e have 
become an investing instead of a borrowing nation." 
Having realized the significance of this change of 
conditions, Mr. Uoot had sought to do what he 
could as head of the state department to find new 
outlets for the surplus capital, products and manu- 
factures of the country. That was another object 
of his noted circuit of the South American nations, 
and in this Kansas City address he set forth the 
great opportunities for opening new trade relations 
with South America which he had observed, and 
advocated, a- a method of working up and sustain- 
ing that trade, a system of ship subsidies to be 
established by congress subsidies sufficient to 
overcome the advantage of lower rates of interest, 
wages and cost of living in foreign countries. In 
January, 1907, Sec. Root paid a visit to Canada in 
response to an invitation from Sir Wilfred Laurier 
for the purpose of participating in a full interchange 
of views and aims with the Dominion administra- 
tion. During this visit a banquet tendered to him 
by the Canadian Club enabled him to make a 
public address in which he outlined the policy of 
his government and gave expression to the feelings 
of the people of the United States toward the 
"hardy and vigorous" neighbors at the North who 
"love liberty and justice." Canada had long 
labored under the depressing feeling that in tin- 
fisheries, Alaska boundary, tariff, fur-seal and other 
contentions, her interests had not been sufficiently 
sustained and the visit of Sec. Root neutralized 
this feeling and materially helped Canada to rise to 
the position of diplomatic autonomy and national 
independence which she reached when, in January, 
1909, with Ambassador James Bryee, he signed a 
treaty which provided for an American-Canadian 
joint' high commission to which shall be referred 
all disputes except those over pecuniary matters 
that are now pen ing or may arise under our 
treaties and that concern Canada and the United 
States alone. Another result of the entente 
cordiale thus inaugurated by him is a convention 
for the adjustment of pecuniary claims between the 
two countries and referring the New Foundland 
fisheries disputes to the Hague tribunal. By this 
reference the Hague tribunal will record an inter- 
pretation of the treaty of 1818 under which citizens 
of the United States claim the right to fish in New 
Foundland waters and New Foundland claims the 
right to enact legislation which abridges the treaty 
rights of American fishermen. Perhaps nothing 
ever taxed Sec. Root's patience more than the fan- 
tastic performances of Pres. Castro of Venezuela, 
who literally ran amuck among the nations. 
Although forced to terminate diplomatic relations 
with Venezeula, he nevertheless averted war and 
nursed Castro along like an incorrigible child until 
the latter fled to Europe early in 1909, after 
which his successor recognized the justice of Amer- 
ican claims and provided for their settlement. 
In September, 1907, Sec. Root made a special visit 
to Mexico for the purpose of having a frank and 
friendly interchange of views with Pres. Diaz on 
matters of interest to the two countries as well as 
matters of common interest to all of the govern- 
ments on the western hemisphere, and permitting 
the Mexican ministry to know what he had learned 
at the Canadian and South American capitals. 
This visit concluded and crowned with success his 
efforts to amalgamate the sentiment of the western 
hemisphere and make of its twelve or more govern- 
ments a cordial and faithful unit in the promotion 



of their general welfare one of the very great 
achie\emcnts of the generation. An equally 
notable result of his labors, in conjunction with 
efforts by Mexico, was the establishment of an 
international court of justice, similar to the Hague 
tribunal, by which the Central American states 
will settle their disputes according to principles 
of law. In 190i; the internal affairs of Santo 
Domingo, as the result of unending revolutions and 
insurrections, had become so deplorable that the 
Tinted States felt forced to send warshio.5 thither 
to protect American interests and Sec. Hoot to 
dispatch a special agent (Jacob L. Hollander) to 
gather information concerning the fiscal condition 
of the torn and prostrate little republic. On the 
report of this agent Mr. Root devised a way of 
administering Dominican finances for the equal 
benefit of all, first scaling down foreign claims from 
821,000,000 to less than 812,000,000 and domestic 
claims from over $9,000,000 to $5,000,000. The 
collection of revenue and the liquidation of debts 
was committed to an American commission, under 
a convention with the Dominican governments 
which Mr. Root after much emphatic urging, in- 
duced the U. S. senate to ratify an arrangement 
which saved Santo Domingo from destruction. 
In a speech before the Pennsylvania Society of New 
York, in 1906, Mr. Root warned the states that 
that growth of the federal constitution by con- 
struction of which the federal government had 
undertaken the regulation of affairs which for- 
merly were "entirely within the cognizance of 
the individual states" was due to the failure of 
the states to adequately exercise controls which 
the people demanded. He gave further warning 
that such growth would continue unless the states 
should respond to the demands of the people 
for the adequate regulation of new powers and 
influences which were seen to be encroaching upon 
them in many directions. This address created 
a deep impression and excited universal and 
learned comment, but was not more effective than 
a political address delivered at Utica, N. Y., 
five weeks earlier in which, with merciless freedom 
and precision, he analyzed the policies and per- 
formances of William R. Hearst, a proprietor 
of sensational newspapers who was aspiring to 
the presidency. Of this Hearst address, which 
contained the allegation that Pres. Roosevelt re- 
garded Hearst as an instigator of the assassina- 
tion of McKinley, two million copies were printed 
for free distribution. In January, 1909, the 
Republican majority of the New York legislature 
unanimously supported Mr. Root for U. S. senator 
to succeed Thomas C. Platt, and he was duly 
elected, taking his seat on March 4, 1909. As a 
member of the committee on foreign relations he 
entered on the fulfillment of the plans which as an 
executive he had suggested and devised. Riveting 
down and putting into actual practice the 
policies inaugurated by John Hay, Sec. Root, 
did more than any individual in the world to 
unify and pacify the international tendencies of 
mankind and elevate as well as universalize the 
code of diplomatic procedure among nation*. 
He signed arbitration treaties with practically all 
of the civilized governments of the world, and 
his efforts to have the Hague tribunal constituted 
upon a basis of equal national sovereignly instead 
of according to the size, wealth or population of 
the nation represented, are of inestimable value'. 
A fruitful source of his strength and success was 
his willingness and ability to appear before any 
committee of congress and answer any question 
that should be put to him relative to treaties or 
other matters in which his department was con- 
cerned. If Mr. Root had cared more for political 



16 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



honors than conscientious performance of public 
duty he might have been president of the United 
States in the place of Roosevelt. When in 1S99 
Henry C. Payne, vice-chairman of the Republican 
national committee asked Mr. Root to stand for 
vice-president on the ticket with Pres. McKinley, 
he replied that while there were able and good 
men to succeed him in the war department, no 
one could take up the threads of the very im- 
portant matters which were then in process of 
adjustment or consummation without a period 
of education similar to the one through which he 
had passed, and he felt it a duty to remain where 
he was. To this view Mr. Payne was compelled 
to give assent and Mr. Roosevelt, then governor 
of New York, received the nomination. Mr. 
Root has been twice president of the Union League 
of New York and was first president of the Amer- 
ican Society of International Law (1906). He 
is a member of the New York and American bar 
associations; was president of the international 
sanitary convention of American republics at 
its sessions in Washington; was president of the 
New York Bar Association in 1904-5; was tem- 
porary chairman of the Republican national con- 
vention of 1904 and is a trustee of Hamilton College, 
Carnegie Institution and the Metropolitan Museum. 
He has made many public addresses all of them 
clothed in simple, almost monosyllabic language, 
and all upon a lofty plane of patriotism and civic 
duty. Four Yale lectures on the responsibilities 
of citizenship have been published under the title 
"The Citizen's Part in Government" (1907), and 
"The Sanction of International Law" (190S), 
has been published by the American Branch 
Association for International Conciliation. Mr. 
Root's law practice has been largely that of coun- 
selor, his chief fame arising from his ability to settle 
cases out of court, but he has been active in many 
important trials the Stewart and Fairweather 
will cases; the Croton aqueduct and Broadway 
surface railway matters; the sugar trust litiga- 
tion, in defense of Robert Ray Hamilton against 
the notorious Emma Mann, and in the tariff levy 
on' the yacht "Conqueror." In an address on 
"Three College-Bred Americans" in 1902, Pres. 
Roosevelt said of Secy. Root: "He has done the 
most exhausting and the most responsible work 
of any man in the administration more exhaust- 
ing and more responsible work than the work of 
the president because the circumstances have 
been such that with a man of Root's wonderful 
ability, wonderful industry and wonderful con- 
scientiousness, the president could not help de- 
volving upon him work that made his task one 
under which almost any other man I know would 
have staggered. . . . He has not only teen secre- 
tary of war, but secretary for the islands and secre- 
tary for the colonies at the same time. For all this 
nothing can come to Root in the way of reward 
except m the reward that is implied in the knowledge 
that he has done something of incalculable im- 
portance. I can do nothing for him. . . . He is 
the ablest man I have known in our government 
service. I will go further. He is the ablest man 
that has appeared in the public life of any country 
in my time." He was married in New York 
Jan. 8, 1878, to Clara, daughter of Salem Howe 
Wales, of Wales, Mass. They have three children 
Edith, wife of Ulysses S. Grant, 3rd.; Elihu, Jr. 
and Edward Wales Root. 

BACON, Robert, banker and secretary of state, 
was born in Jamaica Plain, Mass., July 5, 1860, son 
of William B. and Emily C. (Low) Bacon. The family 
was of Norman origin, and the first American rep- 
resentative was Nathaniel Bacon, who emigrated 




from Rutlandshire, England, to Barnstable county, 
Ma-*., iii 1639. He was a tanner and leather finisher 
of good business ability and stern virtues, who erect- 
ed a house of oak logs in Barnstable in 1642, which 
stood for 240 years. From 1650 until his death in 
1673 almost the entire time of this colonist was de- 
voted to public affairs, either in the colony court, in 
the council of war, or as court officer, and the land 
on which he settled is still in the possession of his 
descendents. Robert Bacon was prepared for college 
in private schools in Boston and entered Harvard 
( 'ollege in 1876 in the same class as Theodore Roose- 
velt. He was president of the 
class during his four years' 
course and after graduation 
in 1880 was elected perman- 
ent class president. Upon 
leaving college he became a, 
clerk in the banking house of 
E. Rollins Morse & Bro., of 
Boston. Developing unusual 
adaptability for financial op- 
erations and affairs, he was 
rapidly promoted and finally 
became a member of the firm. 
Having attracted the atten- 
tion of J. Pierpont Morgan, 
whose banking firm Morse & 
Bro. represented in Boston 
Mr. Bacon was invited to 
enter the service of the great 
New York house and in 1899 
became a junior partner. He 
was entrusted with many transactions requiring 
tact and poise and carried" them through with such 
success that very soon the responsibility of con- 
ducting all of the larger constructive operations of 
the Morgan bank was placed upon him. He was 
also connected with the Philadelphia house of 
Drexel & Co., and had particular charge of the 
foreign department of the home bank. After 1900 
he was recognized as the active administrative head 
of Morgan A: Co., and during Mr. Morgan's many 
and prolonged absences in Europe and elsewhere he 
had full direction of the firm's affairs. He was in 
charge in 1901 when the famous "corner" in North- 
ern Pacific Railway was engineered which drove the 
stock of that company to over 81,000 a share and 
resulted in the panic of May 9-10, 1901. The corner 
was the result of a contest between the Morgan-Hill 
interests on one side and Harriman interests on tia 
other, for the control of the Northern Pacific rail- 
ivay. While the former secured a majority of the 
coveted stock, Mr. Bacon suggested an amalgama- 
tion of the conflicting interests in the interest of 
peace, which was accepted by Mr. Morgan upon his 
return from abroad. In 1902 he played a promi- 
nent part in the long and intricate negotiations by 
which the several English, German, American and 
other transatlantic steamship lines were mcrtred 
under a common ownership with the title of Inter- 
national Mercantile Marine Co., with a capital of 
.$100,000.000, a gold bond issue of 875,000,000 and 
eight out of thirteen directors citizens of the United 
States. In 1903 he retired from the firm of Morgan 
& Co. and devoted his time to his personal affairs 
until September, 1905, when he was appointed by 
Pres. Roosevelt to be first assistant secretary of state 
to succeed Francis B. Loomis. He had been a 
director in the Northern Pacific, West Shore, New 
England, Erie, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 
Buffalo & Lockport, Hocking Valley, Buffalo & 
Niagara Falls and the Buffalo Street railway*, as 
well as in the United States Steel Corporation, 
Amalgamated Copper Co., Edison Electric Illumi- 
nating Co., National City Bank, Northern Securities 
Co., and other corporations, but resigned from many 



OF AMKHH'AX BIOGRAPHY. 



17 



of them upon accepting the appointment to the 
state department. His selection was dictated t>y a 
desire to have in the foreign relations department 
of the government a person who was known to be 
familiar with the great business interest- thai were 
involved by the new relations thai the I'nitol States 
was unavoidably assuming with China, Japan. Cuba 
and other foreign countries, as well as a trained 
business manager to aid in reforming the adminis- 
trative features of the state department. Mr. 
Bacon's first duties were those of acting secretary 
i i Mead, of assistant, Sec. Root being absent in 
Labrador when the new assistant was sworn in. 
Although occupying a subordinate position, he 
contributed materially to the modern character of 
the state department of to-day as an effective busi- 
ness institution, and he participated in diplomatic 
matters also to a considerable extent. He accom- 
panied Sec. Taft to Cuba in 1906 in the attempt 
to settle the insurrection on that island without 
formal intervention on the part of the United State* 
under the Platt amendment, and conducted the 
correspondence with Cuba which drove Pres. Palma 
to formally appeal to the United States for help, 
thus avoiding the necessity of intervention by 
America without being formally called upon to do so. 
In January, 1909, when Mr. Root was elected U. S. 
senator Mr. Bacon was appointed to fill out the 
unexpired term as secretary of state. Although his 
term of service as premier was short, it was not 
devoid of important events. He had the satisfaction 
of seeing the several differences between Venezuela 
and the United States amicably settled or submitted 
to the Hague Tribunal for arbitration ; he formu- 
lated the reply of the United States to the protest 
of the Republic of Panama against the charges made 
in congress of improprieties in the Panama canal 
negotiations, and he joined effectively in keeping 
Japan and the United States unruffled during the 
attempt of Pacific coast legislatures to enact 
exclusion and restrictive race legislation that would 
have violated existing treaties with Japan. On Dec. 
20, 1909, Mr. Bacon was appointed by Pres. Taft to 
succeed Henry White as ambassador to France, and 
entered upon the duties of his new office Jan. 1, 
1910. While residing in Boston he was president of 
the Somerset Club and member of the Union, Tavern, 
University, St. Botolph's and Athletic Association 
clubs; in New York of the Tuxedo, Racquet, Riding, 
New York Yacht, Lawyers' and Harvard clubs, and 
in Washington of the Metropolitan Club. He was 
married Oct. 10, 1883, to Martha Waldron, daughter 
of Elliot C. Cowdin. and has four children, Robert 
Low, Gasper Griswold, Elliot Cowdin and Martha 
Bacon . 

GAGE, Lyman Judson, secretary of the treasury. 
(See Vol. XL, p. 14.) 

SHAW, Leslie Mortimer, secretary of the treas- 
ury, was born on a farm at Morristown, Lamville 
Co., Vt., Nov. '2, 184s, son of Boardman O. and 
Louisa (Spalding) Shaw. '1 lie Shaws are of Scotch 
origin. Shiah, surnamed de Shawe, a son of Mac- 
Duff, third Earl of Fife, was supposed to be the 
first of the name, born about 102.3. The first of 
the family in America was l!<iger Shaw of Corn- 
hill. England, who came to Cambridge, Mass.. in 
1636 and removing to Hampton, X. H.. in lii:;'.i. 
played a considerable and honorable part in public 
affairs. Leslie M. Shaw worked on his father's 
farm until he became of age, attending the district 
school and later the People's Academy at Morn 
ville, a few miles from his father's farm. In 1869 
he went to Mt. Vernon, la., to visit relatives. 
Here he found employment and taught a near-by 
country school. Being ambitious for a better 
e.l ;>-ation, he entered Cornell College, where he was 
graduated in 1S74. He was also graduated at the 



Iowa CoUege of Law (LL.B.j at Iowa ( ity, in Ix7i>. 
After being admitted to the bar lie removed to 
Denison to practice. The experience of handling 
money for his clients and the spectacle of a rich 
agricultural country developing more rapidly than 
its fiscal institutions directed his attention to 
banking, and he very soon began promoting that 
business and in time was at the head of active and 
useful banks at Denison, Manilla, and Charter 
Oak, all in Crawford count}'. From the beginning 
he took a leading part in church and Sunday-school 
work and in every move intended to promote the 
welfare of the place. He was repeatedly elected 
to the school board and for some time was its 
president. He was the leader in founding (ivi.", j 
and sustaining the Denison Normal and Business 
College. Generally politics, beyond the welfare 
of his city and county, did not enlist his activities, 
but in 1888 he became more deeply interested in 
national issues, and took a modest part in the 
campaign of that year. In 1896 he heard a speech 
made by William Jennings Bryan at Denison in 
favor of the free and unlimited coinage of silver 
at the ratio of 16 to 1, and observed that is produced 
a strong impression upon the community. Tak- 
ing pains to inquire elsewhere, he found that Mr. 
Bryan's speeches were winning converts wherever 
he appeared that the masses were drifting toward 
him. Believing that if put into actual practice 
the free silver theory would destroy national 
prosperity; that the people did not realize the 
actual meaning of the free silver campaign, and 
that the paramount necessity of the hour was 
to inaugurate such an educational propaganda as 
would counteract Mr. Bryan's wonderful influence 
upon his hearers, Mr. Shaw prepared charts, 
statistics and illustrations out of his own expe- 
rience as farmer, banker and lawyer, and answered 
the Democratic nominee by a public address to 
his friends and neighbors of Denison. In college 
debates and local controversies and at the bar 
he had been known as a peculiarly clear, incisive 
and convincing speaker, but no one suspected 
that it would be safe to 
match him against orators 
of the Bryan calibre until 
after he had delivered this 
anti-free silver address. His 
fame was instantaneous. His 
illustrations and arguments 
were published everywhere 
and his services were in great 
demand. Not realizing his 
own powers and importance, 
he asked to be assigned to 
school houses and cross-roads, 
but very soon he was drawn 
to the large cities, where his 
quaint illustrations, his ample 
fund of folk-lore, his illumi- 
nating illustrations and his re- 
sistless logic carried the masses 
with him. He made sixty 
formal addresses and was cred- 
ited with changing the tide 
of Iowa back to McKinley. In 1897 there .were ten 
strong candidates for the Republican nomination for 
governor of Iowa, including Leslie M. Shaw. The 
McKinley campaign of the previous year had given 
to him a strength with the people of which the 
party leaders were unware, and he was elected 
over Frederick E. White by a vote of 225,500 to 
195,000. Taking office in Jan., 1898, his administra- 
tion was popular and successful. He was very 
prompt and energetic in securing Iowa's quota 
of soldiers in the Spanish-American war. and 
gave personal attention to the welfare of all state 




18 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 



institutions. He was reflected in 1899 over 
his previous opponent by the largest vote ever 
given a Republican candidate for governor in Iowa. 
During his four years of service as governor he 
was unable to confine his activities within state 
limits. Invitations to make addresses on important 
occasions came from all parts of the country and 
many of them were accepted. On some of these 
occasions he spoke in competition with men of 
national renown as orators but " he was never 
outclassed," declared John Hay, "because he 
constituted a class by himself." In 1898 he was 
permanent president of the International Monetary 
Conference at Indianapolis. In his address he 
declared that the conference had no right to con- 
sider whether the gold standard should be main- 
tained, for the people had already settled that. 
The only subject to be discussed, he said, was 
what sort of a financial superstructure should be 
created on the gold-standard foundation. Dur- 
ing the presidential campaign of 1900 he made 
numerous speeches, for Mr. Bryan was again 
running against Mr. McKinley. In South Dakota 
he spoke from the same platform \\itli Theodore 
Roosevelt, then running for the vice-presidency, 
and the complete mastery of the principles of 
finances, tariff and business which he then dis- 
played, created the impression in Mr. Roosevelt's 
mind which led, ultimately to his appointment 
as secretary of tin' treasury. On Dec. 12, 1900, 
Mr. Shaw created a still deeper impression upon 
the leaders of national thought by hi.s address in 
tli" east room of the white house at Washington 
on the centennial anniversary of establishing the 
federal government in that city. His theme was 
"The Development of the States during the 
Century." His grasp of the great subject con- 
stituted a general surprise and led Pres. McKinley 
to declare that " Gov. Shaw was the first man he 
had known who could crystallize statistics into 
poetry." When Lyman J. Gage retired from the 
office of secretary of the treasury Feb. 1, 1902, 
Pres. Roosevelt, appointed Gov. Shaw to take 
his place. He was soon called upon to dispose of 
numerous knotty problems. The press teemed 
with complaints against the treasury regulations 
which governed the inspection of the baggage of 
persons returning from abroad and also against 
the immigration inspection service. In order to 
secure first-hand information concerning these 
matters he made personal investigations which 
resulted in the promulgation of modified rules. 
It was his habit also, when stock speculation 
created panics, to go in person among merchant-, 
manufacturers and importers, and learn directly 
from them whether and to what extent legitimate 
business was affected. On one of these visits he 
gave expression to the opinion that "bank reserves 
were created and maintained for use in emer- 
gencies and when such emergencies arose should 
be used to meet them." He was called upon in 
1902, 190:5. I'M).-) and li)06 to relieve the stringency 
in the money market : and when he found that 
the banks of the country could not or would not 
create extra reserves with which to meet the 
demands made upon them by extraordinary crop 
or business conditions, he caused the treasury to 
absorb what he believed would be sufficient funds 
to meet these occasions. He always explained 
ti> the president in writing, the character of and 
reason for any move of this kind. The practice 
of establishing what Mr. Shaw termed a. "relief 
fund" has been followed by his successors. In 
defending the policy of the secretary of the treasury 
against the criticisms which followed every step 
taken in the public interest, he said to a conven- 
tion of bankers in Washington: "Extraordinary 



measures to prevent the spread of epidemics are 
always commended; yet this country has never 
witnessed a pestilence which left in its wake so 
L'n-.-it an aggregation of suffering and sorrow as 
mark the course of financial disorders and industrial 
stagnation." Upon the expiration of his term, Mar. 4, 
r.MI7. lie became president of the Carnegie Trust 
Co., of Xew York. While in the treasury depart- 
ment he was called' upon for addresses in all parts 
of the country, to many of which he responded. 
The subjects of these addresses included the tariff, 
reciprocity, merchant marine, the Philippines 
policies the Cuban protectorate, transportation, 
as well as every phase of financial conditions, 
policies and proposed legislation. They abounded 
in quaint New England folk-lore, and apt illustra- 
tions from the rich field of the every day Life and 
excelled in clearness, completeness and simplicity. 
A collection of fifty of the best of them was publish- 
ed under the title of "Current Issues." the most in- 
forming and va luable of which arc" Evolut ion in Busi- 
ness Methods," "Importance of the Home Market." 
"A Tariff for Revenue Only," "Drawbacks." " Reci- 
procity, ""Subsidies." "Statutory Control IP| Trusts," 
"Virtues and Defects of Our Currency System." 
"Credit Currency and Current Credit," "Currency 
Reform," "Inflation" and "Taxation." He sug- 
gested the plan of making the currency of the count- 
ry elastic, which found many prominent advocates. 
Mr. Shaw was three times lay delegate to the great 
quadriennial conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and has for years been regarded as one of 
the most powerful lay members of that body. 
He has been a leader in fiscal an 1 administrative 
reforms and succeeded in abolishing useless offices 
and eliminating unnecessary salaries. He is 
trustee "f Cornell College, but a member of no 
clubs. He was discussed as good presidential 
timber prior to the assassination of McKinley, 
and was favored in many localities for the nomina- 
tion in 1908, but made no effort to secure the 
nomination after Pres. |; (1 < )S evelt. had selected 
William H. Taft as the republican nominee. The 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by 
Simpson College, Cornell and Wesleyan universities 
and Dickinson College. He was married Dec. 
6, 1877, to Alice daughter of James Cranshaw, of 
Clinton, Iowa. 

CORTELYOU, George Bruce, secretary of the 
treasury, was born in New York city, July 26, 1862, 
son of Peter Crolius and Rose (Seary) Cortelvou. 
He is descended from Capt. Jacques Cortelvou, 
the first of the line to settle in America, who made 
the. first official map of New Amsterdam in 1057 
and aided in erecting the wall across Manhattan 
island, from which Wall street derived its name, as 
a protection against Indian incursions from the 
north. He himse.f acquired lands across the East 
river on Long Island, and a portion of the original 
.lari|iies Cortelyou estate ('(institutes the site of the 
Cortelvou Club of Brooklyn. Mr Cortelvou \\a.s 
graduated at the Hempstead Institute, at Hemp- 
stead. Long Island, in 187(1. and at the Stato Nor- 
mal School, West field, Mass., in 1882. He studied 
music for a time in the New England < 'onservatory 
in Boston, while teaching at Cambridge, but 
thinking better of stenography as a means of 
earning a livlihood, he returned to New York. 
He pursued a course in clinics in the New York 
hospital, while studying shorthand, in order to 
become more expert in taking and transcribing 
testimony in medical cases. He was a general 
law and verbatim reporter in association with 
James E. Munson (q.v.) during 1883-85. In 1S89 
he entered the customs service in New York as 
"stenographer and typewriter at $5 per diem. 



OF AMF.KK \\ r.H Klii \P11V. 



19 



when employed," and hold the position for two 
years or more, when he was transferred to Wash- 
ington as a "elerk" in the office of the postmastcr- 
(reiiei-al. and from there, on the recommendation 
of Postmaster-General Bissell, he became stenog- 
rapher to Pres. Cleveland in 1895. Three months 
later he was appointed executive clerk to the pres- 
ident. In March, ls!t~, Pres. Cleveland commend- 
ed him to his successor, William McKinley, who 
within a short time made him assistant secretary. 
In April, 1900, upon the resignation of John Addison 
Porter from the secretaryship, -Mr. Cortelyou was 
advanced to the post of secretary to the president, 
which had grown to nearly the dignity of a cabinet 
position. The salary of this position is S.5,000, 
and the duties are complex, confidential, dt-.icatr 
and unending. The secretary is expected to relieve 
the chief executive as much as possible of the 
le--er details of the office, to satisfy the demands 
of the public in its contact with the White House, 
arrange interviews of public and other persons with 
the president, send to the proper departments 
matters which can be attended to better by other 
officers, accompany the president whenever he 
leaves the White House, formulate and give out for 
the use of the press whatever executive news items 
the people are entitled to receive, and generally 
to neutralize and absorb the constant demands of 
the nation upon its official head. In this position 
the labors performed by Mr. Cortelyou were hea\y 
and prolonged. The 'ill health "of Mr. Porter 
brought Mr. Cortelyou to the president's side for a 
year before he assumed the official duties of sec- 
i.'tary, so that he received the great pressure of the 
Spanish war period. He was present when Pres. 
McKinley was struck down by the assassin's bullet 
in Buffalo and was at the bedside of the martyr 
luK'it and day until death ended his suffering. 
Although young and strong and of abstemious 
habits in every respect, he returned to Washington, 
after McKinley's funeral, well-nigh broken in both 
body and mind from the prolonged period of night- 
and-day labor and strain as well as sorrow through 
which he had been compelled to pass. He had 
been held in the very highest esteem by Mrs. 
McKinley as well as by her distinguished husband 
and his friends and she sent for him to open and 
read her husband's will. She declined to act as 
administratrix and attached to the instrument a 
declaration designating Mr. Cortelyou and Judge 
William R. Day as administrators. He was con- 
tinued secretary to the president under Roosevelt 
until Feb. 16, 1903, when he was appointed to the 
new cabinet position of secretary of commerce and 
labor. In this new office he demonstrated his 
capacity for organization. He had to create the 
executive force of his department out of entirely 
new materials, except where bureaus were trans- 
ferred to him from other departments. His first 
recommendation to congress was made on a scale 
which he believed to be necessary to meet the 
duties imposed upon and expected of his com- 
preh> nsive department, but congress did not take 
enthusiastically to the recommendations of the 
young cabinet officer and cut his estimates to such 
a. very low figure that he could not organize the 
bureau of manufactures. Under the law creating 
the department, it "is the province and duty of said 
department to foster, promote and develop the 
foreign and domestic commerce, the mining, manu- 
facturing, shipping and fishing industries, the labor 
interests and the transportation facilities of the 
United States." In order to carry out this pro- 
vision there were transferred to his department the 
lighthouse board, lighthouse establishment, steam- 
boat inspection service, bureau of navigation, 
United States shipping commissioners, national 




bureau of standards, coast and geodetic survey, 
the commissioner-general of immigration, the 
bun 'an of immigral ion, -and the bureau of stal i sties, 
all from the treasury department; the bureau of 
the census from the department of the interior, 
and the bureaus of foreign commerce from the 
department of state, together with the independent, 
commissioner of fish ami fisheries and the depart 
ment of labor. Added to these were a bureau of 
corporations and a bureau ot manufactures. Thus 
the department of commerce and labor began its 
existence as one of the largest and mo~i complicated 
branches of the federal ser- 
vice, having thirteen subdi- 
visions and employing about 
10,000 persons. In his first 
annual report he said: "The 
department deals with the 
great concerns of industrial 
and commercial life. To be ; 
of service to these intere-t - it 
must have their hearty co- 
operation and support. It 
must be a department of busi- 
ness. . . . It must not deviate 
from the pathway of justice, 
strict and impartial. It must 
be non-partisan in the highest 
and broadest sense. It must 
recognize no distinction as 
between large and small in-' 
terests. . . . It must adhere 
rigidly to the lines marked 
out since the foundation of the government for 
federal agencies in executing the will of the people." 
After one year and four months in the position of 
secretary of commerce and labor, he was elected 
chairman of the Republican national commit ti-e 
to manage the campaign of Pres. Roosevelt. On 
Mar. 4, 1!!0.~>, when Mr. Roosevelt- began his second 
term he appointed Mr. Cortelyou postmaster- 
general to suet 1 Robert J. Wynne, who filled 

the office temporarily after the death of Henry 
( '. Payne. Mr. Cortelyou was no stranger to the 
post-office department. A little less than ten years 
before he had been a clerk in this department of 
which he was now the head, a record without 
parallel in our history. He at once set about re- 
organizing the department and placing it on a 
business basis. In April, 1905, he established a, 
tenure during good behavior for fourth-class post- 
masters, and later brought the presidential post- 
masters within the same classification so far as the 
law allowed. He also perfected the rural free 
delivery system, recommended parcels delivery 
on the rural routes and tightened the stringency 
of the regulations intended to prevent the use of 
the mails for immoral and fraudulent purposes. 
The postal deficit was reduced to the lowest point 
in years, while facilities were extended and efficiency 
increased in all directions. The entire tendency 
of his administration was to render the postal 
service more certain and efficient, to extend parcels 
post agreements with foreign countries, and to 
keep all postal property in perfect condition and 
repair. On Mar. 4, 1907, Leslie M. Shaw resigned 
as secretary of the treasury and Mr. Cortelyou was 
advanced to his place. In certain ways the treasury 
department is the most vital branch of public 
administration, and to add to his responsibilities 
Sec. Cortelyou was soon afterward called upon to 
deal with the most stringent and prolonged money 
panic of the decade. Beginning Aug. 23, 1907, 
he first undertook to ease the markets before the 
onset of the panic, by making weekly deposits 
of cash with banks in sections where currency 
seemed to be the scarcest. This continued until 



20 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



$26,000,000 had been deposited, and had the effect 
of greatly ameliorating the situation, but as Mr. 
C'ortelyou stated in his annual report to congress, 
"there was a constantly increasing stringency in 
the monetary centers, which culminated in the 
forced suspension of several important institutions." 
He then adopted vigorous measures and within 
four days transferred to banks from the treasury 
35,000,000 in cash, taking as security such 
state, municipal and railroad securities as are 
acceptable under the laws of the several states 
which have legislated upon that subject as invest- 
ments for savings banks. By the middle of 
November the U. S. treasury had in the various 
banks of the country over $225,000,000 and 
financiers had arranged to import $60,000,000 in 
gold bars. Even this relief, enormous as it was, 
failed to be sufficient, and the associated banks of 
all of the greater cities resorted to payments in 
clearing-house certificates. This experience led 
Sec. Cortelyou, in his annual report for 1907, to beg 
congress with "the deepest concern" to take up 
the subject of providing a more adequate and 
elastic currency and "not lay it aside until some 
definite means of relief shall have been enacted 
into law." Congress took heed, and enacted an 
emergency currency law known as Chapter 229, 
IT. S. statutes at large for 1907-8, approved May 
30, 1908. By this law not less than ten banks in 
contiguous territory, under prescribed conditions, 
may form a national currency association, becom- 
ing a body corporate, for the purpose of issuing 
circulating notes founded on state and municipal 
bonds and commercial paper as prescribed in the 
act, and may increase or contract such circulation, 
subject to a specific federal tax of five percentum 
per annum for the first month and one percentum 
per month thereafter until the rate shall equal ten 
percentum per annum. The law providing for 
this emergency currency will expire on June 30, 
1914; but it provided for a national monetary 
commission of nine members from each house 
which, in the meantime, shall investigate and refer 
to a permanent plan for providing an adequate 
and elastic currency system to take the place of the 
so-called emergency circulaion. With the accession 
of the Taft administration in 1909, Sec. Cortelyou 
retired to New York to become the head of the 
Consolidated Gas Co. He is the most notable 
example in American life of high attainments in 
the public service without winning any distinction 
whatsoever in a private capacity or relying upon 
outside influences. He personally served three 
presidents of strangely divergent characteristics 
and sat at the cabinet board representing three 
great departments, the aggregate number of em- 
ploys of which \\as more than a third of a million. 
His chief characteristics are a genius for hard work 
and for taking infinite pains with a clear, cool ,-iti'l 
thorough comprehension of every problem that he 
has had to study. He studied law while in the public 
service and was gradunt i-il 1. 1, .B. at Georgetown Uni- 
versity Law School in 1895 and at George Washing- 
ton University law department, with the degree of 
LL.M. in 1896. He received the honorary degree 
of LL.D. from Georgetown University, the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, and Kentucky Wesleyan University. 
He was married, in 1888, to Lily Morris, daughter 
of his old preceptor at Hempstead Institute, Dr. 
Ephraim Hinds, and has five children. 

TAFT, William Howard, secretary of war. ( See 
p. 403.) 

WRIGHT, Luke Edward, secretary of war, was 
born in Memphis, Term., Aug. 29, 1846, son of 
Archibald and Mary Elizabeth (Eldridge) Wright, 
grandson of John and Nancy (Mclntyre) Wright, 



and great-grandson of Duncan AVright, a native 
of Scotland, and the first of the family in America. 
His father, Archibald Wright, served in the Sem- 
inole war under Gen. Armstrong; was a member 
of the state legislature from Giles county (1847-49), 
and was elected to the supreme bench of the state 
in 1858 for a term expiring in 1866, but was ar- 
bitrarily displaced by Gov. Brownlow in 1865. 
His mother was a daughter of Dr. Elisha Eldridge, 
a native of New Hampshire, and a physician of 
eminence. He was educated in the schools of 
his native town, and at the University of Mis- 
sissippi. Upon the outbreak of the civil war he 
enlisted in the Confederate army, and despite hia 
youth was quickly advanced to the rank of captain, 
serving throughout the four years struggle. He 
was admitted to the Tennessee bar in 1870, and 
opening a law office in Memphis, he soon won a 
reputation as a close reasoner, a well-qualified 
lawyer and an eloquent advocate that promised 
to raise him to the high level attained by his father. 
For eight years after his admission to the bar he 
served as attorney-general of Tennessee. He 
first definitely established his reputation in the 
days of the yellow fever epidemic at Memphis 
(1878), when he practically assumed the duties 
and responsibilities of mayor, and taking charge 
of the relief measures, displayed what may justly 
be called heroic devotion to duty and indifference 
to his own life. Although stricken by the plague 
he was fighting, he lived to see it stamped out and 
took part in introducing into Memphis the hygienic 
measures which have since made it one of the 
model health cities of the world. In 1900 he was 
appointed by Pres. McKinley a member of the 
United States Philippine commission, of which he 
served as president in 1904. Pres. Roosevelt 
appointed him vice-governor of the Philippine 
Islands, Oct. 29, 1901, and when William II. Taft 
became secretary of war, on Feb. 1, 1904, Gen. 
Wright was appointed to succeed him as governor- 
general. He served until Mar. 30, 1906, when he 
became the first American ambassador to Japan. 
This post he resigned Sept. 1, 1907, and returned 
to the United States to resume his law practice. 
On July 1, 1908, Gen. Wright succeeded William 
H. Taft as secretary of war, the latter having 
resigned that position immediate- 
ly after his nomination for the 
presidency. In making the ap- 
pointment Pres. Roosevelt point- 
ed out Gen. Wright's peculiar 
fitness for the position by virtue 
of his familiarity with the condi- 
tions in the Philippine Islands 
Cuba, and Panama, which to 
great extent commanded the at 
tention of the department at '. 
that time. Gen. Wright is re- 
garded as a leader in his profe- 
sion, not only in the South, but j 
throughout the country. In all 
the important positions which 
he has held he distinguished 
himself by his able conduct of 
affairs under his control, and 
his signal fidelity in carrying 
out the policies of the adminis- 
tration. During his service in the Philippines 
he won the regard of the army to a high 
degree, and his subsequent appointment as head 
of the war department was in accordance with 
the wishes of many distinguished officers. In 
I'm: 1 , the degree of LL.B., was conferred upon 
him by Hamilton College. In politics Gen. Wright 
is a Gold Democrat. He was married Dec. 15, 
1869, to Kate, daughter of Raphael Semmes, 




OF AMKHICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



21 



admiral of the Conferderate navy, and has five 
children: Kldridge, Anna, Luke E., Serames and 
Katrina Wright. Gen. Wright's three sons served 
in the Spanish- American war. 

KNOX, Philander Chase, attorney-general. (See 
p. 408.) 

MOODY, William Henry, attorney-general, was 
born on a farm at Xewbury, Essex co., Mass., Dec. 
23, 1853, son of Henry L. and Melissa Augusta 
Emerson Moody. The family is old and very 
substantial in New England, many of its members 
taking to literature, domestic economies, evangelism 
and the ministry. Some had been sailors and 
some farmers. The founder in the colonies was 
William Moody, a native of Wales, who with his 
wife and one son settled at Newbury in 1635. 
He was a worker at iron short, powerful and 
strong-willed. From him sprang an unusually large 
number of able and intrepid ministers. The line 
of descent in traced through William's son, Samuel, 
and his wife Mary Cutting; their son William, 
and his wife Mehitabel Sewall; their son Deacon 
Samuel, and his wife Judith Hale; their son Capt. 
Paul, and his wife , and their son William, 
and his wife Abigail Titcomb, who were the grand- 
parents of Wiliam H. Moody. The subject of 
this sketch was graduated at Phillips (Andover) 
Academy, in 1872 and at Harvard College in 1876. 
He was brilliant, but not persistent, in school, 
and loved out-door sports, especially base ball, 
Upon leaving college he took up the study of law 
in the office of Richard H. Dana, of Boston. In 
1878 he applied for examination for admission to 
the bar, but the committee, learning that he had 
spent only eighteen months in law-study declined 
to examine him, because the customary course of 
training was three years. He insisted upon being 
heard and when the test was over the committee 
asserted that young Moody was the best prepared 
student they ever had examined. He began 
the practice of his profession in Haverhill, and 
his business soon became large and reasonably 
profitable. His first political office was that of 
city solicitor, which he filled with universal satis- 
faction during 1888-90. He was then elected 
United States district attorney for the eastern 
district of Massachusetts, serving until Gen. Wil- 
liam Cogswell, member of congress from the 
sixth Massachusetts district, died in 1895. He 
was elected to the 54th congress, and was re- 
elected in 1896, 1898, and 1900. In congress he 
served on the committees on appropriations, ex- 
penditures in the department of justice, insular 
affairs, transporation of mails, and special com- 
mittees. He was especially valued on the com- 
mitee on appropriations because of the thoroughness 
with which he mastered the details of its very 
great number of items and his preparedness to 
answer inquiries concerning them made on the 
floor of the House. He very ably opposed making 
the coast and geodetic survey an appendage of the 
military establishment, giving the most convincing 
reasons heard in the House for his position. He 
drew the provision which became a law that pre- 
vents the federal departments from establishing 
pension lists for incompetent clerks, and he favored 
the bill which provides for our eight-hour day on 
government work. All of his debates were clear 
and decisive in form and full of facts. On May 
1, 1902, when John D. Long resigned as secretary 
of the navy, Mr. Moody was appointed by Pres. 
Roosevelt to be his successor. In the navy depart- 
ment his first move was one which transferred 
mere routine duties to subordinates. He advised 
the establishment of an ample naval base at Guan- 
tonamo, Porto Rico, in order to give to the United 




States more easy mastery of the Caribbean Sea, 
and the Panama canal when built. Ho established 
a naval base at Subig Bay, in the Philippines; 
he induced congress to double the number of cadet 
appointments to the United States Naval Academy 
at Annapolis in order to provide competent officers 
for the increasing number of new ships that is 
being added to the navy; he secured the establish- 
ment of the first joint army and navy board for 
the purpose of simplifying and harmonising the 
work and operations of these iwo brunettes of 
national defense and he conceive. 1 and put into 
practice the plan of a squadron formation to take 
the place of individual cruises by the various 
warships. On July 1, 1904, 
when Philander C. Knoxtook 
Quay's place in the United 
States senate, Mr. Moody suc- 
ceeded him as attorney-gen- 
eral. In this office he found 
a number of extremely im- 
portant cases pending. Like 
his predecessor, he personally 
appeared before the courts in 
most of them and was very 
successful ; and he inaugurat- 
ed the practice of having a 
representative of the depart- 7 J 
ment participate in every case r* 
that involved the general wel- 
fare. While prosecuting the 
beef trust cases at Chicago, 
he coined the now popular ex- 
pression of ' ' immunity bath , " 
which was interred to ridi- V^ vlAAOwn, "} >W CTJV^W 
cule the theor iV >e de- ' O 

fondants that : ">n could avoid punish- 

ment for wrong-doing * its officers should 

go to Washington now a.. ~nd make con- 

fession. He said to the cou.,,. "Washington 
will become the Alsatia to which they can resort 
for immunity for their offenses. Instead of running 
away from a subpoena they will run toward the 
government agent and serve a confession on him. 
Washington will become a great resort not only in 
winter but in summer. All the people who are 
violating the laws may go there at intervals and 
obtain immunity. Thus the law under which we 
are acting becomes a license to commit crime. 
Now I can fancy these gentlemen gathering at 
Washington. I see Mr. Swift and Mr. Armour 
en route to Washington and meeting there other 
magnates who have been washed in this immunity 
bath." He secured a decision from the U. S. 
supreme court to the effect that officers of a corpora- 
tion can not refuse to testify on the plea that they 
may incriminate the corporation and that they can- 
not withhold books and papers from investigation 
in proper legal proceedings. He secured a decision 
which broke up what was known as "peonage" 
in the south and also one requiring all railways 
to equip their rolling stock with safety couplers. 
At this same time he carried on preliminary in- 
vestigations into the paper trust, tobacco trust, 
salt trust, fertilizer trust, drug trust and numerous 
other combinations in restraint of trade that were 
believed or have since been shown to be in violation 
of the Sherman anti-trust law or the Elkins rate 
law. He also instituted in 1906 the famous suit 
of the government against the Standard Oil Co. 
Upon the retirement of Justice Henry B. Brown, 
on Dec. 17, 1906, Mr. Moody was selected by 
Pres. Roosevelt to be an associate justice of the 
U. S. supreme court. He is unmarried, and like 
the first of his line in America, is stocky, muscular 
and rather short. He is fond of horseback riding 
and literature. 



22 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




BONAPARTE, Charles Joseph, attorney-gener- 
al, was born in Baltimore, Md., June 9, 1851, son 
of Jerome Napoleon and Susan May (Williams) Bon- 
aparte. His ancestry is unusually picturesque and 
interesting. His grandfather was Jerome Bonaparte, 
brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who entered the 
French navy in 1800. While on a cruise in 1S03 
he visited the United States, and in Baltimore met 
and fell in love with Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Patterson, a native of Ulster, at that time one 
of the wealthiest citizens of Maryland. Y'oung 
Bonaparte was then under nineteen and Miss 
Patterson eighteen years 
of age. In due time the 
couple became betrothed, 
but Napoleon doggedly 
opposed the union, which 
nevertheless took place in 

TV " ; " -mLJ. I, Baltimore, in December, 

1803. The emperor sent 
word to his brother that 
he must return to France, 
leaving the " young per- 
son " behind, and that if he 
should obey, all would be 
forgiven; but if he should 
undertake to bring this 
"person" with him, she 
would not be allowed to set 
foot upon French soil. Not 
'regarding this threat as 
irrevocable, the young 
couple sailed for France 
late in March, 1805. On reaching port the hus- 
band went ashore and proceeded to Paris to plead 
his cause with the emperor while the ship bearing 
Elizabeth sailed for Amsterdam. Two French 
men-of-war intercepted the young woman's pro- 
gress and she was taken to England, where, very 
soon afterwards, at Camberwell, on July 7, 1805, 
Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte w r as born. Napoleon 
appealed to Pope Pius VII, for an annulment of 
the marriage with Miss Patterson, but without 
success. The French council of state then declared 
the marriage null, and the young bride never saw 
her husband again. After a time she returned 
to Baltimore. Jerome Bonaparte was subse- 
quently elected king of Westphalia and on Aug. 
12, 1807, he married Catherine Frederika. princess 
of Wurtemberg. Elizabeth Patterson, sustained 
by the great wealth of her father, employed every 
available means to maintain the legality of her 
marriage and the legitimacy of her son. Jerome, 
now having children by Princess Katherine, 
appealed to the council of state to prohibit "Jerome 
Patterson" from assuming the name Bonaparte, 
and while the decision was adverse, it held that 
the youth could not be considered as a legal mem- 
ber of the imperial family. Upon the death of 
Jerome Bonaparte in I860 Elizabeth and her son 
brought suit for a share of his estate. The courts 
decided that she was not entitled and should not 
receive any portion of this estate, but declared 
that her son Jerome was entitled to the name 
of Bonaparte. He was ordered or " advised " to 
sue for the hand of the daughter of his uncle, 
Joseph Bonaparte, but refused to do this, and 
married the daughter of Benjamin Williams, a 
native of Roxbury, Mass., but for many years a 
well known merchant of Baltimore. He left 
two sons, Jerome Napoleon, born in Baltimore 
on Nov. 5, 1830, and Charles Joseph, the subject 
of this sketch. The latter was graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1871, and at the Harvard law 
school in 1874. Immediately he began the practice 
of his profession in Baltimore. He was one nf the 
.earliest and most active champions of civil sen ice 



reform, and the value of his services in this direc- 
tion has been universally recognized. He was 
chairman of the council of the National Civil Ser- 
vice Reform League and held the office until he 
entered Pres. Roosevelt's cabinet in 1905. Believ- 
ing that the most fruitful source of civic corruption 
and maladministration was to be found in city 
governments, he promoted the organization of 
the National Municipal League, of which he is 
president, and he has been from the first a member 
of the executive committee of the National Civic 
Federation. The object of the National Civil 
Service Reform League is to extend the merit 
system to all civil appointments state and munic- 
ipal as well as national. The purpose of the 
National Municipal League, which is an organiza- 
tion formed by the union of local city associations 
throughout the country, is the improvement of 
municipal government. It takes no part in state 
or national politics or contests, but, regardless of 
political parties, confines its efforts strictly to city 
government. In 1902 Mr. Bonaparte became a 
member of the board of Indian commissioners, in 
which he served two years. In 1904 he was the 
only Republican presidential elector chosen by 
the voters of the state of Maryland. During that 
year he reviewed for the government the charges 
of "graft" in the management of certain branches 
of the post-office department and reported in 
favor of reforms and prosecutions which were 
subsequently carried out. On July 1, 1905, he 
was appointed secretary of the navy to succeed 
I'aul Morton. The country being at peace with 
the world and as there was nothing warlike con- 
nected with the management of the navy depart- 
ment Mr. Bonaparte directed his energies toward 
improving and hamonizing bureau administration. 
After a careful examination of the situation in 
comparison with like features of foreign navies, 
he drafted a bill "to increase the efficiency of the 
personnel of the line of the navy of the United 
States." His investigation disclosed that the 
grade of captain, which was reached in foreign 
navies at the age of thirty-two to forty-two years 
was not reached in our navy until fifty-five, and 
that the average age of American sea-going flag 
officers was fifty-nine years. His bill to remedy this 
weakness was not adopted, but it opened a field of 
discussion which proved of much benefit to the ser- 
vice. He succeeded William II. Moody as attorney- 
general on Dec. 17, 1906. His administration was 
notable for the extent of his personal participation in 
the work of the department of justice. In this 
position of attorney-general his duties were num- 
erous, complex and important, embracing prosecu- 
tions of the Standard Oil Co., the sugar trust, 
various railway corporations and the New York 
"World" for libelling the government in its dis- 
cussions of the methods resorted to in acquiring 
the Panama canal, as well as watching the legal 
aspects of affairs in Cuba, Panama and the Phil- 
ippines and the assaults of certain states upon the 
unity obligation of the government. During 
his incumbency he took part in fifty-six cases 
in the supreme court, which is probably more 
than twice as many cases, in proportion to time, 
than were argued personally by any one of his 
immediate predecessors. Of these cases thirty- 
eight were decided favorably to the government 
and sixteen unfavorably, two remaining undecided. 
Mr. Bonaparte also rendered 135 opinions, all 
except three being given personally, and all being 
carefully revised, corrected, and signed by him, 
and a large proportion prepared by him alone. 
When he organized the detective force of special 
agents, he required a summary of the daily re- 
ports of each agent to be prepared and submitted 



OF AMERICAN UK HIK.U'II V. 



23 



to him every day. In short, he tried to runt ml 
and direct, in every way -possible, the details of 
work in his department, and he is reported to 
have said that he wished to make his own mistakes, 
as he felt responsible for mistakes made by every- 
body in the department. The change did not 
meet with universal approval in the department, 
and although it is generally conceded that Mr. 
Bonaparte was courteous and considerate towards 
his subordinates, and has apparently wished to 
give them credit for good work, some dissatisfac- 
tion was expressed at his interference with their 
initiative. At the end of Roosevelt's administra- 
tion lie resumed the practice of law in Baltimore. 
While a member of the cabinet he was a fairly 
consistent eivil service reformer: he exercised his 
own powers of patronage with little, if any, re- 
gard for personal or political considerations and, 
so far as known, has been interested in but a 
single appointment by the president, the nomina- 
tion of Mr. \V. Hall Harris as postmaster of Balti- 
more. A somewhat marked feature of his char- 
acter is his apparent complete indifference to news- 
paper criticism or unfavorable comments from 
any source, and the impression he has left among 
those brought in contact with him is that of an 
industrious and conscientious man, not readily 
understood, with peculiar tastes and few sym- 
pathies. Mr. Bonaparte was for twelve years an 
overseer of Harvard University and is regarded 
as one of the foremost Catholic layman of the 
country. In 1903 he was awarded the Laetare 
medal by Notre Dame University, and he is a, 
trustee of the Catholic University of America, at 
Washington, D. C. He has been active in national 
political contests and in Maryland opposed con- 
stitutional restrictions upon the suffrage and in 
favor of pure elections. On Sept. 1, 1875, he was 
married to Ellen Channing, daughter of Thomas 
Mills Day, of Newport, R. I. They have no chil- 
dren. 

PAYNE, Henry Clay, merchant and post- 
master-general, was born at Ashfield, Mass., Nov. 
23, 1843, son of Orrin Pierre and Eliza Etta (Ames) 
Payne. His ancestors were among the earliest 
settlers of Braintree, Mass., and several of them 
served in the revolution. He was educated at 
Shelburne Falls, Mass., receiving excellent academic 
training. In 1863, after being rejected as a soldier, 
he removed to Milwaukee, Wis., and entered the 
wholesale dry goods house of Sherwin, Nowell & 
Pratt. About five years later the competition of 
greater aggregations of capital led him to take up 
the insurance business, in which he was very suc- 
cessful. He was postmaster of Milwaukee during 
1875-85. He made the Milwaukee office one of the 
models of the nation and did more than any other 
person to develop and perfect the administration of 
the money-order branch especially that which 
dealt with foreign countries. He entered actively 
into politics at an early age and finally became one of 
the most sagacious managers in the country, having 
formed one of the most perfect political machines 
that had ever been known. He also gave a great 
deal of attention to the business side of polities. He 
was for years secretary and chairman of the Wis- 
consin Republican state central committee; was for 
a quarter of a century a member of the Republican 
national committee (1880-1904), and was for eight 
years chairman of the executive committee; four 
years vice-president of the national committee and, 
after the death of Sen. Hanna, its chairman. His 
wide knowledge of the grafters and heelers of his 
party enabled him to cheek the disbursement of 
money for futile and illegitimate purposes. Upon 
le-aving the Milwaukee post office he embarked 
actively in timber-land, telephone, townsite, street 



railway, electric and gas light, municipal henimv. 
banking and olhrr business enterprise'.,, in .-ill (J f 
which he was uniformly successful. 11<- a :i|i 
pointed one of the thn-e receivers of the Northern 
I'acilic railway in l.s'.(3, and engaged actively in 
administering its affairs for nearly three years, 
going through the trying litigation and vituperation 
lhat grew out of Ihe injunction issued by Judge 
.li'iikin* io prevent the employees from striking. In 
19UU he advocated Ihe adopiion of a plan to lia-e 
representation in Republican national conventions 

upon th" Republican vote cast for president instead 

of upon population, but the clamor against it which 
aro-c in the South led him to abandon the efforl to 
carry it into practice. lie at first favored the 
nomination of Elihu Root for vice-president on the 
ticket with McKinley in 1'JOO, but as M . Itoot 
thought that he ought to remain in the cabinet as 
secretary of war, he turned his attention to Theodore 
Roosevelt, then governor of New York. Mr. Roose- 
velt wrote to Mr. Payne that he preferred the ollice 
of governor to that of vice-president and Mr. Payne 
made two special journeys to Albany for the pur- 
pose of bringing about a change of mind. When he 
found that he could not convert Mr. Roosevelt he 
deliberately set about solidifying the western dele- 
gations in behalf of his plan. He knew that nomi- 
nating him for vice-president would strengthen the 
national ticket in the West and make New York 
safely Republican in the East. Mr. Roosevelt be- 
came president in September, 1901, and Charles 
Emory Smith having resigned the portfolio of 
postmaster general, Mr. Payne was selected to fill 
the vacancy in his cabinet. At this time Mr. Payne 
was not in good health. He had returned shortly 
before from an extended cruise in the Mediter- 
ranean only slightly improved; but as he loved 
the postal administration, he accepted the appoint- 
ment gladly. He took keen delight in quietly 
bringing about administrative reforms that ga\e 
better service to the public and lighter burdens to 
employes and taxpay- 
ers. He concluded par- 
cels post conventions 
with Japan, Germany 
and several other na- 
tions; organized the 
postal service into fifteen 
"battalions," and the 
rural free delivery into 
eight "battalions, each 
with its own head ; gave 
literature for the blind 
free transmission through 
the mails and made nu- 
merous improvements hi 
the administration of 
city post offices. He 
undertook to place letter 
boxes on the street cars 
of the entire country, 




that to do so would 
make the street car lines 
United States mail routes and therefore interfere 
with their prerogatives of tying them up by strikes, 
that he was compelled to abandon this exceedingly 
meritorious plan for giving much belter service' Io 
the public. He had not been long an incumbent of 
the post office department before charges of mal- 
feasance in office on the part of old and trusted 
employees began to appear. An investigation was 
decided upon, to be conducted by the postmaster- 
general through his fourth assistant (see Bristow. 
Joseph I..' Wonderfully successful in business an. I 
politics, the one ambition of his life was to be 



24 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



postmaster-general. He was urged to be a candi- 
date for U. S. senator and the West would have 
supported him for vice-president in 1900, but Mr. 
Payne believed he possessed no peculiar fitness for 
any office except that of postmaster-general, and 
declined all tenders only to reach the goal of his 
ambition just as health was breaking, and to find the 
office the theatre of turmoil, crimination and revo- 
lution. He called the Republican national con- 
vention to order at Chicago, June 21, 1904, and then 
went on a second cruise for the benefit of his shat- 
tered health. He was married at Mount Holly, 
N. J., Oct. 15, 1867, to Lydia Wood, daughter of 
Richard Van Dyke of New York city, but left no 
children. Sec'y John Hay said of Mr. Payne that 
he had never met a man of more genuine honesty 
and integrity, a man absolutely truthful and fear- 
less in his expressions of what he believed to be true. 
He was a man of such remarkable uprightness and 
purity of character that, judging other people by 
himself, he was slow to believe evil of anyone. 
Pres. Roosevelt said of Mr. Payne that he was 
"the sweetest, most lovable and most truthful man 
I ever knew." He died in Washington, Oct. 4, 1904. 
WYNNE, Robert John, postmaster -general, 
was born in New York city, Nov. 18, 1851, son 
of John and Mary Wynne. The family of Wynne 
is descended from the ancient Welsh sept of 
the Geraldines through the Wyddel (meaning 
"the Irishman") who obtained a great holding 
of land in Merionette county, Wales, soon after 
1200. The names Robert and John appear con- 
stantly in the family line backward through eight 
hundred years. Being thrown upon his own re- 
sources early in life, young Robert Wynne, after 
attending the public schools of his native city 
removed to Philadelphia, Pa., and learned teleg- 
raphy. In 1870 he secured employment with the 
Hankers and Brokers' Telegra pi i I'oaipany : | MI | i n a 
few years became chief operator of the Atlantic- and 
Pacific Telegraph < 'o. The operations of the " news 
wire" awoke an interest in newspaper work and in 
1880 he went to Washington, I). ('.. to become as- 
sistant correspondent under Gen. Henry V. Boynton 
of the Cincinnati "Gazette." He was private 
secretary of Charles Foster, secretary of the treas- 
ury under Pres. Harrison during l.s'.tl '.>'>, and on 
the accession of Grover Cleveland to the presidency, 
he returned to journalism, 




as Washington correspondent 
of the Cincinnati "Tribune" 



and Philadelphia "Bulletin," 
confining his writings largi ly 
to finance-, the tanll and 
national politics. liis arti- 
cles on these subjects led to 
an exclusive engagement up- 
on the New York "Pr--s" 
as Washington correspond- 
ent. In the spring of 1902 
he was appointed first as- 
sistant postmaster-general. 
Mr. Wynne had not been 
long an incumbent of the 
office before friction devel- 
oped between himself and 
some of the chiefs and super- 
intendents under him, such as 
August W. Machen, chief of 
the division of free delivery 
andGeorgeW. Beavers, super- 
intendent of the division of salaries and allowances. 
This friction led first to the preferment of charges 
against Mr. Wynne which, however, were not sus- 
tained, and then to the noted general post-office 
investigation which was conducted by Joseph L. 
Bristow (q.v.), fourth assistant postmaster-general. 



After the death of Postmaster-General Payne, Mr. 
Wynne succeeded to the office and continued until 
March 4, 1905, when he became consul-general to 
Great Britain. The office of consul-general to 
Great Britain is the most important in that grade 
of the consular service and for many years was the 
most lucrative position of the kind in the world, 
the income varying from $80,000 to $100,000 per 
year. By the act of April 5, 1906, the consul- 
general was required to convert all the fees received 
in his office into the treasury, and his salary was 
li\ed at $12,000 per year. While the position is 
devoid of diplomatic functions (except by special 
order of the government) and therefore is wanting 
in particular social distinction, it is regarded as 
very desirable. Mr. Wynne is a member of the 
Loyal Legion and Army and Navy Club. He was 
married July 7, 1875, in Washington, D. C., to 
Mary Mc< 'abe. 

MEYER, George von Lengerke, postmaster- 

general. (See p. 413.) 

LONG, John Davis, secretary of the navy. (See 
Vol. XL. p. 15). 

MORTON, Paul, secretary of the navy and 
president of the Equitable Life Assurance Society, 
was born at Detroit, Mich., May 22, 1857, son of 
Julius Sterling and Caroline Joy (French) Morton. 
The first Morton of his family in America was 
Richard Morton, a Puritan blacksmith and general 
ironmaster of Scotch birth, who came to America 
in the middle of the seventeenth century, settling 
first at Hartford, Conn., and re- 
moving to Ilatfield, Mass., in 1668. 
Thence the Mortons spread to Ver- 
mont, whence came Vice-Pres. 
Levi P. Morton. From Richard 
the line of descent is traced 
through Abraham, Samuel, Abner 
Aimer, ami Julius Dewey, who was 
the grandfather of Paul Morton 
\lmer Morton, 2d, was graduated 
at Dartmouth College in 1790; his 
son. Julius Dewey, became a 
hanker and was for years the head 
of the Farmers' and Mechanics' 
Bank at Detroit; his grandson, 
Julius Sterling Morton (q.v.), be- 
came one of the founders of Ne- 
braska ( 'ity, editor, historian, poli- 
i ic.il economist, and was secretary 
of agriculture in the cabinet of 
Pres. Cleveland. He is the ori- 
ginator of Arbor Day. His son Paul, on finish- 
ing the public schools of Nebraska City (1872) 
and before he was sixteen years, became a clerk 
in the land office of the Burlington and Missouri 
liiver railroad at Burlington. la. Here he remained 
about two years when he removed to Chicago and 
entered the general freight office of the Chicago, 
Burlington and Quincy railroad as clerk. He was 
steadily promoted in the administrative department; 
from there was transferred to the executive depart- 
ment; was assistant general freight agent and 
general passenger agent, and when he left the 
company's employ in 1890 was general freight 
agent of the entire C. B. & Q. system. In 1890 he 
became vice-president of the Colorado Fuel and Iron 
Co., and during 1890-96 was also president of the 
White Breast Fuel Co. After a period of six years 
in the coal business, in 1896 Mr. Morton became 
third vice-president of the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe railroad, two years later was promoted 
to second vice-president, and for eight years he 
had general charge of the road's entire traffic. The 
exigencies of his business necessitated his traveling 
more than .">(),( Hilt miles a year, and as a result Mr. 




OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



25 



Morton has a very wide personal acquaintance 
all over the United States. Although constantly 
meeting new names and faces, he has a wonderful 
memory for recalling any one whom he has once 
met, and this fact, added to his practice of always 
treating people politely and with uniform courtesy, 
has made him one of the best known and most 
popular of America's prominent men. He has 
probably as wide a circle of acquaintances as any 
individual in the United States. Mr. Morton voted 
the Democratic ticket regularly until 1S96, when 
the wave of Bryanism swept his party from its old 
moorings. In that year he voted for McKinley, 
and ever since he has been an adherent of the 
Republican party. On July 1, 1904, Pres. Roosevelt 
appointed him to be secretary of the navy as the 
successor of William H. Moody, and he remained 
in the cabinet until July 1, 1905. The choice of 
Mr. Morton to be secretary of the navy came about 
in a very interesting manner. The federal admin- 
istration had been putting forth strenuous efforts 
to compel the great railway systems of the country 
to obey the Elkins law against granting rebates 
or making secret rates, but without success. In 
the hearings undertaken by the interstate commerce 
commission for the purpose of securing evidence 
to put a stop to these rebates, Mr. Morton, then 
vice-president of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa 
F6 railway, gave testimony which enabled the 
government to make its first successful moves 
against rate discriminations. As all of the other 
leading railway managers either refused to testify 
or professed to be ignorant of rebating, Mr. Mor- 
ton's course made a profound impression upon 
Pres. Roosevelt, who, to show in a marked way his 
appreciation of such fearless and manly conduct, 
invited him to fill the first vacancy that occurred 
in his cabinet that of secretary of the navy. It 
was in the government's case against the Atchison, 
Topekaand Santa Fe-f or granting rebates after being 
enjoined by the Federal court from so doing, while 
Mr. Morton w-as vice-president of it, that Pres. 
Roosevelt was led to oppose proceeding against 
railway managers for contempt unless there were 
evidence to show the actual personal participation 
of such managers in the acts which constituted the 
contempt. As a part of the reorganization which 
followed the general insurance investigation by the 
New York legislature in 1906, Mr. Morton was select- 
ed by the directors to be president of the Equitable 
Life Assurance Society of the United States, the 
salary of which position is $80,000 per annum. 
In an address before the annual meeting of insur- 
ance executives held in New York in December, 
1908, Mr. Morton told how much Grover Cleveland as 
chairman of the trustees had done to restore 
orderly administration to insurance affairs and 
confidence to the policy-holders of the entire 
country. He also presented a plan, which was 
adopted, for a general meeting of insurance execu- 
tives and state insurance commissioners for the 
purpose of formulating uniform rates and methods 
of taxation and reducing such taxation where it is 
exorbitant, for the reason that every cent of it 
comes out of the policy-holders a specially worthy 
class who are thus compelled to contribute unduly 
to the support of state governments. Mr. Morton 
was married in Chicago, 111., Oct. 13, 1880, to 
Charlotte, daughter of Mrs. C. L. Goodridge, and 
has two daughters: Caroline, wife of William ('. 
Potter, and Pauline, wife of J. Hopkins Smith. 

METCALF, Victor Howard, secretary of the 
navy, was born in Utica, Oneida Co., X. Y., Oct. 
10, "1853, son of William and Sarah P. (Howard) 
Metcalf. His preliminary education was obtained 
in the public schools of Utica, the Utica Free 



Academy, and Russell's Military Institute at 
New Haven, Conn. In 1872 he matriculated at 
Yale College but at the end of his junior year 
entered the Yale law school where he was graduated 
in 1876. He was also graduated in the law 
department of Hamilton College in 1S77. During 
his college vacations he studied law in the oliirr-; 
of Francis Kernan and Horatio and John I . 
Seymour, then the most prominent lawyers of that 
region. In 1870 he was admitted to practice 
before the supreme court of Connecticut, and in 1877 
before the supreme court of New York. After 
practicing two years at Utica, in 1879, he moved 
to the Pacific coast settling at Oakland, ( '.-d , 
which has ever since been his home. In 18S1 hi; 
formed a law partnership with George D. Met 
calf, under the style of Metcalf & Metcalf, to which 
came a large share of the litigation involving prop- 
erty and industrial interests. He also assumed 
an active part in politics and became prominent in 
Republican party councils. In 1898 he was 
elected to congress as a Republican and was 
reflected in 1900 and again in 1902. Having 
become especially interested in and more or less 
familiar with naval matters, Mr. Metcalf gave most 
of his attention in congress to navy legislation. 
He served some time on the committee on naval 
affairs and in the 58th congress led the movement 
to have some of the battleships and cruisers built. 
in government navy yards, the value of the plants 
and equipments of which he showed to be nearly 
$80,000,000. During his second and third terms 
he was a member of the committee of ways and 
means. He was a strong advocate for the pro- 
tection of the sugar interests of the United States 
and led the opposition in the house against 
reciprocity with Cuba. While a member of the 
house he was frequently consulted by Pres. Roose- 
velt in matters of legislation, and at his request 
took active charge of the bill for the reclamation 
of arid lands. There was very strong opposition 
to the measure in the house, and it was largely 
due to his efforts that the bill passed. On July 1, 
1901, he was appointed by Pres. Roosevelt to 
succeed George B. Cortelyou as secretary of com- 
merce and labor, and served in that position until 
Dec. 17, 1906, engaged largely 
in carrying forward work al- 
ready undertaken or ordered 
by congress. One of the most 
informing of his special reports 
is that made in 1905 on the 
probable effect of enacting in- 
to law a bill to restrict a day's 
labor to eight hours on all 
government work and all 
work let by the government to 
private contractors. The prob 
able tendency toward illegality 
in at least some of its fea- 
tures was shown in the effect 
it could have upon a locomo- 
tive works employing 15,000 
men, only 1 to 5 per cent, of 
whom, on the average, per- 
formed work upon government 
contracts and yet all of whom, 
especially the night shifts, 
though engaged upon contracts for foreign govern- 
ments or the production of goods for foreign mar- 
ket^, would have their hours of labor restricted. 
While the printing in his department increased 300 
per cent he was able, by the appointment of a cen- 
tral board of editors and revisers, endowed with 
authority to condense and eliminate duplications, to 
reduce the total cost by a very large per cent and 
to turn back into the treasury more than $100,000 of 




26 



Till: NATIONAL CYC .OP.EDIA 



the appropriation for printing. He reduced the ex- 
penses of his department by over $300,000 in one 
year. He gave renewed approval of the plan for pro- 
viding federal license for corporations doing an inter- 
state business and showed how the erection of a build- 
ing by the government for housing the numerous bu- 
reaus of his department would effect a large annual 
saving. He caught and to some extent broke up 
the operations of the -Japanese trespassers upon the 
Alaskan salmon fisheries. He organized the 
bureau of manufactures and established a corps 
of skilled special agents sent abroad to investigate 
trade and market. He also reorganized the daily 
consular and trade reports, and the steamboat 
inspection service, and made many reforms in the 
bureau of immigration. At the instance of Pres. 
Roosevelt he went to San Francisco in April, 1906, 
at the time of the earthquake and fire, and rendered 
a full report on the conditions there. In October, 1906 
he was also sent by the president to California to 
investigate the circumstances surrounding the 
exclusion of Japanese students from the public 
schools by the San Francisco school board and 
made two reports, one of which gave an exhaustive 
account of the entire Japanese movement on the 
Pacific coast and served as a guide in the subsequent 
steps taken by the federal government to adjust 
that annoying difficulty and keep its treaty engage- 
ments strictly to the letter. Although that report 
expressed no opinion, but merely stated facts, 
it impaired Mr. Metcalf's popularity on the Pacific 
coast, because it placed in the hands of the govern- 
ment the real facts of the case disentangled from 
the aspects and purposes of local politics. Before 
he left it the department had increased its personnel 
to 9,800. He was appointed secretary of the navy 
Dec. 17, 1906, to succeed Charles J. Bonaparte, and 
served in that capacity until Dec. 1, 1908, when, 
owing to continued ill health, he resigned and 
returned to California. During his incumbency 
the most remarkable naval cruise known was 
projected and carried out that of a fleet of the 
sixteen battleships with auxiliaries steaming 
around Cape Horn to San Francisco, stopping at 
leading ports on both sides of the hemisphere, and 
then preceding to Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand, 
Japan, China, the Philippine islands, and passing 
through the Suez canal, visiting Italy and Gibraltar 
and thence across the Atlantic, home. The distance 
covered exceeded 46,000 miles. The sailors of 
the fleet, sometimes to the number of 8,000 paraded 
in a dozen different countries and the officers were 
banquetted by the officials of a dozen different 
governments. The fleet left Hampton Roads, 
Dec. 16, 1907, and ended the cruise there on Feb. 
22, 1909. When Mr. Metcalf resigned the navy 
contained 300 sea-going craft fit and ready for 
service twenty-five of them first-class battle- 
ships; forty protected or armored cruisers, and 
the remainder torpedo boats and miscellaneous 
craft. He left with thirty-eight vessels under 
construction six of them first-class battleships; 
two armored cruisers and fifteen torpedo boat 
destroyers. Mr. Metcalf was married at Oakland, 
C;il.. April 11, 1882, to Emily Corinne, daughter of 
John H. Nicholson, and has two children. 

NEWBERRY, Truman Handy, secretary of 
the navy, was born in Detroit, Mich., Nov. 5, 
1864, son of John Stoughton and Helen Parmelee 
(Handy) Newberry, and a descendant of Thomas 
Newberry, who with his wife Hannah, came from 
Devonshire, England, and settled in Dorchester, 
Mass., in 1625. In 1633-34 he purchased con- 
siderable land at Windsor, Conn., on which he 
erected a house. Among his descendants are 
Gen. Benjamin Newberry, who commanded the 



Connecticut militia in the King Philip war in 
1675-76; Gen. Roger Newberry who commanded 
in the Continental army during the revolution and 
was a leading member of the company which 
purchased the famous Western reserve, Ohio; 
John Strong Newberry, who was one of the founders 
of the National Academy of Science, organizer of 
the Geological Society of North America, father 
of the International Geological Association and 
recipient of the Murchison (English) medal in 
recognition of his paleontological researches; 
Oliver Newberry, who served in the war of 1812 
and western Indian wars, built the first steamboat 
on the upper Great Lakes, the Michigan, in 
1832, and founded some of the greatest industrial 
enterprises in the west, and Walter L. Newberry, 
one of the merchant princes of Chicago, who 
founded the magnificent Newberry Library in 
Chicago, at a cost of $4,000,000. Sec. Newberry's 
father, John S. Newberry (1825-87), was graduated 
at Michigan University in 1845, an 1 soon after- 
ward became a civil engineer for the Michigan 
Central railroad, laying out and constructing 
some of its important sections. In the meantime 
he studied law and began practicing that profes- 
sion in Detroit, where he became famous in ad- 
mirality and marine cases. In 1863 he joined 
James McMillan (later U. S. senator) in a con- 
tract to furnish cars to the United States military 
railways for use in the civil 
war. In this way the Michi- 
gan Car Co. was founded, 
which became the largest in 
the world. He was elected 
to congress in 1S7S, but de- 
clined a reelection because 
he could not be separated 
from his great business inter 
ests. He married the da i igli- 
ter of the wealthy and philan- 
thropic Cleveland, O., banker. 
Truman P. Handy. Truman 
Handy Newberry was edu- 
cated in the Michigan Mili- 
tary Academy at 'Orchard 
Lake, Charlier Institute in 
New York city, Reed's School 
at Lakeville, Conn., and Yale 
University, being graduated 
at the last in 1885. Im- 
mediately on leaving college, 
owing to the condition of his 
father's health, he was compelled to assist in the 
management of the Newberry interests, and has 
ever since been their director and successful head. 
In 1887 he was superintendent of construction, 
paymaster, and freight and passenger agent of 
the Detroit, Bay City and Alpena railroad, and 
succeeded his father as president of the Detroit 
Steel Spring Co., director in the Union Trust Co.. 
States Savings Bank, Union Elevator Co., Detroit 
Steel Casting Co., Parke, Davis and Co. (the 
largest drug-manufacturing firm in America), the 
Detroit Union Station and Depot Co., and Michigan 
State Telephone Co., and vice-president of Grace 
Hospital, founded by his father and Sen. McMillan 
jointly. In 1891 he was elected estimator-at- 
large for Detroit, an office peculiar to that city, 
the duties of which are to estimate the advisability 
of public improvements and the necessary cost 
thereof, a safeguard between estimates and appro- 
priations. In 1903 he undertook the formation of 
a body of naval militia, which resulted in 1894 
in the organization of the Michigan state naval 
brigade of which he was first landsman and then 
ensign on the staff of the first battalion, being 
promoted in 1895, to be lieutenant and navigating 




OF AMERICAN BIO 1 il{ AI'II Y. 



27 



and ordnance officer. In 1898 the Michigan 
national reserves offered their services in the war 
with Spain, and on Apr. 29, the entire body left 
Detroit for Newport News, Va., to man the cruiser 
Yosemite. They were not paper marines, for on 
June 28, the cruiser Yosemite forced the Spanish 
transport Antonio Lopez ashore, where she burned, 
and she was victorious in an engagement with three 
Spanish gunboats, which came out to assist the 
Lopez. In this naval service Mr. Newberry was 
lieutenant, junior grade, U. S. N. In 1905, he 
was appointed by Pres. Roosevelt to be assistant 
secretary of the navy, and served as such under 
Secretaries Bonaparte and Metcalf. In the absence 
of the secretary the assistant performs his duties 
and has all the secretary's powers and preroga- 
tives. Otherwise he has charge of the naval 
militia of the several states and controls all repairs 
to the ships of the navy, prescribing where and 
how they shall be made. He inspects navy goods 
and all vessels that are in commission, attends 
to all contract advertising and selects candidates 
for examination and enlistment in the marine. 
So successful was he in handling the details of 
the office according to modern business methods, 
that on the resignation of Sec. Metcalf, Dec. 1, 
1908, Mr. Newberry was promoted to succeed 
him, and served as secretory of the navy during 
the remainder of Roosevelt's term. The closing 
weeks of his administration were devoted to such 
a reorganization of the navy department and 
unification of navy-yard management and pur- 
chases as would eliminate cumbrous boards, 
divided and duplicated authority and friction 
between bureaus. He planned a general staff, 
similar to the general staff of the army, which 
should consider all matters of policy, tactics, and 
administration, and -act, as a sort of cabinet or 
advisory board to the secretary. In bringing 
this plan to a working basis without asking for 
new legislation from congress, he had the coopera- 
tive aid of Pres. Roosevelt and Sec. Root, and the 
assent of President-elect Taft. His idea was simply 
to make the land branch of the navy department 
a harmonious, quick-acting, and business-like 
body that should be always ready for emergencies, 
and able to practice every desirable economy. 
He was married at Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb. 7, 1888, 
to Harriet Josephine, daughter of Alfred S. Barnes, 
the publisher, and has three sons, Carol B., Barnes, 
and Phelps. He is a member of the Institute of 
Naval Architects, the Union, University, New 
York Yacht and St. Anthony Society clubs of 
New York, and Yondotega and Detroit clubs of 
Detroit. 

HITCHCOCK, Ethan Allen, secretary of the 
interior. (See Vol. XL, p. 16.) 

GABFIELD, James Rudolph, secretary of 
the interior, was born at Hiram, Portage CO., 
O.. Oct. 17, 1865, second son of James Abram 
and Lucretia (Rudolph) Garfield. During his 
father's congressional career he attended the 
schools of Uasliington, D. C. He continued his 
studies at St. Paul's School, Concord, N. H., and 
was graduated at Williams College, in 1SS5. His 
legal studies were begun in the law school of 
Columbia University, and continued in the office 
of Bangs & Stetson, in New York city. In 1888 
he was admitted to the Ohio bar, and entered 
practice in partnership with his elder brother. 
He was a member of the state senate in 1896-99, 
and was appointed on the U. S. civil service 
commission in 1902, retaining this position until 
February, 1903, when he became commissioner 
of corporations of the department of commerce 
and labor. He was the first incumbent of this 
office and was compelled to select a corps of workers 




and create appropriate schedules and methods of 
procedure in an entirely new and nmiplieaii'd 
field, which he did quickly and successfully. After 
the first year's investigation he reported that 
the system "amounted to anarchy, and th:ii 
the "net result, was thoroughly vicious." In 
this first report he recommended 
federal incorporation and license 
for such companies an idea 
which Pres. Roosevelt and other 
reformers afterwards adopted 
and advocated. In 1904 he con- 
ducted an investigation of the i 
packing industry, the report up- 
on which resulted in several 
indictments and the passage of 
a law creating a general system 
of meat and factory inspection 
and tagging. The next year he 
investigated and reported upon 
the petroleum industry, disclos- 
ing railroad discriminations in 
favor of the Standard Oil Co., 
which resulted in indictments 
containing many thousand 
counts and in a new law which 
opened all of the books and records of the railway 
companies to federal examination. The achieve- 
ments of Mr. Garfield in the bureau of corporations 
led Pres. Roosevelt to appoint him, Mar. 5, 1907, to 
succeed Ethan Allen Hitchcock as secretary of the 
interior. He at once made a reorganization of the 
department, abolishing the four divisions of Indian 
territory, Indian affairs, patents and miscellaneous, 
and lands and railroads, and distributing the duties 
they had attempted to perform to the proper 
bureaus. In this way the department files were 
consolidated, the labors of the secretary's office 
brought up to date, a system of inspection and 
reports inaugurated to synchronize the workings 
of all of the divisions and keep the secretary as 
well as his chiefs fully informed, and the efficiency 
of the bureaus and the department was greatly 
increased. There were about 17,000 officers, agent -, 
and clerks employed under Mr. Garfield, nearly 
4,000 of them in the department offices at Wash- 
ington. He instituted regular cabinet meetings 
with his chiefs, so as t9 keep the work in all divisions 
abreast, and in various other practical ways made 
the department a smooth-running and up-to-date 
piece of machinery, devoid of inefficency, graft, 
and corruption. Sec. Garfield served to the end of 
Pres. Roosevelt's administration. He is a member 
of the Metropolitan Club of Washington, the 
University Club of New York and the Union and 
Tippecanoe clubs of Cleveland, O. He was married 
in Chicago, III., Dec. 30, 1890, to Helen, daughter 
of John Newell, and has four sons. 

WILSON, James, agriculturist and secretary of 
agriculture, was born on a farm in Ayrshire, 
Scotland, Aug. 16, 1835, son of John and (Jean) 
Wilson. His father was a thrifty and intelligent 
producer of live stock, butter, and milk, who, 
believing himself fitted for wider opportunities, 
brought his family to America in 1852, and settled 
first in Connecticut and in 1855 removed to what 
is now Tama county, central Iowa. The Wilsons 
began at once to acquire live stock and to market 
meat and dairy products, selling no grain or 
fodder, but consuming it all upon the premises. 
The example thus set spread through that section 
and is still in practice, making Tama county and 
the country thereabout one of the wealthiest and 
up-to-date farming communities in the republic, 
and the best producer of high-grade meats in Iowa. 
James Wilson attended the public schools of Iowa 



28 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 



and Iowa College. He always loved and practiced 
agricultural pursuits and made a study of them 
as well as of general history. In 1861 he acquired a 
farm of his own in Tama county, which has since been 
much enlarged, and began that system of thorough 
and scientific fanning which has made his section 
famous, and has placed him in the foremost rank 
of American agriculturists. In 1867 he was elected 
to the general assembly, in which he served for 
three terms, and during the last of these as 
speaker. Finding that the transportation in- 
equalities and burdens of which Iowa was com- 
plaining, existed beyond rather than in the state, 
the people elected him to congress from the fifth 
district (Republican) in 1873, and he was reflected 
in 1875. His intimate knowledge of parliamentary 
law and practice soon brought him to the front, 
and he was many times called upon to preside over 
the committee of the whole house and in that posi- 
tion made some rulings which established new and 
valuable precedents. During his service the 
impeachment of William W. Belknap, secretary of 
war, was undertaken and the electoral commission 
was formed to count the votes of president in the 
Tilden-Hayes contest. He took a prominent part 
in the proceedings to prepare for the count of 
the contested electoral vote of 1876 especially 
for reaching recusant witnesses and fixing the 
order of business. His great knowledge of delibera- 
tive proceedings had been the means of placing him 
upon the committee on rules, and he brought in 
the rule by which business was to be regulated 
while the electoral vote was being ascertained and 
counted. At the end of his second term, in accord- 
ance with the Iowa rule, he retired to his farm. 
In the meantime the legislature of his state had 
created a railway commission for the purpose of 
investigating and reporting upon the transportation 
question, and Gov. Sherman appointed Mr. Wilson 
a member. His methods on that commission 
were cautious and conservative. After making 
sure of the facts in cases of unequal or unjust 
rates or classifications, he adopted the policy of 
making suggestions to the railway managers, and 
in essentially all cases these suggestions were 
favorably acted upon. His success in this direction 
led the people again to send him to congress. 
His opponent, B. Frederick, contested the election, 
and after a long and bitter fight, won by a party 
vote of the committee, but the house did not take 
up the resolution to unseat Mr. Wilson and seemed 
likely never to do so when, at the very close of the 
session, he agreed to vacate his seat voluntarily 
if the house would pass a bill placing Gen. Grant 
on the retired list with the grade of lieutenant- 
general. This proposition was accepted and Mr. 
Wilson again returned to his farm. He had 
begun to be looked up to as an authority on agri- 
cultural matters, and as soon as he reached home 
he was requested to write a weekly letter for a 
number of farm papers, a practice which continued 
regularly for ten years. In the meantime he had 
become a regent of the Iowa State University, 
and in 1891 was elected to the chair of practical 
agriculture in the Iowa College of Agriculture and 
director of the state experiment stations. He now 
became the greatest instrumentality for building 
up agricultural pursuits that Iowa, one of the 
world's marvels in soil-wealth and production, ever 
had. A volume would not suffice to give an out- 
line of his labors in spreading information upon 
feeding, breeding, cropping, marketing, butter and 
cheese-making, gardening and good living, and in 
this he continued until March, 1S97, when he was 
appointed secretary of agriculture under Pres. 
McKinley. He served during Roosevelt's adminis- 
tration and was reappointed by Pres. Taft in 




March, 1909. In the management of the depart- 
ment of agriculture he began with two cardinal 
rules to find the best markets for the products 
of the farm and to induce and teach the farmers 
to raise the very best examples of the articles that 
the markets wanted. At the beginning of his term 
the department employed 
2,444 persons; by March, 1909, 
this force had increased to 
nearly 11,000. The number 
of department publications in- 
creased from 424 to 1530, and 
their circulation from 6,541,- 
200 to 17,000,000 copies per 
annum. The department li- 
brary contains over 100,000 
volumes, appropriately classi- 
fied and carded. In 1897 
weather forecasts were tele- 
graphed to 1,896 distributing 
centers, from which they were 
sent to 51,960 addresses. In 
March, 1909, the forecasts 
were telegraphed to 2,334 cen- 
ters, from which they were sent 
by telephone, telegraph, rail- 
way train, rural free delivery, 
and otherwise, to 3,690,220 addresses. In addi- 
tion, there are the river, flood, evaporation, rain- 
fall and storm services, making this by all 
odds the greatest weather department in the 
world. At the close of his twelfth year in the 
cabinet Mr. Wilson prepared a review of the 
results of his labors, which embraced the following 
topics: Improved Financial Conditions, Change 
from Low to Profitable Prices, Agricultural Science, 
Plant and Animal Breeding, Farm Management, 
Soils and Their Treatment, Vegetable Pathology, 
Insect Pests, Useful Birds, Discoveries and Im- 
provements, Marketing Plant Products, Animal 
Industry, Crop Reporting, Agricultural Chemistry, 
Pure Food and Drugs, Road Improvement, Weather 
Service, Forest Service, Reclamation, Agricultural 
Education, Growth of the Department of Agri- 
culture, Results of Agricultural Science on Pro- 
duction, Increased Production per Acre, Diminish- 
ing Rate of Increase in Population, Wages of Farm 
Labor, Statistical Aspects of Progress, Farmers' 
Cooperation, Insurance Cooperation, Educational, 
Social, and Economic Associations, and the Farmer 
a Great Organizer. He has trained experts scouring 
the world for new seeds, plants, animals, and pest- 
destroying insects. The subject of pure food 
had from time to time aroused considerable 
attention, and had been the subject of study of 
the division of chemistry since 1881. The necessity 
for regulating the traffic in foods and establishing 
a standard of purity became more and more 
apparent during Mr. Wilson's administration, and 
the matter was finally disposed of when congress 
passed the drastic food and drugs act of June 
30, 1906. Under its provisions, no adulterated 
or misbranded foods are allowed to be imported 
or introduced in interstate commerce, and standards 
of purity are fixed for all kinds of animal, vegetable 
and manufactured foods. Heavy penalties are 
provided for its violation, and its enforcement 
had a most salutary effect in protecting consumers 
throughout the United States. The law is under 
the direction of the secretary of agriculture, who, 
in conjunction with the secretaries of the treasury 
'and commerce and labor, shall make uniform rules 
and regulations for carrying put its provisions. 
Laboratories were established in important ports 
and centers all over the country, which by a strict 
system of inspection enforce an adherence to the 
standards prescribed by the law. The department's 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



29 



inspectors made ante-mortem examination of 
54000.000 meat animals during 1'JOS, and post- 
mortem inspection of 53,000,000 of such animals 
and weighed and branded 6,000,000,000 pounds of 
dressed meats and food products, ilr. Wison has 



( IT) raoGU IHGO*la U.1-H-* J.vJv/*J f * ******* -". - 

reestablished the Morgan breed of horses; secured 
a crop of 60,000,000 bushels of the African durum 
wheat the highest protein content wheat raised; 
introduced new varieties of rice for the South; 
encouraged new strains of egg-producing hens, 
and introduced cover-beans for the rice fields, 
new varieties of alfalfa from Arabia, Sahara, 
Chili Turkestan and Peru (so that the 190 
crop' was worth $125,000,000), and new date 
palms dry-land olives and other new and profitable 
foods 'in great number. He has delivered lectures 
on practical farming in all parts of the United 
States visited the non-productive and extra- 
productive sections of the country for the benefit 
of other sections; he has promoted agricultural 
colleges experiment stations, farmers institutes, 
and agricultural high schools, and widened the 
markets for as well as the quality of farm products. 
In short, he has been wonderfully successful in 
the expansion and administration of the most 
useful public department in the world. During 
this incumbency Mr. Wilson has seen the agricultural 
balance of trade increase from 8234,000,000 to 
almost $425,000,000; the value of farm products 
expand more than 200 per cent; the number of 
farms grow from 4,600,000 to 6,100,000 and 
nearly all other agricultural products increase m 
quantity or vlaue in similar proportion. Although 
well past the allotted three score and ten years, 
he is in good health and strength, and puts in the 
full number of office hours every day in the year 
and keeps in close touch with every portion of the 
vast machinery of his office. He was married, May 
7, 1S63, to Miss Esther Wilbur, and had seven 
children. 

STRAUS, Oscar Solomon, secretary of com- 
merce and labor. (See Vol. X., p. 42.) 

BRISTOW, Joseph Little, senator, 

was born in Wolfe county, Ky., July 22, 1861, son 
of William and Savanah (Little) Bristow, grandson 
of Joseph H. and Ann (Smithers) Bristow, and great- 
Kreat-grandson of John Bristow, who came from 
Bristol England, about 1680 and settled in \ irgmia 
on the Rappahannock river near where Saluda is 
now situated. Both his father and grandfather 
were Methodist ministers. Young Bristow attended 
the public schools of Kentucky a-d Kansas his 
father having removed to that state in 1873. Before 
he went to college he was engaged in farmingin HJk 
county, Kan. He was graduated at Baker Univer- 
sity Baldwin, Kan, in 1886, receiving thedegreeof 
M.A in 1891. Immediately after graduating he 
was elected clerk of the district court of Dougla 
-ounty a position he held for four years. In 1890 
he bought the " Daily Republican" at Salma , Kan , 
and was its editor for five years. He was elected 
secretary of the Republican state committee in 
18)4, and was appointed private secretary to (,ov 
E N Morrill in 1895. In the latter year he sold the 
"Daily Republican" and bought the Ottawa 
(Kan ) Herald," which he owned for more than ten 
years In 1898 he was again elected secretary "I 
Republican state committee. Mr. Bristow was 
appointed fourth assistant postmaster general bj 
Pres. McKinley in March, 1897, and in this capacity 
three years later investigated the Cuban postal 
frauds. While the Americans were in charge ot t 
provisional government of Cuba, those entrust,,! 
with the administration of the department of posts 
of the island embezzled a large part of the poe 
receipts. The shortage was discovered by a n a n i . \ 
officer, Col. Burton, who began an investigation 



under the direction of Gen. Leonard Wood. Gen. 
Wood wired the president in regard to the embezzle- 
ment, and the president directed the postmaBter- 

general, Charles Emory Smith, to send Mr. Bri-t,.\v 
to Cuba to investigate thoroughly and to make 
whatever reorganization of the postal service was 
necessary. He was given absolute authority, and 
as a result of his investigation the director of posts 
and several other high officials wen- im|>ri oned 
Mr. Bristow then established a postal system on the 
island which practically remains intact to this time,. 
In 1903 Pres. Roosevelt designated him ID conduct 
a general investigation of the post office department 
under Postmaster-General Payne. This investiga- 
tion, lasting nearly a year, resulted in the exposure of 
a well-organized system of "graft" in the depart- 
ment, twenty-nine indictments by the grand jury, 
thirteen dismissals and over a half-dozen prominent 
convictions in the criminal courts. The results 01 
the investigation demonstrated that certain sub- 
ordinate officials in the post office department had 
incomes ranging from ten to twenty thousand dollars 
per year from commissions they were receiving on 
contracts that had been let under their supervision, 
and that the government was being mulcted out of 
hundreds of thousands of dollars a year in useless 
expenditures and the purchasing of supplies that 
were not needed. An elaborate report, which 1 res. 
Roosevelt declared to be one of the most thorough 
and complete ever made in the history of the 
government, was submitted by Mr. Bristow in 
October, 1903. It told a remarkable story, and 
probably was more widely commented on by the 
public press than any official document issued in 
recent years. In 1903 Mr. Bristow rebought the 
Salina *' Daily Republican," and is now editor of 
that paper under the name of "The Journal,' as 
well as the Salina "Semi-Weekly Journal.' In 
1905 he was appointed by Pres. Roosevelt a special 
commissioner to examine into the status of the 
Panama railroad, extending across the isthmus, and 
a steamship line running from Colon, the Atlantic 
terminus of the road, to New York which were found 
among the assets of the French canal company 
purchased by the 




United States, the 
purpose being to deter- 
mine what disposition 
should be made of the 
properties. Three prop- 
ositions had been made 
to the government in 
regard to the future of 
this road: (1) that it 
should be sold, (2) that 
the government should 
retain the ownership of 
the road and lease it to 
private parties to op- 
erate, and (3) that the 
government should re- 
tain the road and op- 
erate it not only as a 
line to be used in the i 
construction of the ca- 
nal but also as a commercial route. In an elab- 
orate report filed in August, 1905, Mr. Bristow 
recommended that the government retain the rail- 
road and operate it both as a construction and : 
commercial line, suggesting the possibility of 
government using it as a regulator of tranacont: 
nental freight rates by keeping it open and permit- 
ting its free use by all steamship lines. It was tins 
Inquiry that brought Mr. Bristow into contact will 
the transportation question, which became a promi 
nent issue in the campaign that resulted in his . 
tion to the U. S. senate. His recommendations were 



30 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



accepted by Pres. Roosevelt, and the policies he 
suggested were carried out. Nominated for the 
United States senate to succeed Hon. Chester I. 
Long, he was elected in January, 1909. Sen. Bris- 
tow was one of the seven "insurgent" Republicans 
who refused to vote for the Aldrich-Payne tariff 
bill, and took a prominent part in the tariff dis- 
cussions, giving especial attention to the lead and 
sugar schedules. He is the chairman of the senate 
committee on expenditures in the postoffice de- 
partment, and is a member of the committees on 
claims; in teroceanic canals ; public health and na- 
tional quarantine; railroads; standards, weights 
and measures; and transportation routes to the 
seaboard. The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon 
him by his alma mater in 1909. He was married, 
Nov. 11, 1879, to Margaret H., daughter of Jesse 
Hendrix of Fleming County, Ky., and has three 
sons, Joseph Quayle, Frank B. and Edwin M. Bris- 
tow. 

SPERRY, Charles Stillman, naval officer, 
was born in Brooklyn, N. V., Sept. '.1, 1847, son 
of Corydon Stillman and Catherine Elizabeth 
(Leavenworth) Sperry. He attended the public 
schools of Waterbury, Conn., and entered the 
United States Naval Academy on Sept. 27, 1862. 
During 1866-67 he_ served on the U. S. steamship 
Sacramento until it was wrecked near the mouth 
of the Godavery river while en route for Calcutta. 
He was promoted to ensign in April, 1868; to 
master March 26, 1869; commissioned lieutenant, 
March 21, 1870^ promoted to lieut. -commander, 
March, 1885; commander, July, 1894; captain, 




July 1, 1SIOO, an. I rear-admiral May 26, 1906. He 
served on many vessels and stations in all parts of 
the world, and was in the bureau of ordnance and 
equipment 1893-95. In 1895-98 he was ordium. > 
officer at the New York navy yard, and in that 
capacity took no active part in the Spanish- 
American war, but his services at that time were 
of vital importance, all the details of fitting out 
and repairing the war vessels with their entire equip- 
ment falling on his shoulders. For six months 
there was scarcely a day when at least a dozen 
of the purchased vessels were not at the docks 
to be armed and hurriedly dispatched to the war 
zone. He was commander of the IT. S. S. New 
Orleans during 1901-03, and in the latter year 
became president of the Naval War College at 
Newport, R. I., the school to which officers of the 
navy are sent to take post-graduate courses in 
strategy, tactics and analogous subjects. During 
1906 he was naval member of the national coast 
defense board, and in June of the same year was 
delegate to the conference at Geneva to revise 
the convention of 1864 for the treatment of the 
sick and wounded in war. When the peace and 
arbitration conference was held at The Hague in 
the summer of 1907 Adm. Sperry was sent there 
as America's naval representative, rendering 
admirable service and increasing his diplomatic 
reputation. At the close of the peace congress 
he was ordered home and placed in command of the 



fourth division of Rear Adm. Evans' fleet on its 
memorable cruise around the world, his flagship 
being the battleship Alabama. During its progress 
Adm. Evans, whose health had been failing, was 
relieved and Adm. Sperry succeeded to the command. 
The cruise was without parallel in naval annals, 
lasting fourteen months, from December, 1907, to 
February, 1909, and covering 48,444 statute miles. 
The ships rounded Cape Horn and sailing as far 
north as Seattle, crossed the Pacific via the 
Hawaiian Islands, touched at the chief cities of 
Australia, and visited the Philippine Islands and 
Japan. Its return route was via the Indian ocean, 
the Suez canal and the Mediterranean sea. During 
the voyage the fleet was welded into an efficient 
unit, was practically self-sustaining in the matter 
of repairs and the ships were better cared for than 
when they depended upon the navy-yards. New 
standards of economy in coal-consumption and 
increased radius of action were established the 
voyage of 3,850 miles from Honolulu to Auckland, 
New Zealand, being the longest ever undertaken 
by a large fleet without recoaling. Adm. Sperry 
reached the age limit of sixty-two years in 1909, 
and was retired from active service on September 
3d. He had the distinction of being the first rear- 
admiral to have an important command who had 
not fought in the civil war. As a strategist he 
was said to be excelled by no officer in the service; 
was prudent, cautious and an authority on inter- 
national law. In 1909 Yale University conferred 
the honorary degree of LL.D. upon him. He is 
a member of the Metropolitan Club of Washington, 

D. ('., I'niversity Club of New York, New York 
Yacht Club and the American Society of Inter- 
national law. He was also a member of" the general 
board of the navy. Adm. Sperry was married 
in January. 1877, to Edith, daughter of Lieut. 
Samuel Marcy, and granddaughter of Gov. William 
L. Marcy. They have two children: Marcy L. 
and Charles S. Sperry, Jr. 

PINCHOT, Gifford, forester, was born at Sims- 
bury, Conn., Aug. 11, 1865, son of James W. and Mary 

E. (Eno) Pinchot, and grandson of Constantine Cyril 
Desir Pinchot, a native of Breteuil, France, who, 
for his political faith, came to America in 1815, 
settling at Milford, Pa., where he became a mer- 
chant with large western interests. Gifford Pinchot 
attended Phillips E.ceter Academy, and was grad- 
uated at Yale University in 1SS9. His love of the 
woods was a passion from childhood, and while he 
found time to captain the college football team, and 
carried off several of the most coveted of the college 
prizes, he also won for himself the reputation of 
being "mad on trees." Deciding to take up for- 
estry in the summer of 1889, he went to England 
to consult with the men best able to direct his 
studies. As a result of his observations and 
after having spent some time in examining the 
forest exhibit at the Paris exposition he entered 
the Ecole Nationale Forestiere, at Nancy. Early 
in 1890 he began field work in the French Alps and 
the Vosges, and after further study in Switzerland, 
Germany, and Austria, returned to America. In 
1891 he traveled in Arizona, Arkansas, California, 
Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, and 
aided in the preliminary examination of George W. 
Vanderbilt's forest at Biltmore, N. C., where, in 
January, 1892, he began the first systematic forest 
work done in the United States. In December, 1891, 
he opened an office in New Y'ork city, as consulting 
forester, and was engaged for the next three years 
in miscellaneous work in various sections of the 
country. He was a member of the commission 
appointed by the National Academy of Sciences in 
1896, at the request of the secretary of the interior, 



OF AMF.RICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



31 



to investigate and report upon the inauguration 
of a rational forest policy for the lands of the 
United States, and thus helped to lay the founda- 
tion of the nation's present; forest policy, which 
he was shortly to become the chief agent in develop- 
ing As a result of the commission's report, 
eleven new western forest reserves were created 
with a total area of over 21,000,000 acres, and 
legislation was enacted by congress in 1897, de- 
nning the purposes for which forest reserves should 
be created, and providing for their administration by 
the department of the interior. The commission 
also recommended the putting into forest reserves all 
lands more valuable for the production ot timber 
than for agriculture, and a policy providing for the 
immediate use of the forests by the public, as well 
as their production for the benefit of the future. 
On July 1, 18<J8, Mr. Pinchot was appointed chief 
of the 'division of forestry in the department of 
the interior, and here confronted him the dual 
task of bringing the public to a realization of the 
economic importance of forest preservation, and 
Catherine the technical knowledge and staff neces- 
sary to put forestry into actual practice in the 
United States. There were then less than ten pro- 
fessional foresters in the country and no science 
or literature of American forestry was in existence, 
while little practical work in this direction had as 
vet been attempted by the division. Ihe broaden- 
ing activity of the latter led to its reorganization as 
the " bureau of forestry" July 1, 1901. On 1-eb. 1, 
1905 the administration of the forest reserves was 
transferred by act of congress from the department 
of the interior to the department of agriculture. 
The development of all their resources now began 
in earnest, and the bureau became the "forest ser- 
vice." Under Mr. Pinchot's guidance the policy 
originally recommended by the committee of 1S97 
was practically carried to conclusion, and to make 
clear the purpose of securing their fullest use the 
forest reserves were now designated as national 
forests." The growth of the service is illustrated 
by the increase of its expenditures from $28,520 in 
1S99 to $3,894,370 in 1901); while its receipts, of 



o ,, , 

which there were none in the first-named year, grew 
to 81 765,000 in 11)01). These are derived largely 
from the sale of mature timber, and the charges tor 
private commercial uses of the land, such as grazing 
and the development of water power. The aggre- 
gate area of public land in the national forests in- 
creased from 40,866-,184 acres in 1S9S to 194,505,325 
in 1909, and although the expenditure for these lands 
is still much lower than in other countries, their use- 
fulness has been greatly increased, and devastation 
from forest fires minimized. Also, in 1899 he had 
but eleven assistants, and ten years later, in 1909, 
there were nearly 2,000. The territory under his 
control was more than five times the size of New 
England, and the vast machinery of the forest 
service was regarded as the best example of economi- 
cal, energetic, effective and scientific work in the 
entire executive department of the government. 
The house committee which investigated the ex- 
penditures, methods and results in 1908, reported 
that the standard of the forest service was fully on a 
par with the methods of the outside business world 
and superior to any other part of the public service. 
In January, 1910, he was dismissed from the head 
Of the forest service by Pres. Taft because of the 
part he took in connection with charges against 
Richard A. Ballinger, the secretary of the interior, 
by subordinates in the bureau of forestry. The loss 
of so valuable a public official at the head of a 
department created almost entirely by his own 
efforts was widely deplored. Mr. Pinchot was a 
member of the co'mmission on public lands of the 
United States, appointed by Pres. Roosevelt in 



11)03, the work of which formed the basis for the 
president's subsequent recommendations to con- 
gress concerning public land questions. In 1903 
he was a member of the committee on the organi- 
zation of government scientific work; in 1905 IK: 
served on the committee on department methods, 
appointed by Pres. Roosevelt to increase the admin- 
istrative efficiency of all departments; in 1907 on 
the inland waterways commission, appointed by the 
president at his suggestion, for the improvement of 
the navigation in the Mississippi valley; and in HiOS 
on the commission on country life, also appointed by 
the president. The conservation movement headed 
by Mr. Pinchot attained wide public recognition in 
May, 1908, when, at the suggestion of the inland 
waterways commission, the president called a con- 
ference of the governors of all states and territories 
to meet at the White House to discuss the question, 
an unprecedented proceeding in the history of the 
country. In his address at the preliminary meet- 
ing, Pres. Roosevelt said: "I want to say here that 
if it had not been for Gifford Pinchot this conference 
neither would nor ever could have been held." 
Before adjournment this conference adopted a 
declaration of principles regarding the wise use of all 
natural resources. On June 8, 1908, the president, 
in line with one of the recommendations made by 
the governors, appointed the National Conservation 
Commission " to cooperate with the states in order 
to conserve the natural resources of our whole 
country." This commission was organized in four 
sections to consider the four great classes of re- 
sources waters, forests, lands and minerals, with 
the members of the inland waterways commission 
forming the section of waters, and Mr. Pinchot as 
chairman of the commission. It reported to the 
president Jan. 1, 1909, and on Jan. 22, 1901). the 
president sent a special message to congress trans- 
mitting the report, which dealt with the present 
extent and condition of natural resources and the 
means of conserving them. Following the adoption 
by congress of an amendment to the sundry civil 
bill for 1909, which terminated effective cooperation 
between the commission and 
the executive departments, the 
work of cooperating with the 
forty-two state conservation 
commissions and the fifty-one 
great national organizations 
which have appointed conser- 
vation committees (Dec. 1, 
1909) was assumed by the joint 
committee on conservation ap- 
pointed by a joint conference 
of the governors and the or- 
ganizations. Mr. Pinchot is 
chairman of this joint com- 
mittee. The North American 
conservation conference was 
held at the White House in 
January, 1909, to consider the 
means of international coopera- 
tion to secure the conserva- 
tion of the resources of the 
North American continent as a 
whole. Invitations were delivered to the president 
of Mexico and the governor-general of Canada by 
Mr Pinchot in person, acting as representative of 
the president, and Mr. Pinchot was also one of the 
United States commissioners and chairman of the 
conference. In addition to adopting a declaration 
of principles, the commissioners recommended that 
a conference be held at The Hague to consider the 
conservation of world resources. As the next 
logical step in the conservation movement the 
National Conservation Association was finally 
formed, Oct. 9, 1909, with Dr. Charles W. Eliot, 




32 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



president emeritus of Harvard University, as presi- 
dent. At the latter's suggestion Mr. Pinchot was 
elected to succeed him as active president Jan. 
22, 1910. The object is to carry into practice 
the principles of conservation as they were de- 
clared by the governors' conference of 1908 at the 
White House. In 1902 Mr. Pinchot made a tour of 
inspection in the Philippines to report on a forest 
policy for the islands. He received the honorary 
degree of M.A. from Yale University in 1901 and 
from Princeton in 1904, that of Sc.D from Michigan 
Agricultural College in 1907, and that of LL.D from 
MeGill University in 1909. In 1903 he was elected 
professor of forestry in Yale University. Prior 
to this he founded, with his father, mother and 
brother, the Yale Forest School, and the Yale 
Summer School of Forestry at Grey Towers, Mil- 
ford, Pa. He is the author of "The White Pine," 
in collaboration with Prof. Henry S. Graves, (1896) ; 
"The Adirondack Spruce" (1898); "A Primer of 
Forestry" (1899); as well as the article on forestry 
in the United States in the Encyclopedia Brittanica, 
and numerous other contributions to the literature 
of forestry and the conservation of national re- 
sources. He is a member of the Society of America n 
Foresters, Washington Academy of Sciences, Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, National Acad- 
emy of Design, and of the Century, Yale, and Uni- 
versity clubs of New York, University Club of 
Chicago, Graduates Club of New Haven, and the 
Cosmos, University, and Metropolitan clubs of Wash- 
ington. Mr. Pinchot is unmarried. 

MAGOON, Charles Edward, jurist and governor 
was born in Steel county, Minn., Dec. 5, 1801, 
son of Henry C., and Mehitable W. (Clement) 
Magoon. He was educated in the public and high 
schools of Owatonna, Minn., and the Nebraska 
State University, where he was a student for two 
years. He was admitted to the bar of Nebraska 
in 1882, and at once engaged in a general practice 
of the law. Being interested and active in military 
affairs he was made judge advocate of the Nebraska 
national guard, which led him to make a more 
thorough study of the possi- 
bilities of civil administration 
under military rule. In March, 
1899, he was appointed by 
Pres. McKinley to be law- 
officer of the newly-created 
bureau of insular affairs, which 
was the sudden outgrowth of 
the results of the war with 
Spain. In this position his 
duties were numerous and 
difficult, for the situation was 
novel. Whiting's "War Pow- 
i Under the Constitution" 
showed what the government 
could do within the limits of 
its own territory, but did not 
go beyond those limits. Mr. 
Magoon was called upon, un- 
der rapidly-shifting circum- 
mces, to define the possibili- 
ties of insular administration 
under a constitution framed without a thought of 
making provision for exercising remote suzerainty 
or governing remote possessions, and to apply the 
same in actual practice to specific cases. So 
successful \v;is he in this domain that late in I'.MH 
he was called upon by Sec.-of-War Root, to compile, 
annulate and index his opinions for the 




use of the government. The resulting volume 
called "Magoon's Reports on the Law of Civil 
Government under Military Occupation," con- 
stitutes one of the fundamentally valuable docu- 
ments in the history of American administr.-i 1 1\ > 



affairs. Sec. Root characterized it "as the most 
valuable contribution of our day to the literature 
of the law." As law officer of the bureau of 
insular affairs it fell to him to investigate the ques- 
tions as to the relation sustained by our newly 
acquired possessions to the laws and constitution 
of the United States, especially that as to whether 
the constitution and laws became effective in the 
new territory ei proprio sigore. His report on 
this question, holding that the constitution and 
laws were not in force in newly acquired territory 
until extended by the co_ngress, was accepted and 
acted upon by the McKinley administration and 
fixed the policy of the United States in dealing 
with territory newly acquired. Meanwhile, so 
many new difficulties were arising in the work of 
the Isthmian canal commission, and the admin- 
istration of the strip of country acquired by the 
United States on either side of the Panama canal, 
termed the canal zone, that in July, 1904, Pres. 
Roosevelt appointed Mr. Magoon to be the general 
counsel of the Ithsmian canal commission. In 
April. 190.5, he was made a member of the com- 
mission and governor of the canal zone, and shortly 
thereafter was appointed American minister to the 
Republic of Panama. He continued to fill all 
three of these offices until he was appointed pro- 
visional governor of Cuba in September, 1906. 
The services of Gov. Magoon in Cuba constitute a 
unique chapter in the history of American govern- 
ment. Porto Rico and the Philippines were 
acquired by the United States by treaty-purchase 
as well as by prize of war, and therefore, as part 
of our territory, were legally subject to whatever 
form of government the United States might think 
best to impose, but Cuba was, putatively at least, 
an independent republic, and made so by the United 
States itself. However, in legislating for the 
establishment of the Cuban republic responsive 
to the terms of the treaty of Paris, the so-called 
Platt amendment was enacted, which, consisting 
of eight provisions or articles, was adopted by the 
people of Cuba as an appendix to their constitu- 
tion and also embodied in a treaty between the 
United States and Cuba. Article III provides 
that "the government of Cuba consents that the 
United States may exercise the right to intervene 
for the preservation of Cuban independence, the 
maintenance of a government adequate for the 
protection of life, property and individual liberty, 
and for discharging the obligations with respect 
to Cuba^ imposed by the treaty of Paris on the 
United States, now to be assumed and undertaken 
by the government of Cuba." T. Estrada Palma 
became the first p.-esident of Cuba, and was re- 
elected for a second term in llecember. 190.">, by 
such methods in the hands of his (the Moderate) 
party as it was subsequently declared, vitiated 
the election. The opposing parties, apparently 
in the majority, fomented an insurrection for the 
purpose of overturning tbe election. This uprising 
became so formidable and was so destructive to 
property and business, that . Pres. Palma called 
upon Pres. Roosevelt to intervene under the Platt 
amendment. The president responded by send- 
ing Sec.-of-War Taft, and Assistant-Sec.-of-State 
Robert Bacon, who in conjunction with representa- 
thes of the various interests and contending 
parties, (latched up a compromise. Pres. Palma 
insisted upon carrying out his original intention of 
resigning. Therefore Sec. Taft proclaimed him- 
self provisional governor, the proclamation to take 
effect on Sept. 29. 1900. His rule lasted only until 
Go\ Magoon could be tran-tVrred from Panama. 
On his arrival on Oct. 13, 1900, Gov. Magoon found 
himself in charge of the entire administrative 
necessities of Cuba. Pres. Palma's resignation 





^ ."-.*" 



OF AMKU1CAX Ml< " iU.VPIIY. 



33 



tad been followed by that of the vice-president and 
all of the members of his cabinet, and congre-, 
virtually resigned by dissolving itself without 
taking any action to create a new government to 
succeed the old. Gov. Magoon proclaimed a 
continuance of the Cuban laws, courts, police forces 
and local governments intact, under the Cuban 
flag, and at once set about bringing order out of 
chaos and peace to all parts of the island. lie 
siowly allotted the public offices to the several 
contending factions in proper proportion, and at 
the same- time addressed himself to improving 
material conditions. In transmitting his first 
report to the president, Sec. Taft said of <!ov. 
Magoon 's work: "He has carried on his shoulders 
Ihe whole burden and responsibility of an extensive 
government. He has successfully handled numer- 
ous important economic questions, including the 
work of planning and initiating a system of wagon 
roads co-extensive with the island and other 
long-needed improvements." He brought the 
contending parties to u uch an amicable under- 
standing and so composed the wide-spread labor 
troubles that he was able to enter upon the final 
work of preparing the island for self-government. 
After a census had been taken in 1907, he ordered 
municipal and provincial elections to be held, 
these elections to be tests of the capacity of Un- 
people for a return to independent autonomy. 
Elections for president and congressmen were con- 
ducted in November, 1908, and resulted in the 
selection of the liberal candidate, Gen. Gomez. On 
Jan. 28, 1909 the new officers 'were duly inaugu- 
rated. Gov. Magoon then turned the island over 
to them as a rehabilitated republic and the army 
of occupation was withdrawn. Gov. Magoon 's 
official reports, especially that of 1906-7, afford a 
marvelously clear and comprehensive view of 
Cuban conditions and show, too, his great aptitude 
for administrative affairs how he established the 
public finances on a sound basis; reformed the 
practice of the courts; turned the impassable 
"trails" into good highways; enabled the banks 
to furnish funds for harvesting the sugar and 
planting the tobacco crops; constituted a com- 
mission (without compensation) to investigate and 
report upon the needs of agriculture; investigated 
and reported upon the 14,000 claims for damages 
resulting from the insurrection; settled the con- 
troversy over confiscated church property; graded 
the public schools (in which there are 4,000 teach- 
ers); suppressed brigandage and generally brought 
peace, order and prosperty to the Cuban republic. 
The placidity, the fairness, the patience and the 
manifest power exhibited by him making a self- 
governing republic out of a mass containing a 
preponderating mixture of turbulence, jealousy, 
inexperience, brigandage, ignorance and instability 
of purpose, place him in a class with the usunal if 
not the great. Gov. Magoon is over six feet iji 
height and of powerful build. He is a member 
of Metropolitan, Chevy Chase, Alibi and Cosmos 
clubs, of Washington, D. C. He is unmarried. 

SPOONER, John Coit, U. S. senator, was born 
at Lawrenceburg, Ind., Jan. 6, 1843, son of Philip 
Loring and Lydia (Coit) Spooner. His first Amer- 
ican ancestor was William Spooner, who emigrated 
from England in 1637 and settled at Dartmouth in 
the colony of Massachusetts. His wife was Mercy 
Delano, and the line of descent is traced through their 
son, Nathaniel, who married Hannah Blackwell; 
their son, Philip, and his son Charles, who was Sen. 
Spooner's grandfather. Members of the family were 
prominent in early colonial affairs, and the senator's 
great-grandfathers, Philip Spooner and Samuel 
Coit, were officers in the revolutionary war. An 




f 



uncle, Benjamin Spooner, served in the Mexican 
war, and raised the lir.-t regiment from Indiana 
for the civil war. Philip ]>. Spooner, his father, 
was a distinguished lawyer and judge of the courts 
of Indiana and Wisconsin. The son attended 
the public school of Madison, and entered the 
University of Wisconsin in IMil). In May. l.sill, in 
response to Lincoln's call for volunteers, he bor- 
rowed $300 for the purpose of recruiting a company, 
and, together with all t lie members of his class, 
one, enlisted as a private in Company 1). lllth \\ is. 
infantry, each member of the class agreeing to ac- 
cept no promot ion in rank 
during the term of enlist- 
ment. He served through 
the one-hundred day term, 
ami then reeiilisled for 
three years as captain of 
Company A, ."illth Wis. in- 
fant ry.with which lie >ervei| 
in Missouri, and later 
among the Sioux Indians, 
in northern Missouri and 
Dakota. lie was b re vet- 
ted major in 1865, and 
was mustered out in the 
following year. He at once 
took up the study of law in 
the office of his father, and 
was admitted to the bar in 
1867. Meanwhile he had 
been appointed private and 
military secretary to Gov. 
Lucius Fairchild with the 
rank of colonel; was quartermaster-general of the 
state during 1868-70; and was assistant attorney- 
general during 1869-70, in which position he be- 
came noted for his legal learning and ability. Soon 
after his term expired he removed to Hudson, and 
forming a partnership with Harry C. Baker, he 
quickly sprang into prominence and rapidly ac- 
quired a large and lucrative practice. He was soon 
placed in charge of the legal interests of two new 
railway companies, the West Wisconsin and the 
North Wisconsin, and in addition to his natural 
legal ability he acquired such aptitude for railroad 
litigation that he was appointed general counsel for 
those roads, a position he continued to hold after 
they were merged into the Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha railroad. One of the 
most important actions conducted by him while 
in Hudson was the case of Schulenburg vs. 
Harriman, involving the principle that the fail- 
ure of any railway corporation to comply with the 
conditions subsequent of a land grant which it 
may be attempting to earn, does not operate as 
a reversion or forfeiture of the grant, but that 
such forfeiture can come only through a specific act 
of congress. Mr. Spooner won his case before the 
U. S. circuit court and appeal to the U. S. supreme 
court, thus settling for all time a question of the 
utmost importance to the Northwest. He was 
elected to the state legislature in 1871, and served 
on the committees on education and railroads. 
Probably his most conspicuous service in this office 
was securing the passage of a bill to levy a general 
state tax to be added annually forever to the in- 
come of the University of Wisconsin. This estab- 
lished the precedent since followed of a direct tax in 
support of the university, and was the foundation 
and beginning of the splendid career of prosperity, 
growth and strength of the state institution. By 
1884 the Vanderbilts had secured control of the 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha railroad, 
and disagreeing with those in control over a certain 
policy, Mr. Spooner resigned his position as general 
counsel. In 1885 he became a candidate for the 



34 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



United States senate, his opponents being William 
T. Price, Gen. Lucius Fairchild and Gen. Edward 
S. Bragg. As indicating a dominant trait in his 
character, namely, his fairness and conscientious- 
ness, it is related that before going into the cam- 
paign he exacted a promise from all the co-workers 
that there should be no unkind or disrespectful word 
in speech or newspaper article about any of the 
opposing candidates. He was elected in January, 
1885, and took his seat the following March. Al- 
though one of the youngest members of the senate 
his reputation as an orator and lawyer of wide at- 
tainments had preceeded him, and the older sena- 
tors were prepared to accord him at once the place 
usually attained, if ever, only after years of hard 
work and honorable service. He was placed upon 
the committees on privileges and elections, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, public buildings and grounds, 
epidemic diseases, and claims. As chairman of the 
last named, it is said that he was instrumental 
in saving the government more than $30,000,000. 
Among the more noteworthy of Sen Spooner's 
many speeches may be mentioned those on the 
death of Vice-Pres. Hendricks (1885); on the ad- 
mission of South Dakota as a state (1888), which 
occasioned his memorable reply to Sen. Butler, who 
had objected to Dakota "trying to break into 
the union," that Dakota certainly had as much 
inherent right to " break in" as Butler's state 
(South Carolina) had to try to "break out" of the 
union; against the Blair educational bill (1889); 
recommending placing sugar on the free list (1890), 
and in favor of the federal elections bill (1890). 
Returning to Wisconsin at the end of his term in 
the senate, he removed from Hudson to Madison, 
which thereafter became his permanent residence. 
Here he formed a legal partnership with Arthur L. 
Sanborn and James B. Kerr, and devoted himself 
to a large general practice. At this time he became 
connected with the famous gerrymander cases, in the 
successful handling of which he added materially to 
the cause of representative government, besides 
recording a new and important chapter in the his- 
tory of jurisprudence. By causing suits to be in- 
stituted he was entirely successful in having the 
alleged unjust reapportionment by the Wisconsin 
legislature set aside by the highest courts. He was 
nominated unanimously for the governorship in 
1892 as the forlorn hope of his party, and, although 
defeated by Gov. Peek, he largely reduced the Dem- 
ocratic majority. In 1897 he was again elected to 
the national senate, and as a member of the com- 
mittees on relations with Canada, the judiciary, 
privileges and elections, and rules, he added many 
new laurels to his fame as a statesman. He intro- 
duced comparatively few general bills, contending 
that the nation was suffering from too much rather 
than too little legislation. During the ten years of his 
second service in the senate he made speeches or 
participated in debates upon some 450 different 
matters, many of them subjects of vital importance. 
He opposed federal incorporaion of railroads by 
compulsion; favored reciprocity with Cuba in non- 
competing products; opposed granting ship sub- 
sidies, and steadily fought against attaching general 
legislation as riders to appropriation bills, desig- 
nating the custom as "legislative claim-jumping". 
He closely and analytically followed every word of 
the legislation establishing the Hawaiian, Philippine, 
Canal Zone, Porto Rican and Alaskan codes, in order, 
he said, that they might have the very best organ- 
ized laws that could be formulated. He urge 1 in 
the case of Hawaii, that congress could annex no 
territory to the United States except by treaty or 
conquest; and he declared that no defence could 
be made of a direct appropriation for the reclaim- 
ing of arid lands, but suggested granting arid land to 



be sold and the proceeds thereof to be devoted to 
their reclamation. His great forte was that of 
pruning, trimming and clarifying making laws 
direct and effective. By the Democrats he was 
termed the "great disappearing gun of the major- 
ity," who was held in reserve until all others had de- 
bated and exhausted themselves. He was perhaps 
the most adroit, quick-witted anil rapid-fire debater 
who has ever sat in the United States senate. His 
most important law-making achievement is his 
Panama canal bill, a clause of which, carrying double 
power, proved to be of supreme importance in pro- 
viding first for acquiring the Panama route and 
canal, should the price conform to the ancillary 
agreement and a good title be procured ;and second, 
that, if there should be failure at Panama, the presi- 
dent should have authority to negotiate for ami pur- 
chase the Nicaragua route. Although re-elected by 
the unanimous vote of his party, augmented by 
votes from the Democratic side of the legislature, 
and wielding almost supreme influence in the senate 
chamber, he resigned Mar. 4, 1907, to take effect 
May 1st, because sixteen years of service there had 
left him without a competence and made it his duty 
to return to the practice of his profession, for which 
purpose he opened an office in New York, in which 
city he now resides. In the numberless speeches, 
debates anil addresses of an intensely busy career of 
twenty-five years, no matter what the provocation, 
he never made reckless or unfounded charges or in- 
sinuations or descended to personal attacks or 
retorts intended to wound the heart or carry sorrow 
to the home of any opponent. Sen. Spooner's suc- 
cess as a lawyer and statesman may be attributed to 
his mastery of analysis, reason and logic. Possess- 
ing wonderful versatility of diction, incisive clear- 
ness and strength of statement, resources and cour- 
age and genuine earnestness of manner, he has 
combined all these into an irresistible power to 
convince, which carries all before him. In his legal 
,:ork Sen. Spooner is an indefatigable worker; in 
politics he is brave and liberal; in statesmanship he 
is capable, patriotic, fearless and prophetic ; in per- 
sonal intercourse he is frank and attractive; to the 
public and to adversaries 
he is courteous, dignified, 
kindly and respectful; and 
to poor clients he is not only 
generous but a guardian 
without money and without 
price. The degrees of A.M. 
and Ph.D. were conferred 
upon him by the University 
of Wisconsin in 1809 and 
that of LL.D. by Wisconsin 
in 1894, Yale in 1907 and 
Columbia in 1908. Sen. 
Spooner was married at 
Madison, Wis., Sept, 10, 
1809, to Annie E., daughter 
of Alfred Main, of Madison, 
Wis., and has three sons 
living, Charles Philip, Wil- 
let Main, and Philip Loring 
Spooner. 



BATES, John Coalter, 

soldier, was born in Saint 

Charles county, Mo., Aug. 20, 1842, son of Edward 
and Julia Davenport (Coalter) Bates, of Quaker 
ancestry. His grandfather, Thomas Fleming Bates, 
was a Virginia planter who fought under 1, a layette 
in the revolution. Thomas' son Frederick was 
governor of Missouri during 183/i-:i7, and his 
younger brother, the father of Gen. Bates, was 
one of the noted men of his time. lie wad 
a member of congress in 1827-2S, and after- 







OK AMKKICAN Hlo< IK.U'II Y. 



35 



wards attorney-general in Lincoln's cabinet. Jolm ('. 
Bates received a liberal education in the public and 
private schools of St. Louis and at Washington Uni- 
versity, which conferred upon him the degree of LL.D. 
in 1904. He entered the federal army May 14, ISiil, 
at the ago of eighteen as 1st lieutenant llth U. S. in 
fantry, and from that time to his retirement in 1900 
devoted his life exclusively to the duties and 
accomplishments of a soldier. After the battle 
of Fredcrieksburg he was placed upon the staff 
of the commanding general army of the Potomac; 
was entrusted with much confidential work anil 
enjoyed the full confidence of the commanding 
generals. His "gallant and meritorious servi- 
ces " in the operations which resulted in the 
fall of Richmond and the surrender of Lee were 
the subject of special commendation. He par- 
ticipated in the following engagements: Yorktown, 
(iaines Mill, Malvern Hill, Second Bull Run, 
Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettys- 
burg, Snicker's (lap, Bristow Station, Rappa- 
hannock Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania, North Anna, Cold Harbor, Petersburg and 
the final operations preceding the surrender of 
Gen. Lee, as well as lesser actions. Soon after the 
close of the civil war, having then the grade of 
captain, he was sent to the Indian country, where 
he served for nearly thirty years; was promoted 
to major in May, 1882; lieutenant-colonel in 
October, 1880; colonel in April, 1892; brigadier- 
general of U. S. volunteers (Spanish-American 
war), May, 1898; major-general of U. S. volunteers, 
July, 1898; brigadier-general U. S. A., February, 
1901; major-general U. S. A., July, 1902; lieu- 
tenant-general and chief of staff of the army, 
Feb. 1, 1900, and was retired on his own request, 
having been in continuous service forty-five years, 
Apr. 14, 1900. In the high office which he held at 
retirement Gen. Bates had nine predecessors, 
including four superior officers George Washington, 
U. S. Grant, Philip II. Sheridan and William T. 
Sherman, who held the highest grade, that of 
general. In the confederate army Robert E. 
Lee occupied the office of general. Henry C. 
Corbin succeeded Gen. Bates as lieutenant-general 
and was succeeded by Arthur MacArthur, but the 
act of Mar. 2, 1907, provided that this grade should 
expire with the first vacancy and it expired with 
the retirement of Gen. MacArthur. The service 
of Gen. Bates included commands with the llth, 
20th, 5th, 13th and 2d U. S. infantry; aide-de- 
camp to the generals commanding the army of the 
Potomac during the civil war; command of Bate*' 
independent brigade, 3d division of the 5th army 
corps; 1st division of the 8th army corps; com- 
mander of the military district of Mindanao and 
Jolo, and of the department of Southern Luzon, 
Philippine islands, in the pacification of the Philip- 
pine archipelago, following; the Spanish-American 
war. In the advance on LI Caney, Cuba, and the 
battle that followed, (July 1-2, 1898) Gen. Bates' 
independent brigade, consisting of the 3d and 20th 
U. S. infantry, underwent twenty-seven and one- 
half hours of continuous marching and fighting in 
an intensely trying heat. Later at Santiago he 
commanded the 3d division of the 5th army corps, 
which, after the capitulation (July 17) was assigned 
to the duty of guarding 10,000 Spanish prisoners. 
The rains and the terrific heat had disabled seven 
of his ten staff officers and out of an aggregate 
strength of 4,300 men 1,400 were in hospital. 
Those who "recovered" were too weak to perform 
any duty whatsoever, so that the hardships of the 
Bates command and of Gen. Bates himself, were 
very great and the duties constant and exacting. 
As soon as the Spanish prisoners could be em- 
barked for Spain he and his command were 



transferred (Aug. 14-25) to Montauk Point, Long 
Island, where the volunteers were mustered out 
and the infantry assigned to regular duty. Gen. 
Bate's did not leave Cuba until he had personally 
seen the last of his soldiers on shipboard, homeward 

bound. He returned to Cuba January, IN'. I'. I, and 
commanded tin 1 department of Santa Clara for 
four months, when he was sent to the Philippines, 
where his duties among the savages, slave-holding 
Mohammedans and small-island pirates were 
varied and difficult. He made a treaty wilh llie 
Sultan of Jolo, the most important of the tribal 
chiefs, in August, 1899, by which religion, sla\<a\, 
and polygamy were left unmolested, but I'niled 
Slates sovereignty, commerce, justice and order 
were to be maintained under military authority and 
a local governor. The treaty also provided for 
paying the Sultan $250 per month and his dattos 
lesser sums; and when these various "highnesses 1 ' 
became obstreperous their stipends were cut off 
a means of pacification that was much more 
effective than firearms. He was in charge of the 
operations which resulted in occupying thai part of 
Luzon which lies south of Manila; commanded 
the district of Mindiano and Jolo and secured 
possession of the northern and southern coasts of 
Mindiano. Gen. Bates is unmarried. 

POTTER, Henry Codman. seventh Protestant 
Episcopal bishop of New York, was born at Sche- 
nectady. N. Y., May 25, 1834. son 
of Alonzo and Maria (Nott) Potter. 
His mother was a daughter of Eli- 
phalet Nott, for sixty-five years 
president of Union College. He 
came of a notable family, his father 
being bishop of Pennsylvania, his 
uncle Horatio Potter bishop of New 
York, and his brothers, Clarkson Nott 
Potter, a congressman from New York 
for many years; Gen. Robert B. 
Potter, a prominent soldier in the civil 
war; Howard Potter a distinguished 
banker; Edward T. Potter, a well- 
known architect, and Eliphalet Nott 
Potter, president of Union and Ho- 
bart colleges. He was educated at 
the Episcopal Academy, in Phila- 
delphia, and the Theological Semi- 
nary of Virginia, where he was 
graduated in 1857. Ordained to the priest- 
hood Oct. 15, 1858, he at once became rector of 
Christ Church, Greensburg, Pa. In 1859 he was 
called to St. John's Church, Troy, N. Y., and seven 
years later went to Boston as assistant minister 
on the Green foundation of Trinity Church, which 
position he held for two years. In May, 1808, he 
was called to the rectorship of Grace Church, New 
York city, and here for fifteen years he labored 
unceasingly, not only in the service of the church, 
but as a citizen he gave freely of his intellectual and 
spiritual bounty to the city of New York. During 
this period his uncle was bishop of New Y'ork and 
being advanced in years asked for an assistant,, 
In 1883 Henry C. Potter was elected assistant 
bishop of New York, and consecrated at Grace 
Church Oct. 20, 1883. He entered immediately 
upon the episcopal duties for which he was so emi- 
nently fitted, for Bishop Horatio Potter almost, 
immediately withdrew from active administration, 
leaving the burden of the work upon his nephe\\ and 
upon Ins death in 1887, Henry C. Potter assumed 
I he bishopric of a diocese the largest in point of 
population of his ehureh in America, numbering 
3,00(1,000 souls, and having at the lime he died 
105 clergymen, 257 church edifices, L'5i> parishes 
and missions, 81,388 communicants, 3,820 Sunday- 




36 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



school teachers, and 41,835 Sunday-school scholars, which led him to seize that dramatic moment to 
His work in Grace Church made an epoch in church say to every American what under other circum- 
history, and, it might be added, made a new chapter stances perhaps but few Americans would have 
in sociology. Here he defined the mission of the heard." Again, in 1895, there was a movement for 
church as one that should meet man's human needs the reform of city politics, and an effort to throw 
as well as minister to his spiritual hunger. The off the yoke of Tammany, but the men to whom 
tide of population was rapidly sweeping northward the city should have been able to turn in her hour 
and away from Grace Church. The question of of need had no better remedy to suggest than an 
removal arose, but the young rector resolutely alliance with the machine of the opposing political 
turned his face toward the poor, the lowly, the party. Only a group of citizens, members of 
humble, and the needy of the neighborhood, and the comparatively unimportant good government 
here he wrought out a kind of Christian socialism clubs, had the courage to protest against such a 
that promoted sociability and drew the neighbor- sacrifice of principle. In vain they appealed to the 
hood together in a common interest. During his leading men of New York to stand by them in their 
rectorship the influence of Grace Church extended fight, but only Bishop Potter clearly saw the issue 
itself in many directions The chapel in East Four- and clearly said so in a letter which was posted on 
teenth street was carried on as a successful mission, the boardings all over the city and served as a cam- 
Grace House, Grace Church Day Nursery and the paign document. The third occasion was when the 
chantry were added to the group of church buildings, alliance between the city police and criminals 
while the beauty of the edifice itself was greatly had been forced upon his knowledge by the 
increased by the addition of the marble spire, the neglect and insolence with which the protests of the 
chimes, a new chancel and new windows. He was vicar of the pro-cathedral in Stanton street were 
secretary of the State Charities Aid Association, and received by the local police captain and where the 
one of the founders of the Charity Organization conditions were such that the young girls of the 
Society; he was also secretary of the house of neighborhood were not safe in the streets. His 
bishops for fifteen years, an experience which was of public letter to Mayor Van Wyek opened the eyes 
great value to him when he became a bishop him- of the people to the frightful conditions and was the 
self. He spent part of one summer residing .-it the cause of a real moral awakening, if not the defeat 
pro-cathedral in Stanton street in order to observe of the Tammany candidate at the ensuing election. 

Characteristic of his whole career was his activity 
in public affairs and he valued such extra clerical 



for himself the conditions under which the 
dwell in one of the most crowded districts of 



poor 
New 



York, and as a member of the National Civic Federa- opportunities as a part of the prophetic function of 

tion, he was asked frequently to arbitrate in con- his ministry, but he was never too remote a Chris- 

troversies between employers and employees. He tian to be out of reach of human relations, nor too 

admini.-tered the affairs of his diocese with wisdom much a man of the world to forget the sacred n. -~s 

and great breadth of view, and his time and strength of his calling. The project of building the cathedral 

,vere spent unceasingly to build up, to vitalize and of St. John the Divine, though conceived in the 



to extend the work of his church. 
On many public occasions (three 
of which were especially not- 
able) his voice was raised at 
moments when it found an 
echo throughout the land. The 
first was on the occasion of the 



mind of Bishop Horatio Potter, would have ended 
in failure but for the unceasing efforts of his nephew. 
Incorporated in 1873, the work progressed slowly 
with no great degree of public interest, but after 
many vicissitudes during a period of eight years 
the rornerstone was laid ( 1892), and up to the time 
of his death about s:!..->oil.00n had been contributed 
for its erection. The honorary degrees conferred 
upon Bishop Potter were: D.D., Harvard, Union 
and Oxford (England); LL.D., Union, University 
of Pennsylvania, Yale, Cambridge (England), find 
Si Andrews (Scotland), and 
D.C.L., Bishops College 
'anaila). He was the au- 
thor of "Sisterhoods and 
Deaconesses" (1873); "The 
Gates of the East" (1877); 
"Sermons of the City" 
(1881); "Waymarks" 

(1892); "The Scholar and 
the Slate" (1897); "Ad- 
dresses to Women Engaged 
in Church Work" (1898); 
" God and the City " (1900) 
"The Industrial Situation" 
(1902); "Man. Men and 
Their Masters" (1902); 
"The East of To-day and 
To-morrow" (1902); "Law 

Washington centennial celebration. Pres. Nicholas and Loyalty" (1903); "The Drink Problem" 
Murray Butter of ColumbiaTJniversity said: "I like to (1905); "Reminiscences of Bishops and Archbish- 
remeniber the service Bishop Potter'did and it was ops" (1906). Bishop Potter was married twice; 
a bold service when he stood on a historic occasion first, in 1857, to Eliza Rogers Jacobs of Spring 
in the pulpit of old St. Paul's ami in the presence Grove, Lancaster, Pa.; and. -eeond. in 1902. to Mr- 
of a president of the United States said what was Elizabeth Scriven Clark, widow of Alfred Coming 
in his heart about corruption in our public life and Clark of Cooperstown, N. Y. Bishop Potter died 
the corroding influence of the spoils system in at Cooperstown on July 21, 1908, and on Oeiolier 
politics. The whole nation, East and West. North 20, the twenty-fifth anniversary of his consecration, 
and South, rose to its feet in splendid appreciation, his body was placed beneath the floor of the altar 
not only of his courage, but of the sure instinct in the crypt of the cathedral 




\MI.I!I< AN moi'.IiAPHY. 



37 



BAER, George Frederick, railroad president. 
WHS horn at Somerset, Pa., Sept. 26, 1842, son of 
Major Solomon and Anna Maria (Baker) Baer. His 
rarlii'-t American ancestor was Christophel Haci, 
who came tn this country from the duchy of /wci- 
hruckcn, (id-many, prior to 1740, anil settled in 
Northampton county, Pa., in 1743. His son, .John 
Jacoh, who was ( leorgeF. Baer's grandfather, moved 
to Allegheny county, Mil., in 1800, whence Solomon 
Baer (IT'.H 1SSLM went to Somerset county, Pa., 
and enlaced in farming. The son received his early 
education in the Somerset Institute and Somerset 
Academy. At the age of thirteen years he entered 
the ollice of tin- Somerset "Democrat'' and worked 
at the printing trade for over two years. Subse- 
quently he entered Franklin and Marshall College, 
hut his studies were interrupted by the outbreak o| 
the civil war in 1SI11, and shortly after he and his 
brother Henry became owners of the " Democrat." 
lu the absence of the latter, who entered the army, 
much extra labor devolved upon George; he worked 
at the printer's case all day and edited the paper and 
studied law at night. In August, 1862, he raised 
a company for the 133d regiment of Pennsylvania 
volunteers, of which he was elected captain, ami 
proceeding to the front served in Humphreys' divi- 
sion of the army of the Potomac. Joining the army 
at the second battle of Bull Run, he participated in 
all the engagements up to and including that at 
Clu.ncellorsville, when he was detailed as the 
adjutant-general of the second brigade. After the 
war Mr. Baer resumed his legal studies in another 
brother's office, and was admitted to the bar in 1864. 
Four years later he removed to Reading, Pa., and 
rapidly gained prominence at the Berks county bar, 
where for many years he was an active practitioner, 
and took a prominent part in the upbuilding of the 
community. His connection with the Reading com- 
panies dates from 1870, when he prosecuted an 
action for damages against the road so ably and 
successfully that he was at once made counsel for 
the Philadelphia & Reading railroad. As his law 
practice increased he was enabled to extend the 
field of his operations, and so successfully did he 
embrace the opportunities offered to him, that he 
became president of a large number of the state's 
best-known manufacturers' industries, and a direc- 
tor in a number of others. He had been the confi- 
dential legal adviser of Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan for 
some time, and he rendered a valuable service to the 
latter by securing an entrance for one of his railroads 
into Pittsburg, Pa., and cooperating with the finan- 
cier in his plan to unite under one management all 
the coal-carrying roads with terminals in New York 
city. .Vhen the work of reorganization took place 
in 1901, Mr. Baer was elected president of the 
Reading Co., the Philadelphia & Reading Railway 
Co., the Philadelphia & Reading Coal and Iron 
Co., and the Central Railroad Co. of New Jersey. 
The Reading Co., which is a holding company, acts 
under a special charter in the state of Pennsylvania . 
It owns the stock and bonds of the Philadelphia and 
Reading Railway Co., and the stock of the Philadel- 
phia & Reading Coal and Iron Co., and the Read- 
ing Iron Co., as well as the stock of all the smaller 
roads comprising the Reading system, and a ma- 
jority of the stock of the Central Railroad Co, of 
New Jersey. The Philadelphia and Reading Rail- 
way Co. is the operating company, operating all the 
branch lines through lease or agreement, with the 
exception of the Central Railroad Co. of New Jersey 
and one or two others. The Philadelphia & Read- 
ing Coal and Iron Co. controls and operates all the 
coal properties of the system with the exception of 
those controlled by the Central Railroad Co. of New 
Jersey. Meanwhile Mr. Morgan and his interests 
acquired a controlling interest in the Philadelphia 







& Reading railroad. When the great aiithri. - 
coal strike began on May 12, 11102, it so, in became 
known that the combination of the ant liracile coal- 
producing and transportation companies under one 
management gave the mine owners and operators a 
formidable advantage. There were 117,111111 miners 
thrown out of employment and in\e-teil capital 
amounting to more than 8500,000,000 became idle. 
A light between mine guards and strikers iouk place 
on June.'jth at Wilkes-Barre and shortly afterward 
an attempt was made on the life of T A. Tin 
division superintendent of the Lehigh I 'cud I 'ompaiiy 
at Wilkes-Barre. There were 
also riots and acts of violence 
at other places. In this emer- 
gency Pres. Baer was a firm 
champion of the mine owners 
and operators, although his 
position was not primarily 
one of hostility to the demands 
of I lie mine-workers, but rather 
to the claims of the United 
Mine Workers of America, the 
organization which controlled 
them, and which instigated 
the strike. During the eom-e 
of the strike, which lasted 
from May 12th to October 23d, 
Mr. Baer was recognized as 
the most important person on 
the side of the mine owners. 
Senators Quay and Penrose of 
Pennsylvania had a confer- 
ence with him in the second week in July; and as 
Mr. Morgan, to whom many looked for help in 
bringing the opposing interests together, refused 
to be drawn into the controversy, the responsibility 
put upon Pres. Baer became still more' \\eighiy and 
acute. But he did not flinch from the altitude 
taken by him at first. Meanwhile no hard coal had 
been delivered that summer, the available supply 
had long since become exhausted and cold weather 
was approaching. At a meeting of the leading men 
of the'coal trust held in his office' September liith, a 
statement was given out that the operators would 
not yield and throughout all succeeding conference-, 
and attempts at reconciliation this attitude was, 
maintained. At this stage Pres. Roosevelt stepped 
in to help solve the difficulty. On October 3d 
he' called together in conference the coal operators 
and Pres. Mitchell of the United Mine Workers, and 
on October 14th, announced that the mine owners 
were willing to arbitrate the points in dispute, but 
stipulated from what ranks the arbitrators should 
be selected. The outcome was the appointment 
of a commission to investigate both sides of the 
question and the men returned to the mines. In 
April, 1903, he w : as called as a witness in the 
hearing of charges against the anthracite coal 
roads oefore the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, on the charge of the complaint of William 
R. Hearst of the New York " American " that his 
railroads had combined to restrict the output of 
anthracite coal and to divide the transportation 
trade in the interest of the mines controlled by 
the railroads and against the independent operators, 
in violation of a section of the Pennsylvania consti- 
tution of 1874, which says that no railroad company 
shall engage in coal mining or other enterprise by 
which commodities are produced, and that no coal 
mining corporation shall operate a railroad ^more 
than fifty miles in length. Mr. Baer in defense as- 
serted that that particular section of the constitu- 
tion had no application whatever to the Philadel- 
phia A Reading Coal and Iron Co., or to the Heading 
Co., these being distinct and separate corporations; 
he invited the commission to proceed under the 



38 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



Sherman anti-trust law, and promised that if any- 
thing his companies had done was contrary to the 
law of the land they would abide by the decision of 
the proper tribunal. As a railway executive Pres. 
Baer has thorough control of the details of organiza- 
tion and administration, and is considerate of the 
interests of his employes. He has been alert to 
discern when improvements were needed in the 
personnel and plant of his roads, and has been 
prompt to supply them. Self-made, his own ex- 
perience has enabled him to apply the tests of 
honesty and ability in the promotion of his sub- 
ordinates, and in May, 1906, when public attention 
was specially directed to the fraudulent manage- 
ment of great railways and other corporations, he 
publicly claimed that criticism did not and could 
not be brought against the management of the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Company. He 
is a regular attendant of the Reformed church. He 
is a great reader and close, practical student of the 
Bible, whose language he frequently quotes in 
conversation and in public addresses. His record 
proves him to be absolutely fearless of public 
opinion when he believes he is right, and his admin- 
istration of the great interests over which he pre- 
sides has been eminently successful. Mr. Baer 
received the honorary degrees of A.M. in 1872, 
and LL.D. in 1888, from the Franklin and Mar- 
shall College. He was married June 14, 1866, to 
Emily, daughter of John O. Kimmel, and has five 
daughters. 

HUGHES, Charles Evans, thirty-seventh gov- 
ernor of New York il!l()7-l() , was born at Glens 
Falls, N. Y., Apr. 11, 1SOL', son of David Charles 
and Ma ry ( 'a t herine (Connelly) Hughes. His father, 
(1832-1909) a native of South Wales, came to this 
country in 1855, and held pastorates of Baptist 
churches in Oswego, Newark, Brooklyn. Scranton and 
other places. His mother was of Scotch-Irish extrac- 
tion. Owing to delicate health, he did not attend 
school regularly until he was ten years of age, and 
up to that time was trained by his mother. After 
attending the public schools of Newark, N. J., he 
entered Madison college (now Colgate University), 
being the youngest man in his 
class, but two years later 
changed toBrown University. 
Although not a close student, 
he distinguished himself by 
the remarkable facility with 
which he mastered every 
subject of study. Just be- 
fore graduation a classmate 
suggested to him the advisa- 
bility of taking up the law 
as a profession, and the idea 
was favorably entertained, 
although up to that time he 
hail never given the subject 
the least consideration. In 
his junior year he won the 
English literature prize and 
the Dunn prize, while in 
\\\& senior year he received 
the Carpenter prize, awarded 
for general attainment. He 

delivered the classical oration on graduation in 
1881. Three years later he received the degree of 
A.M. in course. Having always had a strong liking 
for teaching, Mr. Hughes accepted a professorship 
offered him at Delaware Academy, Delhi, N. Y., and 
taught Greek and mathematics there for a year. His 
duties required one-half of each day, only, and he 
now began serious study of law, devoting the re- 
mainder of the day to reading; in the office of Judge 
William Gleason, one of the foremost attorneys in 
that locality. Removing to New York city in 1882, 




he entered Columbia Law School, also studying in 
the office of Stewart L. Woodford, U. S. district 
attorney for New York, and in the office of Cham- 
berlain, Carter & Hornblower. At the law school 
he won a fellowship of 351500. Mr. Hughes was 
graduated with the degree of LL.B. in 1884, was 
admitted to the New York bar the same year, and 
entered the firm of Chamberlain, Carter & Horn- 
blower as a clerk. In 1885 this firm became Carter, 
Hornblower & Byrne, Mr. Hughes being taken in 
as junior partner, and so continued until 1888, when 
the firm of Carter, Hughes it Cravath was formed. 
Up to 1891 he handled largely the court proceedings 
of the firm. Feeling the need of a change for his 
health's sake, he accepted a professorship hi the law 
school of Cornell University, and held it for two 
years, his subjects being contracts, evidence bills, 
partnership and international law. Largely owing 
to the influence of Mr. Carter (q.v.), who had be- 
come very much attached to him, he resumed his 
connection with the firm in 1893, which shortly 
after became Carter, Hughes & Dwight. On the 
death of Mr. Carter, in June, 1904, the firm 
became Hughes, Rounds & Schurman. He de- 
voted his attention to the general practice of 
law, and if he made any specialty it was as a 
commercial lawyer, although he handled cases for 
large corporations, usually oeing brought into such 
cases through another attorney. It was owing to 
the fact that he was untrammeled and beyond the 
influence of corporations that he was selected by the 
committee appointed by the New York state legis- 
lature in 1905 to investigate the price of gas and 
electricity. This inquiry brought Mr. Hughes into 
general prominence, and resulted in the reduc- 
tion of the cost of electricity. In the summer of 
1905, while he was in Europe he was selected by the 
insurance investigating committee appointed by the 
legislature to investigate life insurance companies 
in the state, beginning with the Equitable of New 
York city. The fact that many eminent lawyers 
were retained by the companies, or were counsel of 
great corporations connected with them, made the 
selection a difficult task, but the choice received 
general approbation. The committee began its 
session on Sept. 6, 1905, and continued it for several 
months. The hearings made a profound sensation 
because of the prominence of the witnesses called, 
the startling disclosures made, and the thorough 
probing of the insurance companies' status and 
methods by the chief counsel. Mr. Hughes displayed 
a remarkable memory for details; a thorough ac- 
quaintance with the facts and figures presented; 
admirable skill in extracting the information wanted 
from obdurate witnesses ; an attitude of impartiality, 
and an absolute sincerity of purpose. One result of 
this investigation was the remedying of flagrant 
abuses connected with the management of insurance 
companies; another was to place Mr. Hughes in the 
front rank of the bar of New York. In 1906 the 
Republican party in the state of New York was upset 
by factional wranglings. When it became evident 
that the Democratic convention was to nominate 
William R. Hearst for governor, Mr. Hughes, who 
had previously been suggested for the Republican 
candidate, was looked upon as the one most likely to 
poll the full Republican vote. He was nominated by 
acclamation Sept. 26, 1906, without solicitation on 
his part. He accepted the nomination without a 
pledge other than to do hi- duty according to his 
conscience, saying that if elected it would be his 
ambition to give the state a sane, efficient -ind 
honorable administration, free from taint of bossism 
or of servitude to any private interest. The cam- 
paign was a memorable one in the history of the 
state, and he was elected Nov. 6, 1906. by a majority 
of almost 60,000. Throughout his administration 



OF AMKRK'AN BK >< ;it A I'l i"i . 



39 



Gov. Hughes proved himself a courageous executive, 
one who strove to accomplish what he believed to be 
for the public welfare. He approved measures 
passed by the state legislature, upholding the in- 
tegrity of the constitution, maintaining the high 
character of the public service, providing for the 
regulation of corporations and for the protection 
of the people's interests. He formula! ed anil had 
passed by the legislature the public service com- 
missions law. creating two commissions of five 
members each, with jurisdiction over gas and 
electric companies and all common carriers (see 
Willcox. William 1!.). (iov. Hughes has also been 
responsible for increased conservation of forests and 
reforestation; for requiring state compensation for 
the grant of water-power privilege's; for a revision 
of the highway laws and the establishment of a 
bureau of highways, consisting of three commis- 
sioners. In secure both efficiency and suitable con- 
tinuity of organization and policy; for notable 
improvement in banking laws, so that the provision 
for reserves was strengthened, checks against cor- 
porate 1 abuses were supplied and the supervisory 
powers of the department we're increased; for pro- 
vision for agricultural education; for the welfare 
of employee- ; for the repeal of a tricky law through 
which the prohibition against public gambling was 
nullified in favor of a special interest; and for a 
law aiming to prevent corrupt practices and 
requiring all campaign contributions and expendi- 
tures to be made public. Many of these, and other 
reforms were fiercely contested by the governor's 
political opponents; but when defeat seemed im- 
minent he would appeal directly to the people by a 
personal stum]) and carry his laws over the heads 
of his discomfited foes. Frank H. Simonds, writing 
in the New York "Independent," said: "In six 
months this quiet corporation attorney, lacking in 
political training, destitute of even rudimentary 
partisan experience, has subjugated a state machine, 
overthrown a legislative cabal, and secured for the 
people of New York the passage of more important 
and more progressive legislation than the legislative 
mills of Albany have ground out in a decade." 
Proof of the public confidence was given in Novem- 
ber, 19US, by his reelection to the chief executive 
office. Gov. Hughes was special lecturer at Cornell 
University during 1891-93, and was special lecturer 
on general assignments and bankruptcy in the New 
York Law School, 1893-1901. He was for several 
years president of the Brown University Club of 
New York, has been for many years a trustee of the 
Fifth Avenue Baptist Church, a member of the 
Lawyers', Republican, University, Union League, 
and Cornell I'nivcrsity clubs, Dwight Alumni Asso- 
ciation, and the American, New YorkState and New 
York City bar associations. He has devoted con- 
siderable attention to music, and is an enthusiastic 
golf player and mountain climber. His summers, for 
many years, have been passed in Switzerland, and 
from time to time to finds recreation in the wood- of 
Maine. He was married in New York city. Dec. 5, 
1888, to Antoinette, daughter of Walter S Carter, 
and has four children. Charles Evans Hughes, Jr., 
Helen, Catherine and Elizabeth Hughes. 

FLETCHEK, Horace, author and lecturer, was 
born at Lawrence, Mass. Aug. 10, 1S4!I. son 
of Isaac and Mary A. (Blake) Fletcher. He was 
educated at the Lawrence public schools, the conn try 
school in Howard township, Steuben co., X Y.. 
the New London (N. H.) Academy and completed 
his studies at Dartmouth College. At the age of 
fifteen he ran away from school intent upon becom- 
ing a sailor, and after much persistence in this 
direction received parental permission to ship on a 
whaler bound for Japan. After his college career 




In- again sailed to the far Kast and waB in Shanghai 
:ii ihe time of the Ticn-Tsin massacre. He was 
one of the earliest foreigners who saw Japan in 

feudal times, and on of his visits then', being 

an expert marksman, instructed Field Marshal 
<\ama in shooting. He is a 'irele-s globe t rot ter, 
having made six complete trips around the world, 
crossed the Atlantic continent thirty-six limes, 
made si M ecu voyages across the Pacific to and 
from the far Fa-i and innumerable runs across I he 
Atlantic. During these journeys he e\|.|.ii.,l 
much known and unknown territory in Asia, Dutch 
Fast India, ( 'entral America. 
MI \ico and India. Most of 
his opportunities for travel 
were secured through diller- 
I'nt business connections 
which hi> sought for the pur- 
pose. Hellas I n i onnecied 

with some forty business con- 
cerns, beginning with Russell 
iv ( !o. of Shanghai. China, 
and ending with the MTV 
successful contracting I nisi- - 
ness conducted under the 
name of his brother, Isaac D. 
Fletcher of New York ''hy, 
but operating in the South 
from headquarters in New 
< irleans, La. Mr. Fletcher 
studied art in Paris, was art 
correspondent of the I'aii- 
edition of the "New York 
Herald ' and was an amateur painter for many 
years, exhibiting his work in Munich in 1.SS7. In 
1S9'J he became manager of a French opera company 
in New Orleans; but his chief businesses for thirty 
years of his life were the manufacture of printing 
ink and the importing of Oriental silks and curios, 
with headquarters in San Francisco during l^7."> MI. 
and contracting in New Orleans, isv.i '.'."> Me wa- 
in San Francisco when the sand-lot riots occurred 
in 1881, and being president of the Olympic Club, 
formed a company of it - members and was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel on the stall of Maj.-(!en. W. H. 
Barnes. In 189o he withdrew from active business, 
so broken in health that insurance companies 
refused him as a risk. It was then that he began to 
make a study of nutrition and devised a system 
of dieting that made his name famous throughout 
the world. This consisted in merely abandoning 
the habit of rapid eat ing and thoroughly masticating 
his food, deliberately chewing each mouthful until 
all taste is extracteel from it. and being reduced to 
a fluid state it practically swallowed itself. He soon 
discovered that it took less food to satisfy him; 
his health improved, nis weight reduced to the 
normal, and his strength and endurance were 
doubled. On his fiftieth birthday he bicycled 
nearly L'OO miles ; in 1'JII'J he ascended and descended 
the 854 steps of the Washington monument in 
remarkably rapid time, and in l!Ki:'. he tested the 
endurance of his right leg muscles on the Fisher 
ergometer at Yale by raising HOO pounds :;.">(> times, 
twice the record of the f .remost athlete in the 
university at that time. During these experiments 
he was living on food that cost him an average of 
only eleven cents a day. consisting of milk, maple 
sugar and prepared cereal (so-called "breakfast- 
foods"! eaten under rules formulated hy himself, 
viz., eat only in response to an actual appetite; 
chew all the taste out of solid food until it is liquid ; 
sip and taste all liquids that have taste, such as 
milk, soup, etc., until they swallow themselves, 
and never take food when angry or worried. His 
system has won the approval of the most prominent 
physiologists, physicians and scientists of the civil- 



40 



TIIK NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



ized world, and it has become so popular among its 
several million converts that the terms "Fletcher- 
izing" and "Fletcherism" are now household 
words. The spread of his movement in foreign 
countries has been wide and is growing rapidly in 
recognition of the obviousness of its economic 
importance. The first foreign treatise upon Fletcher- 
ism was by Dr. Hindhede of Denmark, afterwards 
translated into German. In 1908 his "A.B.-Z. of 
Oui Own Nutrition'' was translated^ into Italian 
and later in French, German and Spanish. Mr. 
Fletcher has been active in other directions also, 
having made a special study of the development of 
,l:i|i:m" and carried on extended researches in 
sociology. In recent years he has experimented 
in the laboratories of Vale, Cambridge (England), 
and other universities, in collaboration With 
physiological chemists, with special reference to 
the minimum quantity of food needed for the best 
human efficiency and the physiological and psycho- 
logical aids to nutrition. He is the author of "A. B. 
C. of Snap Shouting" (issl), which was used for 
instruction in both the United States and Japanese 
armies; "Menticulture" (.1893), in which anger 
and worry are depicted as sources of great injury 
to mankind; "Happiness" (1895). dealing with the 
elimination of fearthought from forethought; 
That Lust Waif" il.sysi'; "Whal Sense" .1898); 
"Nature's Food Filter" (1898); "Glutton or 
Epicure" (1899) ; "A. B.-Z. of Our Own Nutrition' 
(1903) and "Optimism" (1908). He invented and 
pa < ,,ted a bell-ball as a target for snap-shooting. 
He was one of the early members of the famous 
Bohemian Club of San Francisco, was vice-president 
and president of the Olympic Club, and was a 
director of the Art Association of that city. He is 
a fellow of the American Association fur the 
Advancement of Science, member of the Authors' 
(Mill). Arts Club and the Japan Society of London, 
the Bo-ton and Pickwick clubs oi New Orleans and 
the Tavern Club of Boston. His home is an 
ancient Byzantine palazzo on the (irand Canal, in 
Venice. Italy, and contains a wealth of objects lit 
art. and the" best books of several literatures. Mr. 
Fletcher was married in San Francisco, Cal., 
Sept. 9, 1881, to Grace Adelaid, daughter of 
Andrew .1. Marsh, and has one daughter, ( iraee Ivy, 
wife of Dr. Ernest Herbert Van Someren of Venice, 
Italy. 

GOETHALS, George Washington, military en- 
gineer, was bom in Brooklyn. N. V.. June '_".. lv>\ 
son of John Louis and Marie 
(Le Barren) Goethals. _ Ap- 
pointed to the United States 
Military Academy at West 
Point from New York, he was 
graduated June 12, 1880, re- 
ceiving a commission as second 
lieutenant in the corps of en- 
gineers. For a short time he 
was an instructor in astronomy 
at the Academy anil during 
1881-82 was stationed with 
the engineer-' battalion at Wil- 
let 's Point . N . V . He was made 
first lieutenant June 15, 1882. 
He was attached to the depart- 
ment of the Columbia under 
Gen. Miles for two years (1882- 
84), and then was transferred 
to Cincinnati, O., to act as 
assistant to Lieut. -Col. W. E. 
Merrill, who had charge of im- 
proving the Ohio river for navigation. This was the 
beginning of his experience in some of the most 
important undertakings in the construction of 
canals, locks, and dams that have fallen to the lot of 




any U. S. army engineer, and which was an excellent 
preparation for the crowning work of his life, the 
digging of the Panama canal. During 1885-88 he 
was instructor in civil and military engineering at 
the U. S. Military Academy and 1888-89 assistant 
professor of the same. He then returned to the 
work of improving the Ohio river, at Cincinnati, O., 
and later at Nashville, Tenn. He was appointed 
captain, Dec. 14, 1891 ; commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel of volunteers and at the outbreak of the 
war with Spain, was appointed chief engineer 
of the First Army Corps, May 9, 1898, serving 
throughout the war and being honorably discharged 
from the volunteer service, Dec. 31, 1898. He re- 
ceived his commission as major in the engineer corps 
of the regular army, Feb. 7, 1900. In 1903 he was 
detailed to the general staff of the army, having the 
special duty of planning the fortifications about the 
southern end of Rhode Island, and in 1905 was 
graduated at the Army War College. On both the 
side of theoretical training as teacher and student 
of engineering problems and in practical experience 
in the field Col. Goethals had become eminently fitted 
to cope with engineering problems such as were 
involved in the digging of the Panama canal, 
especially in view of the adoption of the lock type 
of construction. His experience in the " canalizing" 
of various western rivers included the supervision of 
the Mussel Shoals canal construction on the Tenn- 
essee river; a canal near Chattanooga fourteen 
miles long, seventy to 100 feet wide, and six 
feet deep, with eleven locks and an aqueduct 900 
feet long and sixty feet wide; and the Colbert 
Shoals canal. In these undertakings the man who 
later was to have charge of a force of some 30,000 
laborers displayed marked ability in handling men. 
On Feb. 28, 1907, Pres. Roosevelt appointed him 
a member of the Isthmian canal commission and 
on April 1st, its chairman and chief engineer, in 
accordance with a complete change of plans 
which had been decided upon. The work up to 
this point had been in the hands of civilian en- 
gineers, Messrs. Wallace. Stevens and Shouts, who 
had abandoned their contracts and resigned for one 
cause or another after a brief experience on the held, 
thus entailing the danger of disruption of the operat- 
ing force at critical times and hindering the under- 
taking. By putting in charge an officer of the 
United States armv. the problem was greatly sim- 
plified, and the president was given the power of 
absolute control as general-in-chief of the army over 
the men managing the work of construction. The 
members of the reorganized commission were, more- 
over, actually to live on the isthmus and to supervise 
the jobs in their charge at first hand, and the plan 
effected a saving of expenses, since the pay of army 
engineers was only $14,000 per year, whereas the 
previous chairman had received at the rate of $35,- 
000, and the chief engineer 830,000 a year. Asso- 
ciated with Col. Goethals on the new commission 
were: Lieut.-Col. Henry F. Hodges, assistant chief- 
engineer, H. H. Rousseau, ai.-tant to the chief- 
engineer, Lieut.-Col. David D. Gaillard, division 
engineer of the central division, Lieut-Col. William 
L. SilNTt, division engineer of the Atlantic division, 
Col. William C. Gorgas, head of the department of 
sanitation, and Joseph S. C. Blackburn, governor 
of the canal zone. Col. Goethals took charge of 
work on the isthmus Apr. 1, 1907, at once establish- 
ing his headquarters in the canal zone with the other 
members of the commission. At his suggestion 
the plan of the canal was changed in certain respects. 
The dams and locks which it was proposed to place 
at La Boca near the Pacific, according to the new 
plan were relocated at Miraflores, four miles further 
inland, thus placing them on a better foundation 
and withdrawing them from the range of effective 



OF AMI KM \N HliXlIt U'll V 



11 



gun fire from hostile battleships in Panama Hay. It 
was also decided to increase the width of tin 1 canal 
as well as the locks. The Panama railroad \vas re- 
located. After thorough study of the conditions Col. 
Goethals became a strong advocate uf the lock canal 
as against the sea-level type. The reported sinking, 
Nov. 25, 1908, of a portion of the (iatun dam, the 
key to the lock-level canal, construction of which 
had begun, aroused criticism from opponents of this 
plan in spite of the fact that it had been definitely 
ami officially adopted by act of congress, and in 1906 

had the approval of the president. As a result of 

this criticism I'res. Roosevelt appointed an advisory 

committee of engineers, consisting of Arthur P. 
Davis, John K. Freeman, Allen Hazen, Isham Ran- 
dolph, James 1 >ix Sclmyler, and Frederick P. Stearns, 
to deckle whether the liatun dam was feasible and 
safe and once more to pass upon the type of canal 
to be built. President-elect Taft also visit ed the 
isthmus for purposes of inspection. The results of 
borings undertaken under Col. Goethals' direction 
on the site of the Gatun dam and other data sup- 
plied by him convinced the board and they reported 
unanimously that the lock type of canal as projected 
was entirely feasible and safe. Col. Goethals re- 
ported that the Gatun dam could and would be made 
as safe as the adjoining hills, in resisting the pressure 
of the lake against it. In an estimate of the prob- 
able cost of the completed canal submitted in his 
annual report of 1909, Col. Goethals fixed the amount 
as $375,000,000. The number of employes on the 
canal was reported as 26,835, on the Panama rail- 
road 6,SI>4, and the excavation was progressing at 
the rate of 3,000,000 cubic yards per month, at 
which rate the work should be completed in the year 
1915. Col. Goethals has been successful in in- 
spiring the force at work with him with his own 
enthusiasm. He is of distinguished personal ap- 
pearance, six feet in height, broad-shouldered, with 
hair of snowy white. It is his custom to go about 
the work on inspection tours regularly every day 
and he frequently walks the length of the Culebra 
cut, nine miles, to see how the work is progressing. 
He attained the rank of Colonel of Engineers on 
Dec. 2, 1909. He was married, in 1884, to Effie, 
daughter of Thomas R. Rodman, by whom he had 
two children: George R., a second lieutenant of en- 
gineers, and Thomas R. Goethals. 

BROWN, William C., president of the New York 
Central and Hudson River railroad, was born in 
Herkimer county, X. Y., July 29, 1853, son of 
Rev. Charles E. Brown. He was educated -it 
home and in the public schools of Iowa, his 
father, who was a Baptist clergyman, having 
removed to Yernon Springs in that state in 
1857. He early developed those traits of heart 
and mind that contributed so largely to his later 
success in the railway world. He was always 
faithful and willing to work at any task that 
came to him, however menial, and he always mas- 
tered the most difficult problems, oftentimes 
discovering some simpler method of carrying out 
the duties assigned to him. He began his railroad 
service at the age of sixteen years in the employ 
of the Chicago, Milwaukee it St. Paul railroad 
at Thompson, 111. in 186.x, as a section hand, his 
principal duty being to load the locomotives with 
firewood. He improved every opportunity to better 
his position, and having learned telegraphy after 
working hours he secured the position of telegraph 
operatorat Charles City. la., on the Iowa and Dakota 
division of the Milwaukee road. In the spring of 
1871 he was transferred to the train-dispatcher's of- 
fice at Minneapolis as night operator. He became a 
train dispatcher of the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy road in 1876, and was made chief dispatcher 




of the road in January. 1SSO. As illustrating his 
willingness to lend a helping hand for whate\er 
came, it is related that during a bli/xard on one 
Sunday night in the winter nf I s77 7s ul,,.,, ,],,. 
superintendent of the stock yards at Kast Burling- 
ton was overwhelmed with nearly Kill carloads 
of live stock on his hands, and wi'th little cl 
of unloading them from the snow-stalled cattle- 
cars, young Brown, upon being relieved from duty 
at midnight, immediately went over to the stock- 
yards and offered his services to the superintendent. 
The following is the superintendent'.-; report of 
what happened: "He came 
over from the dispatcher's 
office and said his trick was 
done and wanted to know if I 
could use him. Said he n-e,| 
to be a section hand and knew 
how it was. He must have 
been three or four section 
hands from the way he turned 
in and rustled those steers. 
We've got every blamed one 
of them in the sheds now and 
he did not quit until I did." Mr. 
Brown was successively train 
master (1881-84), assistant 
superintendent (1884-87), and 
superintendent (1887-90) of 
the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quiney road. In August of 
the latter year he entered the 

service of the Hannibal & St. Joseph, and the 
Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs railroads 
as general manager. His next position was general 
manager of the Chicago, Burlington it Kansas 
City railroad, and in 1896 he returned to the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy road, serving as 
general manager from January, 1890, to July, L901. 
In the latter year he was appointed vice-president 
and general manager of the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern railroad, and in 1902 became vice- 
president of the New York Central it Hudson River 
railroad, with which he has ever since been iden- 
tified. In February, 1905, he was also appointed 
vice-president of the other New York Central lines, 
and a year later was made senior vice-president. 
On Feb. 1, 1909, he has been president of the 
entire system, including over 12,000 miles of 
road. The New York Central lines now (1910) 
comprise the New York Central & Hudson River 
Railroad Co., the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
Railway Co., the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 
it St. Louis Railway Co., the Pittsburgh it Lake 
Erie Railroad Co., the Michigan Central Railroad 
Co., the Lake Erie it Western Railroad Co., the 
Lake Erie, Alliance & Wheeling Railroad Co., the 
Chicago, Indiana & Southern Railroad Co., the 
Rutland Railroad Co., and the Xew York & Ottawa 
Railway Co. Mr. Brown is to-day probably one 
of the best posted and most able and efficient rail- 
road men in the United States. He is firm and 
determined, a characteristic never better illustrated 
than during the great railroad strike of 1888 on 
the Burlington road, when he personally took the 
place of the engineer in the locomotive cab and 
carried the mail train safely unto Chicago on time. 
His career affords a splendid example of accomp- 
lishments due to untiring industry, perseverance 
and fidelity to one's duties. His various rapid 
promotions have all been made on merit, a 
result of his own self-advancement and native 
ability. He was constantly seeking information 
that would assist him in his work, and made him- 
self so valuable in every position he held that he 
won rapid promotion. Constructive and far-seeing, 
he realizes the country's needs for increased rail- 



42 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



road facilities, and is fitting himself for the realiza- 
tion of those needs by stupendous plans that call 
for the investment of many additional billions of 
capital. Long before he was placed in his present 
position he was looked upon throughout the rail- 
road world as the virtual head of the New York 
Central system. Of pleasing address and a ready 
speaker, he is frequently called upon to deliver 
addresses before political and business bodies. 
Early in his career he adopted a new policy of 
taking his patrons into his confidence and discuss- 
ing at length all questions of interest to the latter 
as 1 hey arise. When in 1907^8 the entire country 
was clamoring for a reduction in railroad rates, 
Mr. Brown went into an exhaustive analysis of 
the entire subject, and conclusively showed that 
while the cost of railroad equipment, labor and 
maintenance, as well as the shippers' raw material 
and expense of manufaturing, increased to a large 
extent, the railroad rate in reality had remained 
the same. Mr. Brown was married June 3, 1874, 
to Miss Mary Ella Hewitt of Lime Springs, la., 
by whom he had three daughters: Georgia, \\ite 
of Dr. Frank E. Pierce of Kenawee, 111.; Ber- 
tha, wife of Dr. John Kellogg Speed, and Margaret 
Brown. 

NEWMAN, William Henry, railroad president, 
was born in Prince William county, Ya., Sept. 6, 
1 s 17, son of Albert and Adelaide (Fewell) Newman. 
He attended private schools at Edmunton, l\\ . 
where his father had moved in 1852, until he 
fourteen years of age, but discontinued his studies 
when the civil war broke out. His business career 
began in his uncle's store at Rockland Mills, Ky., and 
in 1865 he became a clerk in the United States Hotel 
at Louisville, Ky. Four years later he moved to 
Shreveport, La., where he was given the position 
of station agent of the Texas & Pacific railroad, 
which at that time was only forty miles in length. 
During the four years in the position of station 
agent he displayed proof of his organizing ability 
and zeal for improvement, and in 1872 \va- ap- 
pointed general freight agent of the Texas & Pacific 
railroad, and soon after also general passenger 
agent for that company. He was then advanced 
to the position of traffic manager for Gould's 
"Southwestern System," which 
included the Texas & Pacific, the 
International & < ircat Northern, 
the Galveston, Houston A: Hen- 
derson and the Missouri, Kansas 
\- Texas railroads. In 1SS5 he 
was transferred to St. Louis. Mo., 
' to become traffic manager of the 
entire system, which included 
the above named lines, together 
with the Missouri Pacific and 
the St. Louis, Iron Mountain A: 
Southern railroads. His reputa- 
tion as an expert in all matter- 
lertaining to general traffic con- 
ditions was now widely know n. 
He remained with that system 
until 188S, when he voluntarily 
retired from railway service, 
owing to failing health under 
the strain, and went to Alaska to recuperate. 
In 1889, having recovered his health, he moved 
to Chicago and deciding to enter the railroad 
service- again, accepted the position of second 
vice-president in charge of traffic of the Chicago 
& Northwestern railway. He gave up this po- 
sition in 1896, and moved to St. Paid, Minn., 
to take the second vice-presidency of the Great 
Northern railroad under James J. Hill, who waa 
then extending his road across the continent. 
During his stay with Pres. Hill he acquired much 




knowledge of methods of modernizing American 
railways and cheapening the cost of transportation 
by the use of heavier rails, heavier locomotives and 
heavier cars. Two years thereafter the most 
influential stage of Mr. Newman's career began 
when he moved to Cleveland, O., and became asso- 
ciated with the Vanderbilt system, being elected 
president of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
railway. He was also made president of two other 
Vanderbilt lines that year, the Pittsburg & Lake 
Erie and the Lake Erie & Western, and in 1901 was 
transferred to New York and made president of the 
New York Central & Hudson River railroad, in 
addition to the above lines. He directed his efforts 
to uniting all the Vanderbilt roads, about i:>,000 
miles of rails, into one system, by abolishing un- 
necessary offices and reducing operating expenses 
by concentration and direction under one manage- 
ment, being made president of the other New York 
Central -\-iein lines as follows: Michigan Central 
in 1905; Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
in 1110.3; Rutland in 1905; Chicago, Indiana A: 
Southern in 1900, and Indiana Harbor Belt in 1907. 
On I eb. I. 1909, he resigned the presidency of all the 
New York Central lines, feeling that after forty 
years of railroad work he had a right to immunity 
from such heavy responsibility, but he remained 
as a member of the board of directors of all the 
roads in that system and its allied companies, 
which made him at that time a director of 114 
corporations. The great work of rebuilding the 
Grand Central terminal in New York city the 
putting of the tracks underground and the sub- 
stitution of electricity for steam as motive power in 
that city, planned during his administration, was 
nearly completed before his retirement from active 
railway service. Upon the acceptance of his re<ig- 
na i ion the board of directors officially bore emphatic 
testimony to the esteem and respect in which he is 
held by them. Mr. Newman was married at Mar- 
shall, Tex., Feb. 18, Is74. to Bessie, daughter of 
( 'ol. Henry F. Carter, of that city. 

WELCH, Herbert, fifth president of Ohio Wes- 
leyan University (1905 I, was born in New York, 
Nov. 7. IMi'J, son of Peter Ambrose and Mary 
Louise (Lovelaiid) Welch. His father was president 
of the New York Saving Hank during 1897-1902. 
He was educated in the Polytechnic Institute, 
Brooklyn, and at Wesleyan University, where he 
was graduated A.B. in 1SS7, and received thedegree 
of M.A. in 1890. He then studied theology at the 
Drew Theological Seminary, and after his graduation 
in 1890, with the degree of B.D., he joined the New 
York conference of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
and was stationed at Bedford Station. N. Y., two 
years. He was pastor of St. Luke's Church, New 
\ ork city, in 1.V.I2-9:;, and being transferred to the 
New York cast conference was placed in charge of 
the Suniinerlield Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. After 
officiating five years there he became pastor of the 
First Methodist Episcopal Church of Middletown, 
Conn., a charge he held until 1902. In 1905, after 
a year abroad and a two years' pastorate at Mt. 
VeYnon, N. Y., Mr. Welch was elected president, of 
Ohio Wesleyan University. The enrollment in 1909 
was 1,. '127 students, and showed an increase of 5 per 
cent, annually during the four preceding years. The 
alumni number nearly 4,000, and the amount of 
permanent productive funds is 8710.200.95. Under 
the leader-hip of I'res. Welch, Ohio Wesleyan may 
fairly be said to have entered upon a new epoch. 
Progressive but cautious, with a firm grasp of details 
and unusual skill in organization, he is giving the 
unity of a strong directing personality to the various 
interests of the-university. He has brought careful 
oversight, sound judgment, and the business methods 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



43 



of an efficient corporation to the administration of 
its business affairs. His influence on the educational 
activities of all departments of the institution is 
apparent in the adaptation of the methods of the 
cla<--room to a high scholastic standard, and the 
Minmlaiion in faculty and students of a genuine 
love of scholarship. With a clear conviction that 
the function of the college is distinct from that of the 
professional school and the university, he worked 
out a curriculum in harmony with modern ideals of 
culture. By careful organization he is seeking to 
preserve to the student body, in spite of the increas- 
ing enrollment, the advantages of personal contact 
with their instructors, which is supposed to he the 
peculiar distinction of the small institution. His 
ready sympathy with the students in their problems, 
his wide range of interest in all their activities, his 
frankness and sincerity, have given him a secure 
place in their regard and affection. In the wider 
relation of the university with its alumni and patrons, 
and with the church which it represents, he is bring- 
ing about, through the organization of alumni asso- 
ciat ions and by a wide personal acquaintance, a closer 
and more loyal relationship; while as president of the 
Social Service League of the Methodist Church, he is 
bringing to bear upon the activities of the church, 
a- upon the faculty and students, a deep sense of the 
obligations of Christian service. Asa public speaker 
1'res. Welch is clear, cogent, impressing his auditors 
by his candor, his fairness, the precision and polish 
of his utterance, and the truth of his message. He 
was a member of the board of managers of the Sunday 
School Union of the Methodist Kpiscopal Church, 
IS'.IL! !iii, and a member of the board of managers 
of the Missionary Society, and trustee of Wesleyan 
University. During 1907-08 he was president of 
tin- Association of Ohio College Presidents and Deans, 
and lias been president of the Methodist Federation 
for Social Service since 1907. He belongs to the Psi 
Upsilon and Phi Beta Kappa fraternities. Wesleyan 
University conferred upon him the degrees of D.D. 
in 1902 and LL.D. in 1906. He has contributed 
papers to the "Christian Advocate," the "North- 
western Christian Advocate," the "Sunday School 
Journal'' and the "Sunday School Classmate." He 
i-~ the author of "Alberts. Hunt," a biography in the 
"Methodist Review" (1900), and a pamphlet on 
"The College Student and the Christian Confession" 
(1900) and in 1901 he edited "Selections from the 
Writings of John Wesley." Pres. Welch was mar- 
ried June 3, 1890, to Adelaide Frances, daughter of 
James and Elizabeth A. McGee, and has two daugh- 
ters: Dorothy McGee and Eleanor Welch. 

CAMPBELL, Thomas Mitchell, twenty-third 
governor of Texas, was born near Rusk, Cherokee 
co., Tex., Apr. 22, 1850, son of Thomas Duncan and 
Rachel (Moore) Campbell, and grandson of Enos 
Campbell. He worked on the home farm and 
attended public schools until 1873, and then studied 
for a year at Trinity University, Tehuacana, Tex. 
He began work in the county clerk's office at Long- 
view. Gregg eo., Tex., and studied law at night until, 
in 1878, he was admitted to the bar. By reason of 
natural aptitude and close application to business he 
rose to recognition as one of the most capable 
criminal and civil lawyers in the state. In 1889 
he was appointed master in chancery in the Inter- 
national and Great Northern Railroad Co. receiver- 
ship case, and in January, 1891, became receiver of 
the road. When the case was closed in July, 1892, 
because of having lifted the road from a demoralized 
and bankrupt condition to a state of peifect organi- 
zation and solvency, where it was a valuable, paying 
enterprise, he was tendered and accepted the office 
of general manager of the company. On May 25, 
1897, he resigned the managership and resumed the 




practice of law at Palestine. In the state Demo- 
cratic primary election held in July, 1906, Mr. 
Campbell was nominated for governor of Texas, was 
elected in November and inaugurated in January, 
1907. His bold and progressive policies soon 
awakened the opposition of certain wealthy and 
influential parties, who banded together to oppose 
his reelection. However, he took the stump in 
almost every county in the state and in the Demo 

cratic primaries held in July, ]!l()S, r 'ived 217,000 

votes, while his opponent, R. R. \Villiams, received 
only 102,000 the largest majority accorded a 
Democrat in the Texas pri- 
maries. At the general ele.- 
tions he received a majority 
of over 150,000 votes and was 
inaugurated on Jan. 19, 1909. 
When he first went into the 
office there was such a de- 
ficiency in the slati' revenues 
that for periods of several 
months' duration the treasury 
would be unable to meet 
public obligations. There 
was also just complaint that 
immense corporate propert ies 
were wholly escaping taxa- 
tion. These two hitherto in- 
surmountable problems were 
solved byagross receipts law, 
an intangible assests law, an 
insurance law and other tax 
measures that, without injus- 
tice to any interest, brought in ample revenue and yet 
permitted the taxes of the people to be substantially 
reduced. What is known as an automatic state tax 
board was created with power to fix the tax rate each 
year at such an amount as will yield revenue equal 
to the total sum called for by the general appro- 
priation bill passed by the legislature. For the fir>t 
time in the history of the state the constitutional 
requirement that public schools shall be maintained 
six months in the year was redeemed; funds were 
provided for the support of all the state institutions 
and for additional normal schools, agricultural 
experimental stations, etc. Instead of crippling 
legitimate enterprises and preventing an influx of 
capital and population, as many thought, business 
became more prosperous than ever before; total 
taxable values increased from $1,221,259,81)9 in 
1906 to 82,174,122,480 in 1908. The population 
increased from 3,048,710 in 1900 to 4,800,000 in 
1910. New state departments were created, includ- 
ing insurance and banking, agriculture, labor, state- 
tax commission and state library. Among impor- 
tant laws enacted during Gov. Campbell's adminis- 
tration are those to drive "wildcat" insurance com- 
panies out of the state and adequately regulate 
insurance; to establish a system of state banks with 
an effective guarantee of deposits feature; to im- 
prove the penal system and insure the early aboli- 
tion of the system of leasing convicts; to put 
"bucket shops" out of business; to protect the 
lives of railroad, mine and other corporation em- 
ployees; to prohibit the granting of railroad passes 
(with certain exceptions); to prohibit lobbying; 
to protect live stock from infection; to provide for 
irrigation and drainage districts; to enforce revenue 
laws and to provide a system of depositaries that, 
keep tax money in circulation until actually needed. 
Gov. Campbell endeavored to bring about many 
other reforms, such as the simplification of court 
procedure, and the reduction of passenger railroad 
rates; but was prevented by combined influences 
too strong to surmount. He believes that every 
man who runs for the governorship should be re- 
quired to tell the people in advance what his inten- 



44 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




>) "w-^i, . 



tions are if elected, and afterwards do his best to live 
up to his words. In all ways he is an earnest, 
straightforward, manly man who steers his course 
by duty and puts his state before his own welfare. 
He was married at Shreveport, La., Dec. 24, 187X, 
to Fannie I., daughter of William I. Bremer, and 
had five children : Mary Divernia (deceased), Fannie 
Bremer, Thomas Mitchell, Sammie Belle and May- 
delle Campbell. 

FRENCH, Edwin Davis, engraver, was born at 
North Attleboro, Bristol co., Mass., Jan. 19, 1851, 
son of Deacon Ebenezerand Maria (Norton) French, 
both members of long-established 
New England families. He was 
prepared for college at Suffield, 
Conn., and entered Brown Uni- 
versity, class of 1870, but on 
account of delicate health he 
withdrew after two years. He 
was naturally of an artistic ten- 
dency and at the instance of the 
founder of the firm he entered 
the employ of Whiting & Co., 
silversmiths, of North Attleboro 
and New York, where for twenty- 
five years he remained as foreman 
of the engraving and designing 
department. His experience here 
was supplemented by home st ud y 
and attendance of the Art Stu- 
dents' League of New York. In 
1893 he decided to abandon silver 
engraving and devote himself to book-plate work on 
copper. His earliest work in this line was done 
while he was employed by the Whit ing ( Y>. and bears 
the date of 1893. Book-plates numbering n<> less 
i han thirty-six occupied his attention during the 
first year of his endeavors, and he won within that 
brief time the reputation of the first American 
cupper engraver. For about two years he lived in 
New York after leaving the Whiting Co. and then 
mmed to Saranac Lake, where he resided until his 
death. His employment on book-plates was con- 
tinuous, there being no time when he had not on 
hand commissions sufficient to occupy his at tent 'nm 
for months in advance. Of these interesting little 
works of art he executed '.'US during 1X93-9(5. More 
perhaps than to any other American engraver, to 
Mr. French is due the decided advance in artistic 
taste and commercial demand for these significant 
tokens of ownership Prior to his activity, book- 
plates in America had been, in the main, imitations 
of English heraldic styles, plain printed labels, or 
sentimental bits of symbolism. The book lovers of 
America united in their support of Mr. French, and 
in the list of owners of plates (-an be found the 
names of the ( Irolierand Union League clubs, Prince- 
eton and Harvard universities, William Loring 
Andrews, Whitelaw Reid, Barrett Wendell,Theodore 
L. De Vinne, the Club of Odd Volumes, the New 
York Yacht Club, the American Society of Elec- 
trical Engineers, and the Cosmos Club of Washing- 
ton. A notable list of book-plates was also executed 
for Harvard College. No other American engraver 
or designer of book-plates has produced both book- 
plates and miscellaneous engravings so much sought 
for by collectors as did Mr. French- Professional 
engravers, ambitious in their art, use his plates in 
technical study, for lie was, as they called him, a 
"little master." He also produced a considerable 
number of engravings other than book-plates, nota- 
bly old New York views for the Society of Icono- 
philes, and Colonial Order of the Acorn, New York 
Chapter, and a remarkable engraving of the steam- 
ship "Britannia," used as a frontispiece to William 
Loring Andrew's "A Stray Leaf from the Corre- 
spondence of Washington Irving and Charles 



Dickens.' The membership certificates of The 
Iconophile Society, the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art and the New York Historical Society are 
examples of his workmanship in harmoniously 
combining the required features of a plate with a 
wealth of decorative scroll work, as are also a 
number of engraved title-pages from his hand. 
Those for "Andrews Journal" and the "Letters of 
Charles Lamb" were executed by him for the 
Bibliophile Society of Boston, and we should not 
omit mention of the view of Harvard campus, 
in "Edwin Davis French; A Memorial," privately 
issued in 1908. It is a plate of singular beauty and 
accuracy and brings him more than any other 
American into comparison with the old-time copper 
engravers. The leading features of his designs were 
his originality and freedom of line, his artistic 
adaptation of the lotus and acanthus scroll, and 
the faculty he possessed for bringing all parts of his 
work into harmony, creating rather an artistic 
unit than a congregation of details. As an en- 
graver his work is remarkable for its accuracy and 
boldness in treatment. He worked rapidly and 
cut the metal deeply. Rarely is there uncertainty 
in his stroke. He also had a method of touch that 
eludes analysis, a faculty which gave warmth and 
distinctive character to his works. He was suc- 
cessively t re: surer and twice president of the Art 
Student's Lcag e of New Y'ork. He was married 
in 1873, to Mary Olivia, daughter of Harvey 
Brainerd of En field, Conn. He died in New Y'ork 
city Dec. X, 190(1. 

HUNEKER, James Gibbons, author, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., .Jan. 31, ISliO, son of John and 
Mary (Gibbons) Huneker. On his mother's side 
he is related to Cardinal Gibbons. One of his 
grandfathers was an Irish poet and a vice-president 
of the Fenian Brotherhood; the other grandfather 
was a Hungarian musician. He was graduated at 
Roth's Military Academy, Philadelphia, in 1873, 
after which he studied law and conveyancing for 
five years at a law academy in the same city. 
Meantime he had begun the study of music, to 
which his taste inclined more than to the law. 
He took piano lessons of Michael H. Cross for two 
years and then studied the piano under Theodore 
Kilter, and theory under Leopold Doutreleau in 
Pari-. France. As his subsequent career showed, 
he had other masters in Paris also, but they were not 
musicians, and the young man who eagerly read 
the modern French essayists, poets, novelists and 
dramatists, and who saw many of them at close 
range, did not suspect that thereby he was laying 
the foundations of a career beside which his work 
on the interpretative and pedagogical side of music 
would prove to be insignificant. It was as a musi- 
cian that he settled in New Y'ork in 18SO and con- 
trived to eke out a living by teaching and writing 
for the press. He was for a considerable period 
without any regular journalistic connection, but, 
his ability to write entertainingly about music was 
recognized by the "Musical Courier," with which 
he gradually became identified, first as critic and 
later as associate editor. He remained with the 
"Courier'' until IS! IS. For ten years of this period 
he was associated as a piano teacher with liatael 
Joseffy at the National Conservatory of Music, New 
Y'ork. In 1892-93 he wrote musical criticisms 
for the New York "Recorder," and, after the 
discontinuance of that paper, for the "Morning 
Advertiser" until 1897. He joined the staff of the 
New York "Sun" as musical critic in 1X9(1 anil held 
this position until 1902 when, at his own desire, he 
was transferred to the dramatic department, of 
which he was the head for two years. Th.'Mi he 
voluntarily relinquished the position of dramatic 
critic, but retained his connection with the news- 



OF AMKRU'AX lilt >< ; I; Al'll V. 



45 



paper by acting :is critic on milters pertaining to 
art ami literature. Mr. Huneker's output of hooks 
began in 1899 with "Mezzotints in Modem Music-." 
This was followed by "Chopin the- Man and his 
Musi,-" e.19001, Mclomaniae-s" (1902), "Over- 
tones" (l'J04), "Iconoclasts," a volume of essays 
devoled to Ibsen and the modern dramatists i 1005), 
'Visionaries," a collection of stories (190.")). and 
"Egoists, a Book of Supermen" (1909). He is the 
author also of the ariiele 011 music in the New 
International Encyclopaedia and of many prefaces, 
introductions and magazine articles. His "Mez- 
zotints' 1 has been translated into French and 
German. Incidental to the writings mentioned 
he has been engaged for several years upon a defini- 
tive biography of Fran/! Liszt which, in his opinion, 
will be the important work of his life. Then- is 
evidence of much versalilily in the foregoing sum- 
mary of Mr. Huneker's career, and versatility is not 
often coupled with commanding ability in any one 
direction, but Mr. 1 luneker is an except ion, inasmuch 
as lie occupies a commanding place in American 
literature as a critic. He has applied himself, one 
after the other, to every output of the human 
imagination, leaving a subject only when too great 
familiarity with it caused him to feel that his 
receptive- sensibilities had become blunted. Thus 
he has always worked at that which interested him 
most, and this fact may account in some measure 
for the dazzling freshness and spontaneity that 
characterize his style. His "Egoists" is dedicated 
to (ic-orge Brandes, and what Brandes is to the old 
world, Huneker is to the new, but Huneker's figure 
stands out in even bolder relief in America than that 
of Brandes in Europe, because critics of the first 
rank are comparatively few here. He has been 
called a "Super-critic, 5 ' and a "Necromancer in 
words," designations intended to convey a sug- 
gestion of his unusual insight and his epigrammatic, 
witty and original manner of expressing his thought. 

HAMMERSTEIN, Oscar, impresario and theat- 
rical manager, was born in Berlin, Germany, in 
1852, of Hebrew parentage. His father, Abraham 
Hammerstein, was a wealthy merchant and gave his 
son a good education, chiefly under private masters; 
but he was a stern disciplinarian, and when Oscar 
was sixteen years old he was punished so severely for 
a slight disobedience that he decided to run away 
from home, ami taking ship at Hamburg for Hull, 
England, he embarked for America from that port 
in 1S(>3. As cigar-making was the first employment 
that he could find in New York, he engaged in it at 
once, ami became identified with the business for 
many years. Being of an inventive mind he pat- 
ented several devices for improving the process of 
manufacturing cigars, one of which practically 
revolutionized the method of cigar-making and 
brought him $300,000. For fifteen years he pub- 
lished a trade newspaper, the "United States 
Tobacco Journal," which also proved very re- 
munerative. Early in his career Mr. Hammerstein 
began to invest his earnings in real estate prop- 
erty, principally in Harlem. But his one great 
passion was a fondness for the theatre and things 
theatrical. His thoughts turned toward building 
theatres and managing them, and he wrote three 
one-act comedies in German, which were produced 
at the German Theatre in New York in 1868, but 
they were not very successful. In 1870 he became 
the lessee and manager of the Stadt Theatre. 
Although he was not a successful manager in the 
beginning, he was gaining experience which he 
knew how to put to good account, and, nothing 
daunted, he resolved to go into theatre building as 
a speculation, though not exclusively so. He always 
believed it was a most commendable thing to supply 



the public with wholesome amusement, and the idc- :i 
of doing good by means of stage productions was 
ever uppermost in his mind. lie built the Harlem 
Opera House in I ,SSO ; it was a financial loss to 

him from the start. The Columbus Theatre in I ,, i 

l'J5tli street, Harlem, was next const .riiclc-d, and 
being in a populous district, proved to be a ise ven- 
ture lie next built the Manhattan Theatre at 
Thirty-fourth .street and Sixth avenue, which he 
leased to Rosier it Bial. In 1S97 he erected, at a cost 
of 82,500,0110, the Olympia mow the- New York). 
The Victoria and the BelascO were also builf l>y him. 
He usually supervised every part of the- construc- 
tion of his playhouses, and the archileels and 
decorators accepted his suggestions in matters 
of novel arrangement, improved convenience- ami 
artistic decoration. His most serious and elabo- 
rate undertaking was the- Manhattan opera 
House, where since its completion in 19011 lie- has 
presented a series of grand opera performances of 
the highest merit, rivaling the- famous product ie ens 
of the Metropolitan Opera House, not only in the 
artistic quality of presentation but in the personnel 
of the singers and the variety of the repertoire-. Tin- 
skeptics declared that New York could not support 
two such organizations, that as all previous attempts 
had resulted disastrously, Mr. Hammerstein's ven- 
ture would meet the fate of the others, but he- had 
not been studying the musical conditions in vain. 
His judgment proved correct, and the opening ol t he- 
Manhattan proved to be an epoch-making event in 
the history of American music-, as well as the most 
decided triumph in the career of Oscar Ilaninn-r- 
stein. He showed his abilities as an impresario by 
introducing new works of modern French and Italian 
composers, and brought out a number of Europe an 
successes, such as Jules Massenet's "Thais," " I, a 

Navarraise," and "Le Jongleur de Notre I),- "; 

Charpen tier's "Louise"; Debussy's "Pe-lleas et 
Melisande," and Strauss' " Elektra," and he secure -d 
artists of the first -rank, equaling in every way the 
stars of the Metropolitan stage-, such as Mary Garden, 
Tetrazzini, Dalmores and Zenatello. The result of 
the enthusiasm and interest aroused by Mr. Ham- 
merstein's success with grand 
opera was not only a more 
modern and varied repertoire 
at the Metropolitan as well as 
at the Manhattan, buta great- 
er desire for and appreciation 
of grand opera in other cities. 
In the fall of 1908 he opened 
the Philadelphia Opera House, 
which he built at a cost of 
81,200,000, and made plans 
to introduce operas in other 
cities. In the fall of 1909 Mr. 
Hammerstein made an impor- 
tant experiment in what he 
called educational grand opera 
at prices suited to those who 
could not afford to attend the 
most expensive performan- 
ces. Although not a financial 
success, it unquestionably 
attained the object desired, and his readiness to risk- 
loss and failure in attempting so worthy an object 
was appreciated. Mr. Hammerstein has complete 
confidence in the future of grand opera in the United 
States, not only as regards its growing popular 
appreciation, but also as to the sufficiency of home 
talent. He says: "When the great people of 
America not a few capitalists and devotees of 
fashion demand grand opera and make its support 
the same serious business which continental Europe 
has done for three cent t tries, we shall not send abroad 
for our dramatic singers." He has an original and 




46 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




humorous way of stating his opinions, and his pub- 
lished interviews oh musical and theatrical matters 
are much relished. His self-reliance and cheerful- 
ness in adverse circumstances, notably displayed 
during the apparent failure of the first two weeks of 
hs first grand opera season, are traits of character 
that have won admiration, and his generous willing- 
ness to lead in enterprises having the improvement 
of popular musical taste as their object is ungrudg- 
ingly recognized. Mr. Hammerstein was twirl- 
married and has six children, one of whom, Arthur, 
is associated with him in his grand opera enterprises, 
while another, William, is manager of the Victoria 
Theatre. 

TOWNSEND, Edward Waterman, author, was 
born in Cleveland, O., Feb. 10, 1S55, son of Horace 
Gilbert and Eliza Ann (Thorn- 
ton ) Townsend. He was edu- 
cated in public and private 
schools. Upon attaining his 
majority he went to Califor- 
nia with the intention of 
becoming a mining engineer, 
but his inclination to writing 
was so strong that after a 
year's practical study in the 
mines of the Comstock lode, 
he turned to literary work 
and contributed his first short 
stories to the San Francisco 
"Argonaut." In 1892 he 
joined the staff of the Xi-w 
York "Sun," where he has 
since remained and began the 
portrayal of the inimitable 
Thimmie Fadden'' and "Major Max," characters 
which gained for him a distinct place in American 
literature. His first "Chimmie Fadden" (1904) 
volume was remarkably popular and was followed 
speedily by another. In 1896 he wrote a play 
.of the same name which was even more success- 
ful than the books. It was continuously in per- 
fnriiiance for several years and is still in the reper- 
tory of traveling companies. His first novel, "A 
Daughter of the Tenements," was published in 1896, 
and shortly after it appeared he collaborated witn 
Clay M. Greene in dramatizing it. He also collabo- 
rated with Glen Macdonough in "The Marquis of 
Michigan," and in 1901 wrote a society drama called 
"The Sergeant." Mr. Townsend has given more of 
his time to books than to plays, but not all of his 
output has been fiction. He has always been 
interested in political questions, and in 1906 pub- 
lished a historical study, or textbook, called "Our 
Constitution, Why and How it was Made, Who Made 
it, and What it is." Two years later the Democrats 
of his congressional district nominated him for 
congress. He made an energetic canvas and proved 
to be effective as a public speaker, but the district 
was normally Republican by a large majority, and 
he was defeated. Mr. Townsend's books, besides 
those named above include: "Near a Whole City 
Full," a collection of short stories (1897); "Days 
Like- These" (1901), "Lees and Leaven" (1903), 
"A Summer in New York" (1903), "Reuben Lark- 
mead" (1905), "Beaver Creek Farm" (1907), and 
"The Climbing Courvatels" (1908), allnovels. In 
quantity, this is a respectable output, but it repre- 
sents only a fraction of his literary work, for he has 
suffered literature to interfere but little with his 
journalistic duties. In their time his news reports 
have vied with his books hi popularity and impor- 
tance, as for example, his articles in the "Sun" on 
the "Lexow" investigation. So far as he was con- 
cerned these articles were the climax to an extended 
series of reports of crime in the congested districts 
of New York. He sought that field deliberan ly 



and there gathered much of the literary material 
that eventually was incorporated into his novels. 
It is natural that a journalist should touch on a 
variety of topics, and touch them well, and in Mr. 
Townsend's case, literature and journalism have 
gone hand in hand. The distinctive place he won 
by "Chimmie Fadden" has been broadened partly 
by his stories of tenement life, partly by his observa- 
tions of other social levels. His types are by no 
means always of the humorous or eccentric order, and 
he is equally at home in depicting tragedy and 
comedy. It seems to be the general opinion of 
critics that his strength as a writer lies not so much 
in style, that is, the manner of his work, as in what 
is usually called "human interest," which is to say, 
its matter. His people are intensely real to him, 
and he sets them forth with such unpretentious 
earnestness, whether he is serious or humorous at the 
moment, that they become measurably real and 
therefore impressive to the reader. Mr. Townsend 
was married Apr. 16, 1884, to Annie, daughter of 
Delos Lake of San Francisco. 

WHITTEMORE, WiUiam John, artist, was 
born in New York city, Mar. 26, 1860, son of Charles 
and Marie F. (Kimball) Whittemore. He is de- 
scended from Thomas and Mary Whittemore of 
Hitchin, Hereford co., England, who came to Amer- 
ica in 1840, through their son John, who married 
Mary Upham; their son John, who married Eliza- 
beth Anabel ; their son John, who married Elizabeth 
Lloyd ; their son John, who married Lydia Clough; 
their son Josiah, who married Lucy Snow; their son 
John, who married Hannah Stone; and their son 
Dexter, who married Betsy Wright, and was Mr. 
Whitternore's grandfather. As a lad he showed a 
predilection for painting and his family being ac- 
quainted with William Hart, the landscape and 
cattle painter, arrangements were made by which 
he was allowed to work in the veteran's studio and 
copy his paintings. Mr. Hart taught him rather 
through analysis than through any direct method of 
instruction. After young Whittemore had copied 
our of his paintings Mr. Hart would point out the 
di'tVcts and explain the formation of trees and hills, 
the light and shade upon a cloud, and the color of 
cattle, so that it was not long before the young 
student was able to make a fairly creditable picture. 
Hi- was not as yet, however, prepared to make art 
his life work, so he went into business for several 
years, at the end of which he entered the schools of 
t he National Academy of Design Here he met some 
advanced students, members of a group of young 
painters working in the studio of Walter Satterlee, 
and at their suggestion joined the latter's class. 
Later he entered The Art Student's League, New 
York city. By this time he had decided to make 
art his profession, and going to Paris studied under 
Jules Lefebvre and Benjamin Constant. He is noted 
for his work in water colors, a medium which he 
carries to high finish when painting ideal heads, 
especially of pretty children, which are frequently 
popular in reproduction. He is also a skilled 
miniaturist, and was one of the charter members of 
the American Miniature Society. His miniature 
work is characterized by breadth of treatment 
almost equaling oil, and that clearness of color th:it. 
is the main desideratum of painting on viory. He 
is equally happy in portraying the head of an infant, 
or the features of old age. One of his compositions, 
a charming picture of a young girl in antique cos- 
tume holding a salver of fruit, is entitled "Yule 
Tide." "The Idler" shows a dreamy faced little 



girl against a background of sugiri'-tnl woodland; 
" Tin- i lirl in Yi-lliiw is a slender maiden in brormlr 
standing by a great gold lamp. For the last tVw 
years his work has concentrated upon portraiture. 



OF AMERICAN HIOGKAI'HY. 



47 



His purpose is to consider the portrait as a picture, 
which without slighting the likeness should still lie 
beautiful and something to be treasured for it. -elf 
apart from the personal regard for the one who -ni 
for the work. He is a member of the American 
Water Color Society, New York Water Color Club, 
and :m associate of the National Academy of De- 
sign. He received a silver medal at the 1'aris Kx- 
position, 1889, a bronze medal at the Atlanta K.\po- 
sition, 1895, and a bronze medal at the Charleston 
Exposition, N. C., 1902. He was married in IS!).") to 
Alice V , daughter of Fredericc Whitmore of New 
York. 

PEIXOTTO, Ernest Clifford, artist and author, 
was born in San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 1.1. IM'.'.I. son 
of Raphael and Myrtilla (Davis) Peixotto. of Spanish 
descent, his grandfather having been a noted New 
York physician. His father ( 1849-1905) was a well- 
known merchant of San Francisco, and his brother, 
Edgar I). Peixotto, was district attorney of that city. 
Bis uncle, Benjamin Franklin, was United Stales 
minister to lloumania and sometime United States 
consul at Lyons, France. Ernest Peixotto began 
his art studies at the School of Design in San Fran- 
cisco, under Emil (.'arisen and in 1888 went to Paris 
to continue themat the Academic Julian under the 
instructorship of Jules Lefebvre and Benjamin Con- 
stant. In 1890 he exhibited a peasant interior at 
the Salon and in 1891 a church interior, both of 
which were well received, the latter subsequently 
being exhibited at the Society of American Artists 
in New York. He returned to San Francisco in 
1891. He received honorable mention for some 
drawings exhibited at the World's Fair, Chicago, 
1893, and in that year hereturned to France for 
further study. At the Salon of 1895 he was 
awarded honorable mention for a picture entitled 
'A Woman of Rijsoord," a study of a Dutch 
woman's head in the quaint coif of the environs 
of Rotterdam. Returning to San Francisco again, 
he painted several portraits and had two successful 
exhibitions. He added to his fame at this period 
by his artistic illustrations in Gellett Burgess' 
"Lark," an airy San Francisco publication whose 
mission in magazine literature it was to soar into 
the lighter atmosphere of art and letters. He de- 
signed most of its covers and made many of its 
illustrations. In 1897 Mr. Peixotto settled in New 
York city, and busied himself illustrating for the 
leading periodicals. He illustrated Brim's "Tales 
of Languedoc," Henry Cabot Lodge's "Story of the 
Revolution," Theodore Roosevelt's "Cromwell," 
and Mrs. Wharton 's "Italian Backgrounds." 
an illustrator his work has taken high rank; its 
characteristics are simplicity and directness, pic- 
turesqueness and vividness of detail. He has always 
had a fondness for architectural studies, and abroail 
he made many sketches of the chateaux in the valley 
of the Loire and of the French cathedrals, while at 
home his drawings of the congressional library in 
Washington and Boston public library are perhaps 
the best of that class. In 1899 when he again wenl 
to Europe he began writing articles to accompany 
his illustrations of the picturesque out-of-the-way 
places on the continent, and since 1900 he has con- 
fined his illustrations to his own publications. His 
first book was "By Italian Seas" (1906), dealing 
with Mediterranean material and containing eighty 
illustrations by himself, followed by "Through the 
French Provinces" (1909), with eighty-five illus- 
trations. In 1900-07 there were two exhibitions in 
New York of his paintings of old-world garden sub- 
jects. By special request bis drawings and paintings 
were exhibited in 1907-08 at the Art Institute, 
Chicago, the Toledo Museum of Art and the Detroit 
Museum of Art. In 1909 he was made an associate 
of the National Academy. Mr. Peixotto's work is 



specialized by its quality of romantic charm and 
refinement of technique. His subjects are mostly of 

the old world, consisting mainly of historic castles 
and picturesque town- During I'.lll'.l 10 he pre- 
pared for " Scribner's Maga/.ine" a serie- of articles 
and illustrations on California from a pictorial ami 
romantic point of view. Mr. IVixotto i.- a member 
of the Bohemian Club .San Franci-co), The Players' 
Club, Salmagundi Club (New York), ami the 
American Club (Paris). He was married Jan Js, 
1S97, at New ( Means, La., to Mary G., daughter of 
T. R. Hutchinson, of Oakland, Cal. 

PHILLIPS, David Graham, author, was born 
in Madison, Inil., Oct. 31, 1867, son of David Graham 
and Margaret I Lee) Phillips. His ancestors were 
among the early settlers of Virginia and the Caro- 
linas, and a great-grandfather becoming convinced 
that slavery was wrong removed to Indiana with his 
family and settled there. He was educated at De 
Pauwand at Princeton universities, being graduaied 
at the latter in 1887. He was appointed at once to 
the reportorial staff of a Cincinnati newspaper. At 
that period the Ne\v York "Sun" was the magnet 
that attracted aspiring young newspaper men from 
all parts of the United States, and Mr. Phillips was 
one of the many young journalists who migrated to 
New York with the intention of joining its staff. He 
was rapidly advanced in the "Sun" ollice because 
his literary style and his unusual method of bringing 
out the human quality in every-day events marked 
him as a journalist of the first magnitude. After he 
had been with the " Sun " for several years he trans- 
ferred his services to the New York " World," remain- 
ing there as an editorial writer until the succes- ol 
his first novel prompted him to withdraw from 
journalism and give his whole attention to the higher 
walks of literature. This book was " The Great God, 
Success" (1901). It was followed by "Her Sen n e 
Highness" (1902), "A Woman Ventures" (1902), 
"Golden Fleece" (1903), "The Master Rogue" 
(1903), "The Cost" (1904), "The Plum Tree" 
(1905), "The Reign of Gilt" (1905), "The Social 
Secretary" (1905), "The Deluge" (1905), "The 
Fortune Hunter" (1906), "The Second Generation" 
(1907)," Light Fingered Gentry" 
(1907), "The Fashionable Ad- 
ventures of Joshua Craig"(1908), 
"Old Wives for New" (1908), 
"The Worth of a Woman" 
(1908), and "The Hungry 
Heart" (1909). No individual 
book in this list can be said to 
have made Mr. Phillips' repu- 
tation, although the popularity 
of "The Great God, Success" 
was more decided than that 
which usually attends the initial 
output of a young novelist. 
His reputation is a literary 
evolution, and has been created 
through a succession of books 
of a. decided literary quality 
and an idealistic atmosphere, 
each deepening the ii'.ntal im- 
pression created by its predecessor. The human 
quality thai made his newspaper writing distinctive 
and made him a successful reporter, is the basis of his 
larger literary work which is filled with a spirit of 
trenchant, insistent criticism Mr. Phillips is a pro- 
nounced radical in his social, political and religious 
conviction, and his novels are inspired by a propo- 
gandistic spirit. On this point the New \ ork 
"Evening Post" says: "Mr. Phillips has always 
about him a good deal of the bull in the china shop, 
but there is no doubting his sincerity or denying his 
vigor. He is a voice of the middle West ; he speaks 




48 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



without conscious pose, as a plain man of the people, 
which is to say, the people of the class and district 
from which he came. Mr. Phillips has acquired a 
considerable popular reputation as a man who tells 
the truth as he sees it. In fact, his method unites 
realism and didacticism in such proportions as to 
command a large, if feminine audience." His liter- 
ary style is highly polished, a quality due to the 
painstaking industry with which he works. He 
usually rises before the sun and writes until noon; 
the remainder of the day lie devour to diversion. 
The work of the morning is transcribed, in many 
cases rewritten, so that every book he published had, 
at least, its third writing before it went to th: pub- 
lisher. In addition to his books, Mr. Phillips has 
written several articles on serious topics for magazine 
publication. He is unmarried. 

HYSLOP, James Hervey, psychologist, was 
born at Xenia, Greene co., O., Aug. 18, 1S54, son 
of Robert and Martha Ann 
(Bogle) Hyslop, both of whom 
were natives of Greene county, 
and grandson of George Hyslop 
of Roxburyshire, Scotland, who 
had been disappointed in his 
; mbition to enter the Royal 
< mards, and consequently emi- 
rated to America, where he was 
arried to Margaret Greenwood 
f Virginia, and engaged in farni- 
iig. James H. Hyslop spent his 
i si eighteen years on his father's 
fa mi. He was educated first 
at West Geneva and Northwood, 
ii. and at'tcnvards at \Vooster 
(O.) University being graduated 
:M the latter in 1S77. He first 
taught for two years in public 

^ schools, and for three years 

at Lake Forest University. 
He then attended the University of Leipsic, 
Germany, two years and upon returning taught for 
short periods at Lake Forest University and Smith 
College, and then entering Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity as a student in the philosophical course, was 
fraduated after one year with the degree of Ph. D. 
n 1899 he was appointed to a position first as 
instructor and afterward as professor of logic and 
ethics at Columbia College . New York city. Prof. 
Hyslop has written papers on ethics and philosophy 
for such prominent periodicals as ''Mind." "Xe\\ 
Princeton Review," "Andover Review," "Uni- 
tarian Review," " Xew Englander and Yale Re- 
view," "Philosophic Review," ''Psychological Re- 
view." "Christian Thought" and ""The Nation," 
and has edited an edition of Hume's ''Ethics," with 
an introduction by himself. He is also the author 
of the "Elements of Logic," (1892) the "Ethics of 
Hume" (1893), "Elements of Ethics" (1895), 
"Democracy: A Study of Governments" (1899), 
"Logic and Argument" (1899), "Syllabus of Psy- 
chology" (1899), a Report on Mrs. Piper making a 
volume 1 of tin- Proceedings in the English Society 
(1901). and "Problems of Philosophy" (1905). The 
last i- an earnest and able book which embodies the 
author's conclusions on the fundamental questions 
of metaphysics. Thebent of his subsequent thought 
is most clearly disclosed in the dicsussion in that 
book on the antithesis between materialism and 
spiritualism. While dealing with the ordinary 
arguments on both sides, his own point of view 
and purpose are clear in his separation of the 
philosophic from the popular uses of the term 
"spiritualism," with its implication of the existence 
of the soul. I li-rardiiig the so-called theol< 
and philosophical proofs of the existence of the 




soul, he affirmed that it can only be established by 
.-rii-ritific evidence. His resignation from the chair 
at Columbia in 1902 enabled him to devote more time 
to the investigation of phenomena bearing on this 
problem, and he became secretary of the Society 
of Psychical Research. For some years he had been 
deeply interested in psychic questions, especially 
in the study of abnormal psychology ; but the patent 
frauds connected with the methods of spiritualistic 
mediums, and the lack of systematized effort in 
separating allegations of fact worth investigating 
from the mass of valueless material that gathered 
around the practices of pretenders led him to or- 
ganize a movement in which certain phenomena 
hitherto neglected should be examined scientifically. 
When in 1905, the American branch of the Society 
for Psychical Research was discontinued owing to 
the death of Dr. Richard Hodgson, its secretary, 
Dr. Hyslop completed the organization of the 
American Institute for Scientific Research, which 
was incorporated under the laws of the state of 
Xew York. The council of the American society 
comprises the names of Prof. W. Xewbold, of the 
University of Pennsylvania ; Prof. H. Norman 
Gardiner, of Smith College, Northampton, Mass.; 
Prof. W. R. Benedict, of the University of Cincin- 
nati; Dr. Weston D. Bayley, of Philadelphia, and 
Dr. James H. Hyslop, secretary and treasurer. 
This institute undertook to carry on psychical and 
abnormal psychology investigations in the United 
State- under the name of the American Society for 
Psychical Research, its objects being first, the 
investigation of alleged telepathy, visions and 
apparitions, clairvoyance, premonitions, coinci- 
dental dreams, and all kinds of mediumistie phe- 
nomena ; second, the collection of material bearing 
on the history of these subjects; aad third, the en- 
cnur.-iiiemeiit of local societies in any part of the 
country, which may report to the American society, 
but may elect their own officers and will not be 
responsible in any way to the American society. 
Dr. Hyslop started an endowment fund for the 
permanent organization and maintenance of the 
institute, and was largely instrumental in providing 
that no teaching shall be in any way connected with 
it in any of its official functions and no propagandism 
of any sort associated with it and no official recogni- 
tion of doctrines involving the suspicion of other 
than strictly scientific objects. Other principles 
governing the institute are that the work shall l>e 
done according to the methods and the best tradi- 
tions of science and with as little publicity as pos- 
sible. Thus organized, the institute has collect i-d 
and investigated a large number of phenomena 
bearing on the objects of research above designa ted. 
Dr. Hyslop, as its most prominent member, met with 
much criticism in presenting the results of his in- 
vestigations, but he has persevered in his purpose as 
at first outlined. As editor of the "Journal of the 
American Society for Psychical Research" he has 
condensed in its pages for popular use a large 
number of reports of cases, including his own 
experiences with Mrs. Piper, a celebrated medium. 
After the death of Prof. Richard Hodgson in 1905, 
considerable interest was aroused among students of 
spiritistic phenomena by the promise he made 
tiiat he would try to communicate with his friends 
after death. Dr. Hyslop, as one of the close-t of 
his friends, undertook, through the medium, Mrs. 
Piper, to communicate with Hodgson, and believes 
he has received distinct messages from him. Prof. 
Hugo Munsterberg, of Harvard University, strongly 
criticised Dr. Hyslop, denying the genuinenes- of 
the messages by reason of their triviality and their 
similarity to Mrs. Piper's method and manner, and 
1 >r. Hyslop replied in the "Journal'' of the American 
Society for Psychical Research. The controversy 



OK AMKHICAX HIOCKAPIIV. 



49 



was instructive as illustrating the usual attitudes of 
helieveis and repiidiators respectively of alleged 
communications from the spirit world, and also as 
bringing forward the .|Uestion whether there is any 
warrant for expecting that such communications, 
assuming then po-sibilily. would reveal at lirst any 
profound insight into the conditions and sur 
roiiiidings of the new environment, whelln 1 ! 1 . in 
othiM- words, the law of gradual progress from rudi- 
mentary lo clear and adequate perceptions would 
not also hold I here. Dr. Eiyslop contends thai tin- 
work in which he is engaged is n led because many 

persons who have ceased to believe in orthodox 
religious creeds, or who have given up the pos- 
sibility of proving tin 1 existence of tin- spirit world 
by philosophy, insist upon the necessity of scientific 
methods in order to see if they can not outline a 
future life more certain than the canons of religion 
have established. Ai_ r ain his work is in the direction 
of meeting the demand that the study of psychical 
pin iioinena as well as investigations of abnormal 
psychology shall be made by scientific methods, 
either to 'throw some light, or some well-founded 
promise of light, upon the existence of another 
world or else be removed from the present list of 
alleged explanations. Dr. llyslop and his co- 
workers allirm their desire, above all things, to 
apply strictly scientific methods to the investigation 
of these phenomena, and are commended for their 
work, if only for its negative result in exposing un- 
scientific and designedly false claims, by such 
eminent scientistsas Prof. William James, Dr. James 
J. Putnam, Prof. James Mark Baldwin and Dr. 
Cyrus Edson. In 1905 his "Science and a Future 
L'ife," was published, in 1906 his "Enigma- ol 
Psychical Research" and "Borderland of Psychical 
Research." and in 190S his " Psychic Research ami 
the Resurrection." He was married Oct. 1, 1891, 
to Mary Fry, daughter of George W. Hall of Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and has three children. 

MARTIN, Charles Cyril, civil engineer, was 
born at Springfield, Pa., Aug. 30, 1831, son of 
James and Lydia (Bullock) Martin, and descendant 
of John Martin, who came from 
England about 1660 and settled 
in Swansea. Mass. His early years 
were spent on a farm amid such 
hardships and privations as are 
common to frontier life, during 
which he availed himself of 
such opportunity for study and 
reading as came within his reach. 
At the age of twenty-three year- 
he entered Rensselaer Polytech- 
nic Institute, Troy, X. Y . and 
was graduated with high honor in 
1856. For a year he remained 
at the institute as a teacher, 
and then secured a position 
as rodman on the Brooklyn 
waterworks, becoming assist- 
ant engineer under James P. 
Kirkwood, and having charge 
of the construction of three 
of the reservoirs and about 
four miles of the great conduit. He then entered 
the employ of the Trenton Locomotive and Machine 
Manufacturing Co. in order to become familiar 
with iron work, and particularly with the con- 
struction of bridges, and he was soon made super- 
intend, -nt of the works. During the civil war he 
was engaged both in bridge construction and the 
manufacture of arms, from the Springfield musket 
to the 11-inch Dahlgren gun, often employing as 
many as 300 men. In isiil he was engaged as an 
expert by the government- in a series of boiler 



experiments at the Brooklyn navy yard, conducted 
with a view to a-certainim; the re pective merits 
of horizontal and vertical tubular boil, 
navy. After (he war Mr. Martin was employee! to 
superintend the laying of a forty '-milt inch wale'- 
main in Brooklyn, through which the watei upply 
has since been obtained. He was subsequently 
made chief engineer of Prospect Park and there 
inaugurated the system of road building and Mib- 
drainage which proved so eminently satisfactory. 

While here lie also carried to su ssfnl completion 

the const rue! ion of ilr- great park well, which at 








.-"; ^ - 



f 




that time was the laix'e-t well in the world. In 
January, 1*7(1, lie entered the em piny of the New 
York and Brooklyn Bridge as lirst assistant 
engineer underCol. Washington A. Koebling While 
eni;ai:ed in bridge work on the Savannah and 
Santee rivers he 1 had familiarized himself with the 
pneumatic process of bridge foundations, and as 
this method was adopted for sinking the New York 
and Brooklyn caissons, I lie experience pro\ ed 
very valuable and was fully utilized. Fr tie- 
day the lirst blow was struck at the site of tin 1 New 
York and Brooklyn bridge until its completion Mr. 
Martin he-Id the position of first assistant engineer, 
having full charge of the execution of the work, Un- 
employment of men, the purchase of mall-rials, and 
the aiidiling of bills. Fpon tin- completion of the 
bridge in L883, Col. Roebling resigned the po-ition 
of chief engineer and Mr. Martin was appointed 
chief engineer and superintendent, a position 
he held until Feb. 1, 190'J. when lie was appointed 
consulting engineer to the department of bridges 
of the city of New York. He was married in I Mid 
to Mary A . .laughter of Gen. Jonathan Heed, of 
Rei ;etaer county. X. Y.. and had four children, 
Charlotte A., wife" of John J. Hopper, ot New York; 
Mrs. George Blatchford, of Pittsfield, Mi 
Charles Boynton Martin, an electrical engineer, and 
Lieut. Kingslcy Levcrich Martin, resident engineer 
on the Williamsburg suspension bridge. He u : a 
member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 
and an honorary member of the Brooklyn Society. 
He led a life of daily practical Christ lanily. giving 
to every man his due. and treating everyone with 
whom fie came in contact accord ins: to lin- golden 
rule. He. lied in Brooklyn. X. Y.. July 1J. I'.xi:!. 

McMURRICH, James Playfair, ,-mat i-t. was 

born at Toronto, Canada. I >ct Hi. 1 S.V.I, son of Hon. 
Join, and Janet i Dickson i McMurrich. both of whom 
v ere born in Scotland. His father was a member ol 
the first legislative council ofCanada. and of tin 
vincial legislature of Ontario lie was educated at 
I'pper Canada College, the University of Toronto, 
where lie wa~ graduated with the degree of MA in 
ISM', and the Johns Hopkins University, receiving 

there the decree of Ph.D. in ISVi II.' \\-i- in 
diatelv engaged as profe-Mir of biology at tin- 
Ontario Agricultural College, jmd became in turn 
instructor at Johns Hopkins University, professor 
ol biology at Ilaverford. associate p'-ofc or of 
animal nn irphology at Clark University. Worcester. 



50 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.ED1A 



Mass., professor of biology at the University of 
Cincinnati, and professor of anatomy, University of 
Michigan. At the present time (1910) he occupies 
the chair of anatomy at the University of Toronto. 
This continuous association with his favorite sub- 
ject, both in the capacity of instructor and through 
his own ceaseless researches, has given him that 
intimate and authoritative knowledge of its vari- 
ous branches which places him in the front ranks 
of men of science to-day. He is unexcelled as an 
investigator and his sterling personal qualities have 
won him many admirers and staunch friends among 
his colleagues. He has published for the benefit of 
students the results of much of his scientific investi- 
gations in a " Text-book of Invertebrate Morphology" 
(1894; second edition 1896) and "The Development 
of the Human Body" (1902), which ran into second 
and third editions (1904 and 1907), besides numer- 
ous papers upon anatomical and zoological subjects 
that have appeared in both home and foreign peri- 
odicals. Prof. McMurrich is a member of the ad- 
visory board of Wistar Institute ot Anatomy and of 
the editorial board of the "American Journal of 
Anatomy." He is a fellow of the Royal Micro- 
scopical Society and a member of the American 
Association of Anatomists, of which he was presi- 
dent during 1907-09, the American Society of 
Zoologists, and the American Society of Naturalists. 
of which he was president in 1906-07. Formerly he 
was a director of the Marine Biological Laboratory. 
He was married in IS.vJ. to Katie Moodie, daughter 
of John J. Vickers of Toronto, Out., and they have 
two children: Kathleen Isabel and James Ronald 
McMurrich. 

STEPHENSON, Isaac, U. S. senator, was born 
on a farm near Frederickton, York co.. New 
Brunswick. Canada. June is. Ivj't, son of Issac 
and Elizabeth Watson Stephenson. His father 
was born in Ireland, and his mother was a native 
of London, England. Upon coming to America 
in 1S18, his father settled in the great forest region 
of York county, where he engaged in funning and 
lumbering In 1840 he removed to Bangor, Me. 
Five years later the son emigrated to Milwaukee, 
\\ is . in company with Jeffer- 
son Sinclair, a lumberman, who 
purchased large tracts of for- 
ests, and turned his entire 
attention to lumbering in 
Northern Wisconsin and the 
northern peninsula of Michi- 
gan, where he had previously 
acquired timber properties. 
Young Stephenson was his 
trusted factotum in these op- 
erations, exploring and esti- 
mating timber lands, felling, 
trimming and skidding logs, 
and managing lumber camps. 
In July, 1848, the first land 
office in the upper peninsula 
was opened at Saiilt Sainte 
Marie and Isaac Stephenson, 
personally familiar with the 
great timber belts of the " Soo " 
land district, attended and di- 
rected heavy purchases in behalf of Daniel Wells and 
Jefferson Sinclair. In winter he had charge of the 
camps back from Escanaba, banking great quantities 
of the choicest white pine and in summer sailing 
freight vessels from Escanaba to Milwaukee and 
Chicago. Before he was twenty-one he owned 
a controlling interest in the schooner Cleopatra ;)f 
which at times he himself was captain until she 
was lost in a gale on Lake Michigan in 1853. In 
1852 the city of Chicago voted to build a long 




breakwater opposite the city to protect the lake 
shore and young Stephenson was awarded the 
contract for the necessary timbers, which required 
four seasons to supply. He also got out and 
delivered spars straight, clean pines of extra 
quality which averaged 100 feet or more in length. 
At that time there were no vessels with sufficient 
deck space to carry such long and heavy timbers, 
so he lashed timbers to the sides of the craft in such 
a way that the cargoes outrode all sorts of weather 
in safety. Previously in 1847, he had delivered a, 
liberty pole 107 feet long at Janesville, Wis., tow- 
ing it by water to Milwaukee and hauling it over- 
land with a sLx-ox team. This spar was a conspic- 
uous object in Janesville for a quarter of a century. 
The unusual ability displayed by him in solving 
transportation problems and creating new and 
adequate methods of transportation according 
to the varying circumstances of the frontier, was 
undoubtedly the chief element of success in the 
enormous lumber operations of his later life. He 
was first to install steamboat service on the Menom- 
inee river, and its tributaries; first to place steam- 
boats on tin Cedar river. Ford river, and White 
Fish river and first to establish a barge line on 
Lake Michigan. Lake masters pronounced his 
plan impossible, but when his great mills began to 
turn out lumber in larger quantities than had ever 
been known before, and the Chicago market wanted 
more lumber than could be delivered, he organized 
a barge service which was successful from the first. 
In the spring of 1858, having purchased an interest 
in the N. Ludington & Co. saw mill, he removed to 
Marinette, on the Wisconsin side of the Menominee 
river, at its mouth, which ever since has been his 
home. His interests and operations in fact made 
the city. His extraordinary capacity to manage 
men, machinery, camps, drives, dams, booms, 
transportation, yards, markets and supplies placed 
his companies in the j lead of all competitors. Be- 
sides the N. Ludington Co., he became the prin- 
cipal owner of the Peshtigo Lumber Co., the 
M< nominee River Boom Company, the Stephenson 
Transportation Co., the I. Stephenson Co. of 
Escanaba, the Marinette & Menominee Paper 
Co., the Stephenson Manufacturing Co., the Es- 
canaba & Lake Superior railway, and many lesser 
concerns, and he owns banks, farms, hotels, an opera 
house and stretches of timber lands in Wisconsin, 
Michigan, Louisiana and California wide enough 
to coyer the state of Delaware. It is not at all 
practicable to undertake to give a complete list 
of his operations or his interests. Besides the N. 
Ludington Co., he designed and built the Menom- 
inee boom at a cost of $1,250.000 and which at 
that period drove, sorted and delivered more logs 
than any other concern in the world and as ac- 
curately as a bank handles its cash and papers. 
To do this he erected forty dams, " snagged " 
several tributory rivers and directed an army of 
men. The boom handled an average of 700,000,000 
feet of logs in a season and has been known to 
deliver a billion feet in a year. He has erected 
sixty-seven dams and he built at Peshtigo the 
largest woodenware factory in the world. For 
a time his principal saw mill at Peshtigo, had a 
greater capacity than any other mill in the world, 
and his retail yards were the largest in Chicago. 
Even as far back as 1880 his three principal lumber 
companies owned over 400,000 acres of pine. He 
has an estate of 900 acres in Kenosha county, 
which is one of the model farms of the Union, 
another at Marinette, where he breeds road horses 
and racing stock and a third at (irass Lake, near 
his beautiful summer resort, which is devoted 
exclusively to cattle raising. On Oct. 8, 1871. 
the Peshtigo and some of his other mills and 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



51 



property, :is well ;is 1,100 persons, were destn.\ -ed 
by a I'm- tornado which developed in a wide area 
OI forest fires thai had been devastating the CIMIII 
try; and on the same day the gn-al lire in Chicago 

completely wiped out his retail and storage yards. 
and mills in thai city. His loss was over $2,000,000. 

One ol' the must useful enterprises with which Mr. 
Stephenson has been connected is the Sturgeon 
Hay A: Lake Michigan Ship Canal, which saves 1.~>I) 
miles of sailing to all craft trading between Green 
Hay and Chicago or any other Lake Michigan port. 
I'ui-les des Moris, the opening of the Green Bay into 
Lake Michigan, had always been full of destructive 
dangers to navigators. Xo one knew this fact 
better than Isaac Stephenson, who had often 
navigated through it, so that when Joseph Harris 
bevan an agitation in favor of constructing a canal 
across i he Moor county peninsula, Mr. Stephenson 
contribuied liberally to the undertaking. With his 
partner he took stock in the construction company, 
served on the executive committee and did every- 
thing he could to promote the enterprise, which 
was completed under federal supervision. Mr. 
Stephenson has always been interested in politics 
and public affairs, 'in 1852 he supported the 
Whig nominee for president; in 1850 he peddled 
tickets all day in Chicago for Fremont, the first 
Republican nominee, and ever since he has con- 
tributed labor, time and money to the Republican 
cause. He has held many local and other offices, 
Mich as city councilor, supervisor, chairman of the 
county board of supervisors, member of the state 
assembly four years (1866-70) and nearly twenty 
years justice of the peace It is said that he carried 
the ollice of justice around with him. When 
parties having differences chanced to meet him 
on the street, he settled their difficulties without 
making any record or charging any fees, so shrewd 
was he to detect the equities of human affairs and 
so upright in his acts and judgments. For many 
years, until he became " Uncle Ike," he was ad- 
dressed as "Captain," because he had been mas- 
ter of lake craft. He took a leading part in 
organizing the county of Marinette and gave the 
land on which the court house and other county 
buildings were erected. He also donated lands 
and sometimes cash and lumber as well for new 
churches, and gave land for the Stephensen Train- 
ing School (one of the very useful public institu- 
tions of Northern Wisconsin) and presented to the 
city of Marinette the land and building of the 
beautiful Stephenson library. In 1882 he was 
elected to congress, serving by reelection until Isss 
when he declined to run again. In congress he 
made no speeches, but was one of the most useful 
and faithful committee members of the entire body 
especially on the committees on public lands and 
rivers and harbors. He was a delegate to the 
Republican national conventions of 1SSO, 1892, 
1896, 1900, 1(104, and 1908. In 1899 he was a 
candidate for United States senator, but was de- 
defeated by Joseph V. Quarles. In May, 1907, he 
was elected to fill out the unexpired term of John 
C. Spooner and in September, 1908, was reelectcd 
over four other candidates, by a primary vote of the 
people, and on Mar. 4, 1909 by the legislature for 
the full term beginning on that day. In the 60th 
congress Sen. Stephenson served as chairman of 
the committee on expenditures in the department 
of agriculture and as a member of the committees 
on claims, enrolled bills, Pacific railroads, revolu- 
tionary claims and the Five Civilized Tribes of 
Indians. In his last campaign he was strenuously 
opposed by his colleague Sen. La Follette, whose 
political fortunes he had financed for years and in 
whose interest he had established a daily newspaper 
in Milwaukee (the "Free Press," which he still 



owns) at an expense of several hundred thousand 
dollars. The reason for this opposition was said 
In In- Mr. Stephenson's refusal to accede to the 
request for large sums of money that was made 
by the managers of Mr. I. a Fulleile's campaign for 
the presidency in 190S. Mr. Stephen-on is tall, 
span-, quiet and thoughtful. His hair, at tin age 
of eighty, is thick and black and his health perfect. 
lie is democratic and kindly in his intercourse 
with others, generous to individuals, liberal toward 
public enterprises and tenacious in his friendships, 
lie is the wealthiest man in Wisconsin, but modest 
and considerate in all the ways of life. His memory 
is so remarkable that he is able to carry the infinite 
details of his many great business entirprises in 
his head. While on the witness stand, in February, 
1909, he gave the details of numerous transactions 
which aggregated very large sums, and on being 
asked for a written account he astonished every- 
body by declaring "Oh, I never keep books." 
Those who know him best aver that he never for- 
gets. Sen. Stephenson was married first in Is.'iL' 
to Margaret Stephenson who died in 1.S71, second. 
in 1873, to Augusta Anderson, who died in lsv_', 
and third, in 1884, to Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Burns, of Green Hay. Wis. The surviving 
children are seven, all married. 

SMITH, Burton, lawyer, was born at Chapel 
Hill, N. C., Sept. IX. 1864, son of Hildreth Hosea 
and Mary Brent (Hoke) Smith. 
He received a thorough educa- 
tion in the public schools of 
Georgia, Tennessee and Texas, 
and was graduated at the Sam 
Houston Normal School of 
Texas in 1880, and the Uni- 
versity of Georgia in 1882. He 
immediately began the study 
of law with his brother, Hon. 
Hoke Smith, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1883, entering at 
once upon the practice of hi,- 
profession in Atlanta. He 
continued in partnership with 
his brother for nine years. 
Since that time Mr. Burton 
Smith has had no firm, but has 
practiced law in his own name. 
He has acquired a large and 
lucrative practice, and has 
achieved a reputation as one of 
the leading lawyers of the state, 
conducted the first litigation successfully attacking 
the convict lease system of Georgia. He obtained 
the first decision in Georgia, and one of the first any- 
where, holding that the federal employer's liability 
act was constitutional, and he obtained the first 
decision holding that a suit could not be removed 
to the federal court merely because it was brought 
under this act. In addition to these cases of special 
interest, he has always had a very large general 
practice, especially in the trial of important issues 
in the courts. Mr. Smith is one of Atlanta's ablest 
citizens. He is a magnificent specimen of Southern 
manhood, standing six feet five inches in height, and 
of powerful physique, and one whose appearance 
commands admiration and respect. He is very 
popular socially, having won by his pleasant per- 
sonality a host of friends. He delivered the annual 
address before the Indiana Bar Association in 1902, 
and before the North Carolina Bar Association two 
years later. He was president of the Georgia Bar 
Association in 1902, was one of the organizers of the 
Young Men's Memocratic League in the city of 
Atlanta, and is a member of the Capital City Club 
and Atlanta Athletic Club, of which latter he was 




He instituted and 



52 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



scale that was stupendous. In 1879 



He was a member of the state 




physical courage were a 

tin'- lawless element then rampant. Mr. bmith was 
married in June, 1888, to Frances, daughter of 
Gen. John B. Gordon, and has one child, Hildreth 
Burton Smith. 

WEYERHAEUSER, Frederick, lumberman 
and capitalist, was born at Nieder-Saulheim, Hessen, 
Germany, Nov. 21, 1834, son of John and Katherine 
(Gabel) Weyerhaeuser. He 
received a thorough education 
in his native village and was 




it were installed several new devices for manu- 
facturing and handling by-products and it was the 
first mifi in which as many as five gangs of 100 
saws, in addition to the rotaries and other machines, 
were operated on a single floor. Shortly before 
this time he had acquired the enormous plant 
of the Nelson Lumber Co. at Cloquet, Minn., near 
the head of Lake Superior, which carried with it 
600,000,000 feet of standing timber on fine logging 
streams. To attempt to follow out individually 



tauo-ht by his parents to be his purchases and operations from this time forward 
.t*r\ f-ii. n-niil,l KP hnrHpnsnniR. He continued to reside 



/yOfa+J.in,* 4 t.<y 



would be burdensome. He continued to reside 
quietly at Rock Island and only the vaguest notions 
of what he was doing ever reached the public. 
Each center of his operations was in charge of a 
competent manager or corporation, manned by 

with his mother and sister to persons of tried strength and skill, and the operators 
the United Stales and settled in one center made no effort to find out the details 
it Northeast Erie co., Pa. of operations at other centers. As new timber 
He soon found work in a areas began to be opened throughout the west Mr. 
lumber yard as a day laborer Weyerhaeuser organized a regular timber pur- 
and remained there for four chasing corporation known as the W eyerhaeuser 
years, saving what he after- Timber Co., capitalized at $12,500,000, with 
i- j 5\ j " ,,a^ r headquarters at Tacoma, Wash., in charge 01 

Robert L. McCormick, one of his former partners. 
Outside of this timber company is what is called 
the "Weyerhaeuser Syndicate." whose holdings in 
standing timber would cover the entire state of 
New York and in which Mr. Weyerhaeuser has 
literally thousands of partners, many of them 
men of great wealth. He also owns, or is heavily 
interested in more than twenty sawmills, some of 
them of enormous capacity. The mill at Potlatch, 
Letah co., Idaho, is regarded as the finest plant 



steady, industrious and fru- 
gal. 'At the age of eighteen, 
not relishing the severe mili- 
tary requirements that faced 
him in Germany, he emigrated 



wards described as "a very 
small bunch of money." In 
1856 he removed to Coal 
Valley, Rock Island co., 111., 
where he engaged in the 
lumber, grain, and coal busi- 
ness on a branch line of the 

Rock Island & Pacific railway near inexhaust- 
ible fields of soft coal. Frank ('. A. Denckmann, 



who became his brother-in-law, was an employee 

of the Rock Island saw-mill, so in 1860, when the ^-., , - -- 

mill property with its splendid frontage and boom ever built, and there are several others especially 

area on the Mi-i-Mi.i'i river was offered for sale one at Tacoma, which are not far behind in equip- 

interestS under the ment or capacity. In these thirty mills more than 



sipp: 
brothers-in-law joined 




uus tm lc Ll u. lc down the Mississippi river, and other by-products, the profits on w Inch are 
from Wisconsin. They were handled by a estimated to average from 8800,000 to M. 000,000 
,tmn L-nrm-., MS tlie Beef Slousrh Co.. which per year. Besides these his interests extend to 

numerous dams, factories, warehouses, planing 
mills and improvements, and he owns or is a director 
or stockholder in many bnaks. He is president 
uiose 01 suwmg a ,,u i.um ^ ^-,,1^,,, ,, ...... of the National German-American Bank at t 

to others. This feature did not suit Mr. Weyer- Paul, in which he maintains a modest office for the 
haeuser who proceeded to Wisconsin while his general supervision of his great business 
partner managed the mill, and began purchasing president of the Mississippi River Boom and Logging 
tracts of the magnificent stand of yellow pine that Co., the Potlatch Lumber Co., the : A\ eyerhaeuser 
erew in the valley of the Chippewa river and its Timber Co., the Weyerhaeuser Syndicate the 
tributaries. These acquisitions entitled his firm Chippewa Lumber and Boom Co the Cloqu^ 



known as the Beef Slough Co.. which 
drove-, assorted, boomed and delivered logs for 
all of the mills on the Mississippi and the profits 
of the Rock Island business, therefore, except 
those of sawing and from the by-product, went 



iiplnyment 
height of the season. 



UUU to -U,uuu persons at me " ' " - "' *--- r\ 

(Vs nearly all of the streams the Musser-Sauntry Co., St. Croix Lumber Co., 



UeiCIll ui ui'' ctcuouil. n?> ueaiiv a, LI ^ - --*> > , .. 

that were suitable, or could be made suitable for the Shell Lake Lumber Co.. the North \\isconsm 

drivin" lo"s and rafting lumber had been already Lumber Co., the Chippewa Valley Logging Co., the 

wholly or partly improved and were occupied by ' he erior llmbe 

other lumbermen, independent operations on them 

were practicallv impossible. Mr. Weyerhaeuser . 

be-'an systematically to acquire interests in mills Railway, Mesa be Southern Railway and has largi 

that were in active operation and holdings of holdings in the At wood Lumber Co the Rut ledge 

T . i * j.' ..lil. ~*l --- u,,, T.imKo.. T'r flic \nKnrr-imnn I .mil her \ O. ami 111 



., 

Bonner's Ferry Lumber Co. the Superior llmbe 
Co., Weyerhacu-er >v Denckmann, Weyerhaeuser 
& Rutledge Lumber Co. Duluth & Northeast 



standing timber jointly with others buying, 
when he could, the controlling intere-t but never 
changing the firm name. This policy has been 
steadily followed for more than thirty-five years. 
In 1ST- he was i-lceted president of the Mississippi 

River Boom and Loggi ig Co.. then the largest ~..- . - 

concern of its kind in the world: a cooperative little of his propety appears on record in the name 
monopoly of logging operations on the Mississippi of Weyerhaeuser. Neither his wealtl 



Lumber Co., the Xebogamon Lumber Co. and in 
boats, rafts and railways for handling lumber as 
well as machine shops, stump lands, farms and other 
property. He may be called the king of the world'* 
lumber and timber business, being the heaviest. 
mill and timber owner in the world, though very 



OF AMKKICA-N I U< ,1; VFHY. 



53 



income is exactly known by anyone, not even 
himself, lie- is believed to be lh' J richest IIKHI in 
America, which mean- tin- richest private individual 
in the world. He has said thai lie docs not believe 
that lie- is inure wealthy than .luhn I). Rockefeller, 
lint competent judges aliinn that lie is. His wealth 
is actual, not fictitious, and is not influenced by 
fluctuations in the stock markets or the' victory or 
dei'eat of a political party. It is constantly a 
growing estate. The increment of a single year 
on his standing timber would constitute an ample 
fortune For instance, a tract of Pacific Coast 
timber for which he paid James J. Hill $6,000,000, 
increased in value to $24,000,000 without the 
agency of human labor, and many tracts have 
doubled and some have quadrupled in his hands 
in very brief periods. His rise to vast wealth, 
fiscal a'nd industrial power from nothing is not so 
remarkable as the fact that he has reached his 
present commanding position in the industrial 
world without very much of the world ever knowing 
his name. In IS'.il he moved to St. Paul, where on 
beautiful Summit avenue he lives a quiet, and 
secluded life. He attends no public gatherings 
and keeps out of politics and the public prints. 
He is quaint in his manner, speaks with a German 
accent, wears a full beard and is democratic, 
pleasant and kind-hearted. He is a member of 
the Minnesota anil Town anil Country clubs of St. 
Paul. He was married at Coal Valley, 111., Oct. 11, 
Is.'iT, to Elizabeth, daughter of Henry F. Bloedel, 
also of German descent, and has two sons, Frederick 
E. and John P. Weyerhaeuser. 

RIDDLE, John Wallace, diplomat, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa., July 12, 1864, son of John 
Wallace and Rebecca Blair i McClure) Riddle. He 
was prepared for college by private tutors and was 
graduated at Harvard University in 1887. He then 
spent three years in the Columbia Law School and 
devoted the following three years to studying inter- 
national law and usages, history, diplomacy and 
special languages in the Ecoledes Sciences Politiques 
of Paris, and in 1893 received the certificate of pro- 
ficiency in the Russian language from College de 
France. 1'pon finishing these special courses of 
university training for a diplomatic career, he was 
appointed secretary of the U. S. legation at Con- 
stantinople, where he served seven years, a portion 
of the time through very delicate situations, under 
Ministers Terrell, Angel'l, and Oscar S. Straus. In 
1900 he was made secretary of embassy at St. 
Petersburg, serving with signal acceptability until 
appointed to be diploma tic agent and consul-general 
to Egypt in 1903. Generally consular officers are 
not in any sense diplomatic personages, but are 
required to confine their attention strictly to com- 
mercial affairs. In this case Mr. Riddle's office of 
consul-general was invested with diplomatic func- 
tions. A consul-general has supervisory jurisdiction 
over the various consular offices in his territory and 
is responsible for their proper management: Once 
a year he makes a tour of inspection of the consu- 
lates. He is under bond and under the law of 190G 
must turn over to the treasury all the income of his 
office, compensation being fixed by that act and not 
dependent, as formerly, upon fees. He must keep 
on good terms with the business interests and local 
authorities of his station and thus promote the trade 
relations between his own country and that wherein 
he is a consul. His is required to forward samples 
of new products and inventions as well as the seeds 
of plants, grains or grasses of the count ry wherein he 
is stationed that he believes would be valuable addi- 
tions to the productions of his own country. In 
short consuls are forever on, and constitute the na- 
tion's commercial and industrial firing-line. In 1905 
Mr. Riddle was appointed envoy extraordinary and 



minister plenipotentiary to Ronmania and Servia, 
and in 1 >eceml>erof tin- following year became ambas- 
sador to Russia, a station in which he is very influ- 
ential and popular by reason of his great familiarity 
witli the Russian language, literature and life. He 
resigned from the diplomatic service; and returned 
lo the United Stall's in September, 1!I09. He is 
unmarried, and is a member oi the Cenlury and 
Union clubs of New York, Metropolitan Club of 
Washington, Riltenhouse Club of Philadelphia, 
Minnesota Club of St. Paul, and Circle de 1'Union, 
of Paris. 

DUNNE, Finley Peter, humorist, was born 
in Chicago, 111., July 10, 1807, sou of Peter and 
Ellen (Finley) Dunne, and grandson of Patrick 
and Amelia iMalone) Dunne, of Irish extrac- 
tion, lie was educated at the Chicago public 
schools, and at the age of nineteen years liegaii his 
journalistic career as a reporter of a daily news- 
paper. In 1889 he became city editor of the 
Chicago "Times," and three years later was given 
a position on the editorial staff of the Chicago 
"Evening Post," where he remained till l.s'.i.V 
For the following three years he was engaged 
in a similar capacity on the Chicago "Times- 
Herald," and in January, l.s'.is, he was appointed 
editor of the Chicago "journal." Under the pen- 
name of "Martin Dooley," or "Mr. Dooley," he 
contributed to this paper a series of articles in the 
Irish dialect, which immediately won immense 
popularity, and created for their author a reputa- 
tion as oYie of the foremost American humorists. 
The utterances of "Mr. Dooley" have since been 
universally quoted, and being mostly on current 
topics of the day, many of them have almost become 
proverbial. Speaking of this feature of Mr. Dunne's 
literary activity, a critic aptly says: " He found the 
human quality in what fell to his consideration ; 
he saw the humor and the sense and the pathos 
of eyery-day life, . . . and he had the rare wit to 
realize their universal significance. All this be- 
came a concrete result in his conception of Mr. 
Dooley, whose consideration of questions 
day embodies all that is 
really American the wit 
. . . the keen sense of 
justice and the quality of 
being able to grasp the 
essential point in any 
matter, that have long 
since been identified with 
Abraham Lincoln, and the 
ability to hit hard without 
being mean and unkind 
that has been confined 
until now to Mark Twain. 
The result is that Mr. 
Dooley is a national char- 
acter. We all know him; 
we all respect him; we all 
wish we had his clear brain. 
A- Uncle Sam is himself 
typical of the Yankee, as 
David Ha rum is the type of 
the American countryman, so is Mr. Dooley as thor- 
oughly an American of another sort the Yankee 
shrewdly mixed with the Irish immigrant." Mr. 
Dunne has traveled extensively, and one of the 
assignments of his early reportorial career was to 
go around the world with the Chicago national 
baseball team, then the champions, for the Chicago 
"Tribune." Since 190G he has been one of the 
editor-proprietors of and a steady contributor to 
"The American Magazine." Most of Mr. Dunne's 
writings have been published in book form, as 
"Mr. Dooley in Peace and War" ilS'.tS), "Mr. 
Dooley in the Hearts of his Countrymen" (1899), 



of the 




\JjLL~ JjUsn~*- 



/ 



54 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




"Mr. Dooley's Philosophy" (1900), "Mr. Dooley 's 
Opinions" (1901), "Observations by Mr. Dooley" 
(1902), and "Dissertations by Mr. Dooley" (1906). 
He is a member of the Racquet and Tennis, Metro- 
politan, Riding and Brook clubs of New York city. 
Mr. Dunne was married in New York city. Dec. 9, 
1902, to Margaret, daughter of Charles Patterson 
Abbott. 

BOOTH, Ballington, president of the Volunteers 
of America, was born at Brighouse, Yorkshire, 
England, July 28, 1857, son of Wflliam and Catherine 
(Mumford) Booth. His father, 
the founder and commanding 
general of the Salvation Army, 
and his mother, Catherine 
Booth, have both achieved 
world wide prominence as 
orators and preachers, and 
from them Balhngton Booth 
inherited his marked ability 
;:s a preacher, orator and or- 
ganizer. His early education 
was received at Taunton ( 'olle- 
giate Institute and Nottingham 
Seminary, England. After a 
successful term in Australasia, 
as administrative head of the 
Salvation Army, he came to the 
United States in 1888 to take 
command of the American 
branch of the work of which his 
father was the head. His 
efforts in this country were 
crowned with marked suc- 
cess, but owing to a difference of opinion about 
methods of operation in America, Mr. Booth's 
connection with his father's work ceased, and 
in 1896, upon the urgent solicitation of some 
prominent citizens throughout the United States, 
he inaugurated a new movement known as the 
Volunteers of America, a national society devoted 
to philanthropic and Christian efforts. At that 
time Pres. Booth had no idea that the movement 
would assume national proportions, but with the 
energetic and capable assistance of his wife, the 
work is now represented in upwards of some 100 
cities by more than 500 commanding officers, who 
address congregations aggregating on an average of 
4,000,000 people every year. Perhaps no evange- 
listic work has ever progressed more rapidly and 
successfully than has that of the Volunteers of 
America. Besides the evangelistic efforts thus far 
put forth in many of our largest cities, philanthropic 
and socialistic branches of the work have been estab- 
IMied. Thoroughly abstemious in his personal hab- 
its of life, Pres. Booth has enforced the most rigid 
economy in every branch of the Volunteer work, to 
the end that all moneys and other aid received by 
his society have done their full value for good. 
Childrens' homes in summer, fresh air camps where 
thousands of children are taken have been formed ; 
thirty-five principal homes and institutions, most 
of which are Volunteer property, are open for poor 
and deserving people in different sections of the 
country; homes of mercy have been formed, and 
nearly "4"). 000 beds have been provided for women 
alone in the different homes of aid and industry. In 
connection with the philanthropic homes and institu- 
tions about 436,000 persons receive lodgings, and in 
the Volunteer hospital work over 100,000 cases have 
been treated since June, 1905. Then there are some 
60,000 members of the Volunteer Prisoners' League 
(see Mrs. Booth, below). Among the Volunteer 
philanthropic bra nchesarr also employment bureaus, 
wood yards, clothing stores, coal supplies, distribu- 
tion of milk, classes for sewing, reading room-. 
nursing hospitals, fresh air camps, circula I io:i of 



literature, distribution of garments and many other 
benevolent undertakings. Gen. Booth is an elo- 
quent and forceful platform speaker, and the success 
with which he moves large audiences of widely 
different characters from humor to pathos, is one 
of the evidences of his ability in this direction. He 
is very fond of music and singing, and has composed 
a number of well-known hymns, among which "The 
Cross is not Greater than His Grace" "You've 
Carried Your Burden," and "Over and Over Like 
a Mighty Sea," are constantly sung in all parts of 
the world. Gen. Booth was married Sept. 16, 1887, 
in London, England, to Maud, daughter of Rev. 
Samuel Charlesworth, and has two children: Charles 
and Theodora Booth. 

BOOTH, Maud i Charlesworth), philanthropist, 
was born at Limpsfk'ld, England, Sept. 13, 1865, 
daughter of Rev. Samuel ( 'harlesworth, rector of the 
parish of Limehouse, England. She was educated 
in Switzerland and France and early became inter- 
ested in religious anil philanthropic work among 
the poor. She met her husband, Ballington Booth, 
who was a son of William Booth, head of the Salva- 
tion Army of London, at a religious meeting, and 
they were married Sept. 16, 1887. With her hus- 
band she came to the L T nited States in 1888 and for 
the following nine years was energetically engaged 
in religious and philanthropic work connected with 
the Salvation Army. Mrs. Booth with her husband 
were the founders of the Volunteers of America. 
This organization is a philanthropic, social and re- 
ligiousmovementincorporated Nov. 6, 1896. It was 
organized on military lines, having as its model the 
I nited Statesarmy, but in conjunction with military 
discipline and methods of work, it possesses a thor- 
oughly democratic form of government, having a 
constitution, and its by-laws being framed by a 
grand field council that meets annually and is 
thoroughly representative. Though only thirteen 
years old the Volunteers have representatives and 
branches of benevolent work in almost all the 
principal cities of the United States. The field is 
divided into regiments or sections, which come 
under the control of thirty 
staff officers, its chief centers 
being New York, Philadelphia, 
Boston, Pittsburg, Denver, 
Chicago, Indianapolis, Cleve- 
land and San Francisco. It 
has philanthropic institutions 
in Chicago and Joliet, 111., 
Austin, Tex.; Fort Dodge, 
Kas.; Kansas City, Mo.; Pue- 
blo, Colo. ; Boston, Lynn and 
Maiden, Mass.; Minneapolis, 
Minn.; Erie, Pittsburg and 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Newcastle, 
Del.; Newark, N. J.; Orange- 
burg and Buffalo, N. Y.; and 
New York city. In addition 
to the Volunteer reading rooms, 
religious literature is circulat- 
ed in prisons, hospitals, sol- 
diers' and children's homes. 
There are also sewing classes, 
hospital nurses, temporary financial relief depart- 
ments, boys' fresh air camps, Thanksgiving and 
( 'liristmas dinners, and many other worthy un- 
undertakings. After the Volunteer movement was 
formed Mrs. Booth entered heartily into the details 
of the new work, but her name is more particularly 
associated with one of the most prominent <lej>art- 
mrnts the Volunteers Prison League, the aim of 
which is the reformation of criminals in prison. Not 
less than liO.OOO men have become members of the 
Volunteer Prisoners' League since its inauguration, 
70 per cent, of whom are leading reformed lives, 




ill AMERICAN I'.l'ii.HAl'HY. 



55 



while the league is directly or indirectly m touch 
\\ilh Ml.(ll)l) members and men within prison walls 
Mrs Booth formed leagues in twenty-two different 
stale prisons. Under her direction also were founded 

the " Hope Halls" of the Volunteer movement, one 
in Chicago, 111., another at Flushing, mow at 
Sparkill), N. Y., and a third iii Columbus, >. 
The " Hope Halls" are in reality large home, which 
provide paroled prisoners with food and shelter, and 
further assist them in their efforts to live their lives 
is worthy citizens. "If I were asked," says Mrs. 
Piooth, "how can we best help the discharged pris- 
oner how can lie be saved from returning to prison, 
1 should answer without hesitation: 'Begin before 
his discharge.' The world is more stern and unre- 
lenting in its judgment than the law, and there is 
prejudice against the man. that often brings up be- 
fore him his past and makes him pay over and over 
ai'ain for the crimes which he has, in the eyes ot the 
law expiated in prison. I am not exaggerating 
-when I say that hundreds of men have come from 
prison thoroughly determined to do right, seeking 
only the chance of honest work, however humble, 
to find themselves forced back into a life of crime 
'because wherever they worked the discovery of their 
past imprisonment meant immediate discharge. ... 
To try to help the men coming homeless and friend- 
less from prison, we have opened homes to which 
they can turn, not only for shelter and food, but for 
the loving sympathetic Christian influence that they 
need From these homes, we send them to positions 
with those who will give them the chance, even with 
the knowledge of their past, if they really prove 
themselves anxious to do right. A correspondence 
for the moral elevation and benefit of their families 
is carried on with about 20,000 men." She is au- 
thor of "Branded" (1897); "Look Up and Hope 
(1899)- "Sleepy Time Stories" (1899); "Lights of 
Childla'nd " (1901) ; " After Prison What ?" (1906) ; 
"The Curse of Septic Soul Treatment (HIOt>); 
"Wanted Antiseptic Christians" (1906); "Twi- 
light Fairy Tales" (1906). 

PARKER, Edward Wheeler, statistician, was 
born at Port Deposit, Md., June 16, 1860, son of 
William Price and Henrietta Hyde (Donnell) 
Parker, grandson of Joseph and Marjorie (Price) 
Parker, and great-grandson of Edward and Hetty 
(Cowden) Parker. His great-grandfather, Edward 
Parker, was a resident of Newark, Del., and made 
tents for the continental army under subsidy from 
congress; he was major, and afterward a colonel 
of militia in the revolutionary war. The subject 
of this sketch was educated in public and private 
schools of Port Deposit and at Baltimore, com- 
pleting his studies at the City College of the latter 
city. In 1878 he became associated with his hall- 
brother, J. K. Parker of Baltimore, as bookkeeper, 
and seven years later removed to Texas, where he 
was made business manager of the Austin "States- 
man." In 1891 he entered the service of the 1 rated 
States geological survey as statistician, and his 
work there has consisted of the collection of statis- 
tics and the preparation of annual reports on coal, 
coke and other subjects. In 1907, upon the retire- 
ment of Dr. David T. Day as chief of the division of 
mineral resources of the geological survey, Mr. 
Parker was placed in administrative charge of t 
important branch of the survey organization, 
studies and work for the geological survey have 
given him a reputation as one of the leading 
authorities in the United States, especially on the 
subjects of mining statistics and technology. He 
was a member of the jury of awards of the Colum- 
bian exposition at Chicago in 1S93; was an expert 
special agent of the United States census for 1900, 
and was for two years editor of the "Engineering 
and Mining Journal" (1901-02). He was awarded 



a silver medal at the Paris exposition of I'.IOO and 
at I he I'aii- \niericau exposition of I'.IOl, and a 




commemorative medal at the Louisiana Purchase 
exposition iii I'.IOl. lie was a member of the 
arbitration commission appointed by Pres. HUM . 
veil to investigate the coal strike of I '.II II'. The: 
miners of the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania, 
members of the t'nited Mine \Vorkers of America, 
wen I 0,1 a slrike in May, 1 '.)_'. to secure from (hi; 
mine operators an advance in wages, a reduction m 

the hours of labor, and a recognition of their union, 
and the slrike became one of the most notable to the 
I 'idled Si ales on account of the virtual COal famine 
throughout the eastern cities occasioned thereby. 
Various attempts to settle the trouble, which contin- 
ued throughout the entire sum- 
mer and fall, having failed, Pres. 
1,'oosevelt interposed and ap- 
pealed to both parties to submit 
their differences to arbitration. 
The mine owners at once ac- 
cepted his suggestion and pro- 
posed that he appoint a commis- 
sion to whom should be referred 
all questions at issue, it being un- 
derstood that the miners would 
immediately return to work. The 
commission thus appointed con- 
sisted of Brig .-Gen. John M. Wil- 
son, U. S. A., Judge George Gray, 
of the United States circuit 
court, Edgar E. Clark, sociolo- 
gist, Thomas H. Watkins, ex- 
coal operator, Bishop John L. 
Spalding, Carroll D. Wright, U. S. commissioner 
of labor, and Mr. Parker. The commission met 
for organization at Washington, Oct. 21, I'.nrj. 
then adjourned to Scranton and other places in the 
anthracite region, where it visited the mines and 
studied the working and sociologic conditions, after 
which it took testimony at Scranton and Philadel- 
phia for four months, rendering its decision Mar. 21, 
1903. Two important features of thedecision were, 
(1) the provision for a permanent board of con- 
ciliation which should take up and consider any 
dispute between the miners and their employers 
referred to it, its decision to be final and binding on 
all parties, and (2) an unqualified declaration in 
favor of the open shop. The wisdom of Pres. 
Roosevelt in appointing the commission and the 
justice of the awards are shown by the fact that 
the operators and miners have, by agreement, 
extended the awards of the commission for two 
additional terms of three years each, making a 
total of nine years, and that unprecedented peace and 
prosperity have marked the mining operations 
in the anthracite region since the commission 
made its awards. Mr. Parker is the author of cha p- 
ters on coal, coke, salt and other subjects for I he 
annual volume, "Mineral Resources of the United 
States," published by the United States geological 
survey, and he has in preparation a history of the 
mining industry for the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington. He is also a frequent contributor to 
publications of engineering societies and technical 
journals. He is a member of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers, the Mining and Metallurgical 
Society of North America, the American Mining Con 
gress, the Washington Academy of Sciences, ihe 
Washington Geological Society, the Washington 
Economic Association, the National Statistical \ 
ci-uion, the Washington Society of Engineers the 
National Society of the fine Arts, the American 
Forestry Association and the Sons of the American 
Revolution. He is also a member of the Engineers' 
Club of New York, the Cosmos Club, the Columbia 
Golf Club and the Banuockburn Golf ( 'hil . < if \ 



56 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




ington, D. C. Mr. Parker was married at Galveston, 
Tex., Apr. 29, 1891, to Laura Harrison, daughter of 
(liiy M. Bryan. 

WRIGHT, Wilbur, aviator, was born near 
Millville. Lnd., Apr. 16, 1867, son of Milton and 
Sie-aii < 'atherino i Koerner) Wright. His father was 
an itinerant preacher (see Wright, Orville, below) 
and later became a bishop of the church of the 
I'nited Brethren in Christ. Wilbur Wright re- 
ceived a common-school education, and for three 
years attended the high school of Richmond, Ind., 
later continuing his studies in Dayton, O., where his 
parents subsequently settled. 
Here the brothers opened a job 
printing office in 1889, and after 
1893 engaged in the bicycle 
repairing business. They both 
had considerable mechanical 
skill, but never learned a trade 
norattended a technical school. 
By practice and study they 
acquired a good knowledge of 
mechanics and engineering. 
They possessed, moreover, a 
remarkable aptitude for sup- 
piemen ting each other's efforts, 
and it was this unity of pur- 
pose and perfect understand- 
ing which was to bring them 
ultimate success. Their inter- 
est in aerial navigation dates 
from early childhood, first being 
aroused when they observed a 
toy on the scientific principle 

of a helicopter, which soon after they unsuccess- 
fully tried to reproduce on a larger scale. Accounts 
of various efforts with flying machines continued to 
engage their attention, among them those of Hiram 
Maxim in England, Otto Lilienthal in Germany and 
Octave Chanute and 1'rcif. Saiiiurl 1'. Langley in 
America. After ma-tering the literature of the sub- 
ject, including Chanute'- "Progress in Flying 
Machines," Langley's "Experiments in Aerody- 
namic-;." Mouillard's "Empire of the Air," and 
divers publications of the Smithsonian Institution, 
the Wright brothers determined to construct a 
machine of their own. Tin' most serious problem 
to be solved they believed to be the question of 
equilibrium. The same forces which steadied the 
machine' in a calm caused it to oscillate in the wind. 
The previous experimentalists in their work on 
gliders had aimed to produce a machine with auto- 
matic M ability. The Wrights now decided to work 
out the problem upon totally different lines and 
build a glider in which the control would be entirely 
manual. To prevent a tendency to pitch down- 
ward they placed on a framework directly in front 
of the main pianos a pair of small .subsidiary planes, 
whose angle or pitch to the direction of flight could 
be varied at \\ill by means of a lever, and for re- 
curing lateral stability they introduced what is 
recognized as the most valuable feature in the 
modem aeroplane; namely, a method of warping 
or twisting the ends of the main planes in such a way 
as to balance an excess of pressure on one end of the 
aeroplane by inducing an opposing pressure. Thus 
if the aeroplane should incline to the right t he moving 
of a lever would depress the rear ends of the right- 
hand half of the planes, causing an increase of 
upward thrust un that side, and at the same time 
would raise the rear ends of the left-hand half of 
the planes, causing the air lo strike them on their 
upper side and produce a downward pressure. 
A broad (latent was issued May '-'-'. I9(lii, covering 
this idea, and the- validity of the patent is no\v being 
tested in the courts. Constructing a Hying machine 
on this principle the brothers went down to the 



sand-dunes at Kitty Hawk, near the coast of North 
Carolina, and spent no less than three years in 
making experiments in gliding flights. By the end 
of that time they had become thoroughly at home 
in the air, and the quick manipulation of the levers 
had become so much a mutter of habit as to be 
practically instinctive. They were now ready for 
the crucial experiment with a motor. A 12-horse- 
power engine connected with two large screw pro- 
pellers was attached, and with this machine, weigh- 
ing 750 pounds, the first successful mechanical flight 
in history was made on Dec. 17, 190.3. It flew a 
distance of 800 feet in about one minute, against a 
twenty-mile wind, without a reduction of speed, and 
alighted without mishap. To all intents and pur- 
poses the goal so eagerly sought through centuries 
was won, and to the Wright brothers belongs the 
credit of inventing the first man-carrying flying 
machine that proved a success. Their experiments 
were continued with a stronger and heavier machine 
near Dayton, O., in 1904, during which 105 flights 
were made, but it was not until September and 
October in 1905, that long-distance flights were 
attempted. These varied from eleven to twenty-four 
miles, at a height of from fifty to 100 feet. Ac- 
counts of their achievements created a sensation 
throughout the world and particularly in France, 
where experiments had already been made with 
flying machines constructed after drawings and 
descriptions of the Wright machine furnished by 
Mr. Chanute in addresses before scientific societies 
abroad. C'onsiderable doubt was expressed, how- 
ever, as to the truthfulness of the reports, and 
people came all the way from France, England and 
< Jermany to investigate the performances at Dayton. 
Kitty Hawk, N. C., again became the scene of 
further trials of the Wright aeroplane in 1908, the 
object of which was to test the speed of the machine 
while carrying two persons, and to gain familiarity 
with the handling of the apparatus. The first 
pacnger was taken aboard May 14th of that year, 
in a circular flight of three minutes and forty 
seconds duration, ami at a speed of forty-one miles 
per hour. The Wright aeroplane as it stands to-day 
is practically in its essential features the same as the 
one that first Hew in 1903, ami despite its apparent 
crudity it is considered to be by far the most 
efficient that has ever been produced. It consists of 
two planes about forty feet long by six feet from 
front to back and one six feet above the other. 
The.-,c- planes are connected by uprights and are 
mounted upon long runners that extend out in front 
about ten feet and curve upward in order to act as a 




support for the horizontal rudder, which consists of 
two small superposed planes about fifteen feet 'ong 
by two and a half feet from front to rear. Tha 
horizontal rudder is constructed in an ingenious 
manner, so that its surfaces become concave on the 
under side when they are turned upward and on the 
upper side when they are pointed downward, so as 
t'> take advantage of the greater lifting power of a 
curved surface. It is connected by a wooden rod 
with a lever placed beside tin' operator's -eat on the 
front edge of the lower plane, and by moving the 
lever forwanl or backward the rudder is moved up- 



OF AMERICAN' BIOGRAPHY. 



57 



ward or downward, causing the machine to ascend 
or descend at will. To steer the machine from 
right to left there are twin vertical rudders in the 
rear, which are operated by another lever moving 
forward and back. This second lever can also 
be moved to the 1 right or to the left, in order to 
warp tin 1 planes near their outer ends for the purpose 
of maintaining the transverse stability of the ma- 
chine. Two wires extend downward from points on 
both the outer rear edge's of the upper plane. These 
wires are joined to a single connecting wire by means 
of short pieces of chain passing over pulleys. A rod 
extends back from the operating lever and carries 
a. short arm M CM r its rear end, to which the conn eel ing 
wire is I'aslemii. Similarly two wires run from the 
right-hand rear ends of the bottom plane up over 
pulleys on the center part of the upper plane and 
down to the bottom ends on the left side. When 
the right rear edge of the upper plane is pulled 
downward by moving the lever to the left, the lower 
ends of the uprights move downward also, and in so 
doing pull on the wires connecting them with the 
uprights on the other end of the lower plane. The 
result is that the hit ter uprights are raised and with 
them the rear edges of both plane's. Thus when the 
rear part of the planes on one side of the machine is 
curved downward, the rear part of the planes on the 
other side is curved upward to a like extent. The 
curving of the planes produces a greater lift on one 
side and reduces the lift on the other side and the 
machine quickly rights itself. There are two large 
propellers about eight and a half feet in diameter, 
which are revolved by a thirty horse-power four- 
cylinder motor at the rate of 400 to 450 r.p.m. At 
the time of the 1908 experiments the commerical 
possibility of flying machines had begun to be 
realized at large, and aerial invention was stimu- 
lated all over the world. The practicability of 
aeroplanes having been established in America, 
their strategetical value in military operations was 
now urged upon the war department, which finally 
made an appropriation of $25,000 to purchase an 
aeroplane designed to carry two persons having a 
combined weight of 350 pounds, and sufficient fuel 
for a flight of 125 miles, and to have a speed of forty 
miles an hour in still air. Meanwhile the claims of 
the French aviators to superiority were dispelled, 
ami the Lazare Weiler Syndicate, formed in France 
for the manufacture of aeroplanes, offered to pur- 
chase for a large sum the French rights of the 
Wright machine if it should be capable of making 
two flights in an average breeze and at a few days' 
interval, carrying two persons and fuel for a journey 
of 20(1 kilometers. Financial backing having been 
furnished by Charles R. Flint, the New York banker, 
the brothers prepared to avail themselves of these 
offers, ami Mr. Wilbur Wright sailed for Europe 
while his brother remained in charge of the tests for 
the United States government. His French per- 
formances began with a machine built at Le Mans, 
France, on the Hunaudieres race-course, near that 
place, Aug. 8, 1908. After a series of short flights he 
remained in the air one hour and thirty-one minutes, 
on Sept. 21, 1908, and exceeded all previous records, 
including one made by his brother Orville ten days 
before. Then, on December 31st, came his long- 
distance record of seventy-seven miles and two 
hours and twenty minutes in the air, bv which he 
won the Michelin cup and $4,000 in cash for the 
longest flight with a . heavier-thai i-air ma c'l line during 
the year. He also established (he world's record 
for a flight with a passenger on October 10th, when 
he remained in the air one hour nine minutes and 
forty-five seconds, and the world's record for height, 
having ascended 300 feet on December 18th. Thus 
not only the syndicate's requirements were fulfilled, 
but a number of prizes won in various private con- 



tests, and the eyes of the world fixed in astonishment 
upon the Americans' achievements. Invitations to 
exhibit the abilities of their machines poured in upon 
I hem from various governments, and among the' 
visitors who came tn witness the trials \\ere King 
Kiluard VII of lOngland and King Alphonso XI 11 
of Spain, besides many other distinguished person 
Trials for the Italian government were successfully 
begun at Rome in April, I '.MI; i, to be continued after 
Messrs. Wright's return from the 1'nite.l States, 
where their engagement to continue the official 
government test a I Fort Myer, Va.. now called them. 
(See Wright, Orville). A number <>f Knropean 
pupils were also instructed by them in I he handling 
of aeroplanes. Many honors were conferred on 
the brothers in the form of medals from various 
clubs and societies; Congress awarded them a 
special medal on Mar. 3, 1909, the French govern- 
ment presented them with the cross of the Legion of 
Honor Nov. 6, 1909, and the title of Doctor of 
Technical Science was conferred by the Technical 
High School of Munich in the same year. Mr. 
Wright is a member of the Aero Club of America, 
which was the first organization to reeogni/e tin' 
merits of the brothers' invention. He is unmarried. 

WRIGHT, Orville, aviator, was born at Dayton, 
O., Aug. 19, 1871, son of Milton and Susan Catherine 
(Koerner) Wright, and brother of Wilbur Wright, 
above. His father, a native of Rush county, Ind., 
(Nov. 17, 1828), was a son of Dan and Catherine 
iRceder) Wright, and a descendant of Samuel 
Wright, who probably landed at Boston in KiHO, 
and six years later settled at Springfield, Mass., 
where he was a deacon of the First Puritan church 
The line of descent is traced from this Samuel 
Wright through his son James, who was in the 
celebrated "Falls Fight" with the Indians; his son 
Samuel, a deacon in Connecticut; his <-.,- L \ Benoni; 
his son Dan, who fought in the revolutionary war, 
and his son Dan, the bishop's father. Bishop 
Wright was converted at an early age, and preached 
his first sermon before finishing his studies at Harts- 
ville College. In 1850 he joined 
the White River conference, 
and in 1855 was placed in 
charge of a church in Indianap- 
olis, being ordained the follow- 
ing year. He was sent as a 
missionary to Oregon in 1857, 
taught in Sublimity College two 
years, during which he had 
i -I ia i -go of a circuit and attended 
many camp meetings, and re- 
turning to Indiana in 1859 be- 
came presiding elder of the 
Marion district. After editing 
the " Religious Telescope" for 
eight years, he w as elected bish- 
op of the Church of the 1'nited 
Brethren in Christ in 1877, and 
for twenty-four years attended 
conferences in the United States 
and Canada, traveling some 
200,000 miles. He retired 
in 1905. Throughout his ministerial life Bishop 
Wright was opposed to secrecy and all the popular 
evils to which an easy-going church is prone, lie 
voted for the liberty ticket as a Republican in 1 s.YJ. 
made public speeches against slavery during I In- 
civil war. and in the division of the church in iss'j 
was the only bishop on the radical side, while 
30,000 people stood with him and about .III, (1(11) more 
believed in his principles, but were pressed to sub- 
mission to what they believed to be wrong. He was 
married on Nov. 24', 1859, to Susan ('., daughter of 
John G. Koerner of Union county, Ind. She died 




58 



THE NATIONAL CVCLOP.EDIA 



in 1889, leaving five children: Reuchlin, Lorin, 
Wilbur, Orville and Katherine Wright. Sharing 
his brother's natural mechanical tendencies, Orville 
Wriirht early became associated with him in the 
bicycle repair business, and from the first partici- 
pated in the experiments in mechanical flights 
which, beginning as a pastime, resulted in epoch- 
making achievements. When in August, 1908. 
Wilbur went to Europe to fulfill the conditions of the 
syndicate formed for the purchase of their aeroplane 
rights, Orville Wright took his machine to Fort 
Myer, Va., to prepare for the government test- 




looking to the purchase of their machine for the sum 
of $25,000. On September 8th the first flight was 
accomplished in a wind of three miles per hour. 
Rising to a height of thirty-five feet he encircled the 
field one and one-half times, and landed in front 
of the machine's shed. The enthusiasm of the 
entire country was aroused by the reports of this 
and continued successes. On September 12th he 
established a new record by remaining in the air one 
hour and fifteen minutes, during which he encircled 
the field fifty-seven and one-half times. On the 
following day another record was established, 
namely, for a flight with a passenger, when with 
Maj. G. C. Squier of the United States signal corps, 
he remained in the air nine minutes and six seconds. 
He was now nearly ready for the official tests, when 
on September 17th his experiments were suddenly 
and tragically terminated by the fall of his aero- 
plane, killing Lieut. Thomas E. Self ridge, a pas- 
senger, and seriously injuring Mr. Wright. The 
government extended the time limit nine months 
awaiting his recovery, and meanwhile he joined his 
brother Wilbur in France, in time to witness the 
presentation of the Michelin cup, and share in the 
many honors bestowed upon them in Europe. He 
resumed the experiments at Fort Myer in July, 1909, 
making unofficial flights on the 20th and 21st of that 
month, remaining in the air over an hour. The 
test for the government contract was made July 
27, 1909, when he remained in the air one hour and 
thirteen minutes, and three days later he made the 
test for speed, when he averaged forty-two miles per 
hour, thus fulfilling all the conditions imposed by the 
government, and securing the acceptance of his 
machine. Soon afterwards he returned to Europe 
and made a series of flights in Berlin, which at- 
tracted much attention, especially when he broke 
the world record for height on Oct. 4, 1909, by flying 
1,600 feet above the ground. The degree of Doetm- 
of Technical Science was conferred upon Mr. Wright 
by the Royal Technical High School of Munich in 
1909, and the cross of the Legion of Honor was 
awarded by the French government in the same 
year. He is a member of the Aero Club of America 
and is unnlarried. 

WHITE, Edwin, artist, was born at South 
Hadley, Mass., May 21, 1S17, son of H-lm,, \Vl.ite 
and cousin of Andrew I). White, the educator and 
diplomat. He early 'displayed an aptitude for 
art. He was elected National Academician in 1M!>. 
He studied in Paris, Rome, Florence and Diisseldorf 



in 1850 and again in 1869. Returning to America 
in 1875 he opened a studio in New York. Among 
his important works are "Pocahontas Informing 
Smith of the Conspiracy of the Indians." " Washing- 
ton Resigning his Commission," now in Annapolis; 
"Age's Reverie," Military Academy, West Point; 
"Death-bed of Luther," "Requiem of De Soto," 
and "Old Age of Milton." His ''Antiquary" is 
owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York city. White was not a strong painter, but he 
had a good sense of color, the flesh tints of some of 
his portraits remind one of Gilbert Stuart. His 
genre paintings are not unlike Eastman Johnson's, 
being pleasing in arrangement , and the less ambitious 
his subject, the more satisfactory the painting. He 
died at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., June 7, 1877. 

McCOY, William D., diplomat, was born at 
Cambridge City, Ind., Nov. 14,1853. His parent-. 
who were free negroes, moved to Boston when he 
was a child. Soon after finishing his studies at the 
Boston public schools, he engaged in teaching, 
serving for twelve years as principal of a colored 
school in Indianapolis. He resigned the position 
Jan. 11, 1892, when he was appointed by Pres. 
Harrison minister resident and consul-general at 
Monrovia, Liberia. However, his health gave way 
soon after his arrival at the capital of the Republic, 
and he expired on May ll>, 1893. He was unmarried. 

BEACH, Rex Ellingwood, novelist and play- 
wright, was born in Atwood, Mich., Sept. 1, 1877, 
son of Henry Walter and Eva Eunice (Canfield) 
Beach. When he was seven years of age, the family 
moved to Florida to engage in orange culture and 
Rex attended the schools of that region, being 
graduated at Rollins College, Winter Park, Fla., in 
1896. He studied law at the Chicago College of 
law for a year, and another year at the Kent College 
of Law, also in Chicago, but the legal profession 
did not appeal to him, and he did not enter into its 
active practice. During his career as a law student, 
Mr. Beach became interested in athletics. He 
played upon the football team of the Chicago Ath- 
letic Club, achieving distinction as one of the leading 
"tackles" of the West, and for sometime held the 
indoor swimming record of 100 yards. At the 
Olympic games in St. Louis, Mo., in 1904, he won the 
mile handicap swimming race. Attracted by the 
rush for gold to the Klondike, Mr. Beach went to 
Alaska to seek his fortune. Here, to use his own 
description, he "went broke then flush then broke 
again, time after time." He returned to the States 
fur a year and mined for zinc in Missouri, with even 
less success. Back he went to Alaska, taking with 
him a dredge to work the gold-bearing beach at 
Nome, but the enterprise proved an utter failure. 
He was forced to turn his hand to a variety of em- 
ployments, from vocal teaching to longshoring. 
"For two years," says Mr. Beach, "I followed the 
game, stampeding from Cook's Inlet to the Arctic 
( irele, a little matter of three or four thousand 
miles, mining, prospecting, speculating." He then 
returned tn< 'hieagoand engaged in the manufacture 
of fire-brick, and. later acquired an interest in a con- 
tracting company. About this time he contributed 
an article about Alaska to " Mel 'lure's Magazine." 
The editor promptly accepted it. and went out to 
Chicago to engage the author as a regular con- 
tributor, the result of which was that he gave up 
business and devoted himself to writing. He sold 
his material to such excellent advantage that he 
adopted authorship as his vocation. His !ir-t 
production, "Pardners,"a collection of magazine 
stories of Alaska, was published in 1905, and 
the book was enthusiastically received. In I'.ioii 
appeared his first sustained novel, "The Spoilers 
The plot turns on a gigantic conspiracy in which 
a federal judge and political IM>-S are prime 



OF AMKRK'A.N BIOGRAPHY. 



59 



movers, to defraud the original claimants of 
the Nome gold mines out of their rights, and 
about this situation the author built what the 
New York "Sun" called "a thoroughly vigorous 
and eventful story." The melodramatic plot lent 
itselt to dramatization, and the story was adapted 
for the stage by Mr. Beach and James MaeArthur, 



Railroad Co., but severed his connection in April 
18X7, and since then he has been engaged in the 
real estate business. Mr. Gilchrist belonged to the 
Florida militia, serving on the staff of Gov. Fleming 
and of Gov. Perry as colonel and inspector-general, 
and rising to the rank of brigadier-general. lie was 
appointed, in 1896, a member of the board of visitors 
Two years later he resigned his posi- 



apl 

at West Point. 



where it met with more popular than artistic success. 

This w-is followed bv "The Barrier. "t IKON) also tion of brigadier-general and enlisted as a private 

' s in company C, 3d United States volunteer i 



treating of Alaska, and "The Silver Horde" ( 1909), 
a romance of the salmon-fishing industry of the 
northern Pacific coast. In conjunction with Paul 
Armstrong, Mr. Beach wrote a farce in 1909 entitled 



company <J, 3tl United states volunteer infantry, 
serving in Santiago province, Cuba, during the 
Spanish-American war, being mustered out of 
service in May, 1899, with the rank of captain. 




resbery. . 

Athletic and Press clubs of Chicago, and of the 
Players', Lambs' and New York Athletic clubs of 
New York. In 1907 he was married to Edith 
Crater, an actress. 

BROWARD, Napoleon Bonaparte, eighteenth 
governor of Florida (1905-09), was born in Duval 
county, Fla., Apr. 19, 1857, son of Napoleon Bona- 
parte and Mary Dorcas (Parsons) Broward, both of 
whom died when he was twelve years of age. Heat- 
tended the country school while working for a bache- 
lor uncle for two years, and then worked in a log 
camp for another uncle. At various times he was a 
farm-hand, roustabout on a steamboat, cod fisher- 



over the Republican candidate. During his ad- 
ministration the state legislature enacted laws reg- 
ulating the practice of osteopathy and dentistry; 
provisions were made for sanitariums for the treat- 
ment of tuberculosis, also a pure-food law an.l laws 
for the suppression of contagious diseases in live 
stock and to prevent corrupt practices at elections 
were passed. He is unmarried. 



BAKER, Ray Stannard, author, was born in 
Lansing, Mich., Apr. 17, 1870, son of Major Joseph 
Stannard and Alice (Potter) Baker, and a de- 
scendant on his father's side of Capt. Remember 
Baker of the Green Mountain boys, and on his 

man' on't'he Grand Banks, seaman on sailing vessels mother's side of Ezra Stiles, first president of Yale 
and fishing boats, steamboat hand, and bar pilot on College. He received his early education in the 
St. Johns Bar, Fla. Next he purchased an interest public schools of Wisconsin and Minnesota, and was 
in a line of steamboats plying between Mayport and graduated B.S. at the Michigan Agricultural College 
Palatka, Fla., and in 1887 became proprietor of a in 1889. He afterward took a partial law course 
woodyard in Jacksonville, Fla. Mr. Broward was ap- and a post-graduate course in literature at the 
pointed sheriff of Duval comity in 1887, reappointed University of Michigan. In 1890 he associated him- 
in 1889, and afterward elected and reflected until self with his father in the real estate business, but 

1900. He became a member of the state legislature two years later became a newspaper reporter on the 
from Duval county in 1900, and was a member of the Chicago "Record," attracting attention by his 
state board of health during 1900-04. In the latter 

year he was elected governor of Florida. During 

1890-92 he was engaged in phosphate mining. In 

1895 he returned to the steamboat business as owner 

of a steam tug, the "Three Friends," which he 

commanded during 1896-98 on eight trips, convey- 
ing war material to the Cubans, since 1902 he has 

been in the towing and wrecking business at Jackson- 
ville, Tampa and Key West. He was married at 

New Berlin, Fla., Jan. 10, 1883, to Caroline Georgia 

Kemps. She died October 30, of the same year, and 

he was married again at Jacksonville, May 5, 1887, 

to Annie I. Douglass. They have eight daughters. 

GILCHRIST, Albert Waller, nineteenth gover- 
nor of Florida (1909 ), was born at Greenwood, 
S. C., Jan. 15, 1858, son of William E. and Rhoda 
Elizabeth (Waller) Gilchrist. His first American an- 
cestor was Nimrod Gilchrist, who came from Glas- 
gow, Scotland, in 1750, and settled at Stevens Creek, 
Edgefield co., S. C. His son was Obadiah, and his 
son was John Gilchrist, who married Mary Holmes, 
and was the grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch. John and William were large planters and 
slave-holders, and the latter was also a general in 
the Florida militia, a member of the house of repre- 
sentatives, and state senator of Florida. His entire 



.by 
interesting reports of the march to Washington of 
"Coxey's army" of tatterdemalions. Later he was 
made one of the editors of 
the paper. He contributed a 
number of articles, notably a 
series of war stories, to "Mc- 
Clure's Magazine," and in 
1898 he became associate 
editor of that periodical. In 
1 906 he acquired an interest in 
the "American Magazine,"be- 
coming at the same time one of 
its editors. To these and other 
magazines he has contributed 
many special articles, and 
stories, chiefly on sociological 
and economic problems, no- 
tably a series on the labor 
question in the United States. 
"In preparing his labor ar- 
ticles," said the Springfield 
"Republican," "Mr. Baker 
talks with all sorts of people 
in search of all possible information. Employers 
and employees are consulted alike impartially,. ami 
every effort is made to get on 'the inside' of the 
facts." One of Mr. Baker's articles, relating to 




seniatives, anu state senator 01 r luiiuu. iia tu iiiui/o. \_/UG vi 1*1.1. j_*an.ct o CIIL to, i<- 

estate was swept away as the result of the civil war. labor conditions in Colorado, was published by the 

"^- - -* .--J.-J _i /i i:_~i:i:* , T,,,.t;f,,*o commission of labor in that state in his official 



The son was educated at Caroline Military Institute, 
and West Point Military Academy. He began his 
career as a clerk at $15 per month in a general 



annual report, and other articles of his have been 
used as required studies in economic courses at 



merchandise store at Quincy, Fla. Not long Harvard. Mr. Baker published his first book in 

r> f +<->! n ~,1 V, n nn 4-nru-l +Vir v^n iltistrisl fioli^ Kfr>rn i ii ir 1 >vOQ a " 'Rnv'e 'RnnL' r\( Tn trem t ion a " t c\ \vTi ir*li in 



afterward he entered the railroad field, becoming 
assistant and resident civil engineer for the Plant 
railroad system (1882). Three years later he 
entered the employment of the Florida Southern 



1S99, a "Boy's Book of Inventions," to which in 
1903 he added a companion volume, entitled " Boy's 
Second Book of Inventions." These were followed 
by "Our New Prosperity" (1900), an investigation of 



60 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



industrial American conditions; "Seen in Germany" 
(1903); "Following the Color Line" (1908) and 
"New Ideals in Healing" (1909). "Following the 
Color Line" is the outcome of a thorough study 
of the negro problem. He spent some two years 
traveling throughout the South, visiting all classes 
of people, both white and colored, with a view 
to writing down exactly what he had discov- 
ered. The result was first published in a series 
of articles in "The American Magazine," and 
attracted much attention abroad as well as at 
home ; indeed, they were translated into Russian and 
published in Russian journals, and "The World of 
To-day" (Chicago), advised that they be reprinted 
as a tract by the Southern education board. "The 
more one reads this volume," it said, " the more he is 
convinced of its value. It is so scientific in tem- 
perament and so luminous in description that even 
a casual reader realizes the essential elements of the 
negro problem as never before." Another book 
from his pen, " New Ideals in Healing," appeared in 
1909, after which he engaged ir. a series of studies 
called "The Spiritual Unrest," which is an investi- 
gation into the conditions of the modern American 
church. Mr. Baker is a member of the City and 
Players' clubs of New York. He was married Jan 
2, 1896, to Jessie I., daughter of Prof. W. J. Real, 
of the Michigan Agricultural College, and has two 
sons and two daughters. 

PEAKY, Robert Edwin, arctic explorer, was 
born at Cresson, Pa., May 6, 1856, son of Charles 
N. and Mary (Wiley) Peary. His parents belonged 
to families who had long been engaged in the lumber- 
ing business in Maine, and on his father's side he 
came originally of French stock. Before he was 
three years old his father died, and his mother 
removed with her only son to Portland, Me., where 
he received his early education. In his boyhood he 
had unusual physical strength and developed a fond- 
ness for outdoor life, which was gratified by frequent 
excursions into the surrounding country, and in 
these tramps he collected many specimens of min- 
erals, birds, birds' eggs, insects and flowers. His 
career at Bowdoin College was highly creditable. 
He showed special aptitude in 
mathematics and engineering, 
was the winner of several 
scholarships, and stood second 
in a class of fifty-one. After 
being graduated in 1877, he 
was engaged as land surveyor 
at Fryeburg, Me., two years, 
and for two years more was in 
i the employ of the coast and 
. geodetic survey in Washing- 
i ton. In 1881 he passed the 
navy department examinations 
and was commissioned civil 
engineer with the rank of 
lieutenant, October 26th. He 
served at the navy yard, 
Washington, D. C.; at Key 
West, Fla.; at the training 
station, Newport, R. I.; in 
the bureau of yards and 
docks, Washington, and at the 
League island navy yard, 

Philadelphia. He distinguished himself by build- 
ing for the government a pier in Florida after 
more experienced engineers had refused the 
undertaking because they deemed it impossible 
within the cost limit allowed. The work was 
completed by the young engineer for $25,000 
less than the price fixed by the government. In 
1884 he was appointed assistant engineer of the 
Nicaragua ship canal and spent the following year 




in survey work and map making. He early became 
interested in the subject of arctic exploration 
through the writings of Elisha Kent Kane and 
others. His attention having been drawn to the 
inland ice-cap of Greenland about this time he 
began to study the subject exhaustively and it so 
fascinated him that he determined to go to Green- 
land and explore its great mysterious interior. 
He landed at Disco bay, Greenland, with a single 
companion in the summer of 1886, and made a 
reconnaissance eastwardly into the interior, the 
result of which was the conviction that the inland ice 
of Greenland offered a highway for further explor- 
ation which might lead to the unknown northeast 
coast. In 1887 he was promoted to the position of 
engineer in charge of the Nicaraugua canal surveys. 
His work on the canal, lasting two years, was both 
administrative and constructive, requiring the cap- 
able management of subordinates, high 'technical 
. skill and grasp of details. He invented rolling-lock 
gates for the canal at this time, and for his efficient 
service he was promoted to the rank of commander 
and civil engineer in the navy. He was two years 
at the League island navy yard, Philadelphia. 
Under the auspices of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences he organized an expedition to Greenland 
in 1891, and obtaining a second leave of absence 
from the navy department sailed on the Kite in 
June of that year, accompanied by a party of 
scientists under the leadership of Prof. Angelo 
Heilprin, and also his wife. He established a winter 
camp at Cape Cleveland, McCormick Bay. in Whale 
Sound, where game was abundant, and where he 
completed preparations for the dash north in the 
following spring. With one companion and eio-ht 
dogs he made the dash over the inland ice that in 
some places was 8,000 feet above sea-level and on 
July 4, 1892, he reached the northern shore of 
Greenland, over 500 miles from McCormick Bay, 
and where no man had ever been before. He ex- 
plored the northern shore, made a map of the coast- 
line, and named the bay beyond Independence bay. 
This expedition was notable for the determination 
of the northern extremity as well as the insularity 
of Greenland, the discovery of land of less exti-nt 
north of Greenland, and also of a large number of 
glaciers of the first magnitude, the first complete 
and accurate information of the peculiar and isolated 
tribe of Arctic Highlanders and the long sledge 
journey which was unique in respect to the dis- 
tance traveled by two men without a cache from 
beginning to end. In 1893 another expedition 
under his leadership went north for the purpose of 
continuing the exploration of the northern and 
northeastern coast line of Greenland, and, should 
conditions prove favorable, an attempt to reach the 
pole. The party consisted of Lieut. Peary, his wil'c, 
a colored servant, Matthew Henson, and eleven 
others. It left Philadelphia on the steamer Falcon 
and reached Inglefield gulf, where a site was selected 
for a permanent camp. A substantial frame house 
or "lodge" was erected on the same site he had 
occupied the year before, and establishing his head- 
quarters here, preparations were made for a journey 
over the inland ice. An unusual event in arctic 
exploration occurred here soon after, in the birth of 
a daughter to Mr. and Mrs. Peary, Marie Ahnighito 
Peary. His attempt to reach northern Greenland 
that summer was unsuccessful, the sledging party 
having to turn back on account of the severity of the 
weather and a fatal disease which attacked his 
arctic dogs. In the interim Peary made an excur- 
sion to Cape York in search of the famous Cape 
York meteorites. These stones, three in number, 
were first mentioned in reports of Capt. Ross in 
1818. For years the native Eskimos had chip]"'>I 
off pieces of the "iron mountain," as they called 



OF AMERICAN fife KlKAl'fl V. 



61 



the stones, to tip the points of their rude knives 
ami Imrpoons. A number of attempts had been 
made since IMS to solve the mystery of the "iron 
mountain," but it was reserved for Lieut. I Vary to 
seitle the iiuestion finally and definitely. Having 
Alined the confidence of the tribe of Smith-sound 
Eskimos, one of the hunters guided him to the spot , 
where on May -7, 1S94, he found not a mountain of 
iron, but three large masses of homogeneous nn -lal. 
which proved beyond a shadow of a doubt to be of 
meieoric origin. According to an Eskimo legend 
these stones were originally an Innuit woman, her 
dog and her tent which were hurled from the sky 
by Tornarsuk, the evil spirit. They told him that, 

at first cii f the stones was shaped like a woman 

seated, but that the constant chipping off of frag- 
ments by the Kskimos had reduced its size one-third 
to one-half. The two smaller meteorites were se- 
eurcd by him in 1X9.5 anil brought to New York in 
the steamer Kite; the third and largest stone was 
secured in 1897. These meteorites, which are now 
in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York, weigh respectively 1,000 pounds, (1,000 pounds 
and the third from ninety to one hundred tons. 
On Apr. 1, 1895, Peary once more started from his 
" lodge" to cross the great field of inland ice, a dis- 
tance of 500 miles to the northern coast, accom- 
panied by two companions. They encountered 
untold hardships on this journey. Some portions 
of the ice were so rough and broken as to be almost 
impassable, the fooil supply gave out, and even the 
dogs upon whom their very life depended failed 
them. Added to these discouragements, the musk- 
oxen upon which they depended so absolutely for 
additional food were not found where expected. 
Nothing better i'lustrates the grim determination, 
magnificent courage and American pluck of C'omr. 
Peary than the way he met and overcame these 
heavy obstacles one by one. To quote his own 
words: ''Never shall I forget that time and scene; 
three exhausted men and nine starved dogs standing 
there in the gaunt, frozen desert. These and the 
glistening snow, the steel-blue sky, and the cold 
white sun. Five hundred miles in an air-line across 
a waste of snow to the nearest human being, with 
insufficient rations for even that return journey, yet 
we', were still facing the other way. . . . I felt then, 
as I feel now. that in that cool deliberate moment we 
took the golden bow'l of life in our hands, and that 
the bowl had suddenly grown very fragile, and I now 
feel, as I felt then, that we were neither rash nor 
foolhardy in so doing, but simply followed the dic- 
tates of temperaments which could not act other- 
wise, and which would do the same thing again under 
the same circumstances." What saved their lives 
was the providential discovery of a small herd of 
musk-oxen soon after, and pushing onward with 
renewed hope, their goal was reached. After 
exploring the coast of what is now known as Peary 
land, he retraced his steps. Starting in fairly good 
condition he was enabled to make the ascent of 
nearly 8,000 feet to the crest of the great ice, but this 
high altitude and the long period of work began to 
tell on both men and dogs; the latter one by one 
dropped in their tracks, and were fed to the others. 
After the most cruel hardships he finally reached 
his quarters at Bowdoin bay, more dead than alive. 
During this expedition he completed the detailed 
survey of Whal? sound, anil large accessions of 
material and information regarding the Smith-sound 
Kskimos were obtained. In IS'.Hi and 1S97 Peary 
made summer voyages to Greenland to bring back 
the third and largest of the meteorites mentioned 
above. His first north-polar expedition, strictly 
so called, sailed under the auspices of the Peary 
Arctic Club of New York city in 1898. It rounded 
the northern extremity of the Greenland archipelago, 




surveyed its eastern and northern shores, named the 
northern cape, which was at s:i .'ill' north latitude, 
Cape Morris K. .lesup, in honor of ihe New York 
capitalist who had generously contributed to ihc: 
expedition, and proceeded as far north as Sl 54'. 
Another expedition in 1901 went as far north as 
Lincoln bay, but had lo turn hack on account of the 
adverse conditions. In 1902 another Peary expedi- 
tion reached S( 17' north. In 190,~> 0(1 he went 
still farther, making the record of 87 G', and 
surpassing the' feats of Nansen and the' Duke of the 
Abruzzi in the eastern hemisphere. On this trip 
every effort was made to 
reach the pole, and if it had 
not been for the open lanes 
of water encountered, causing 
unavoidable and costly de- 
lays, his efforts would ha\e 
been crowneil with victory. 
However, he returned to civil- 
ization undismayed, anil 
with the determination that 
n leans success, made his plans 
for still another attempt. His 
enthusiasm was unbounded. 
He had made six expeditions, 
and although the hardships 
were almost unendurable, he 
felt that his unique experi- 
ences, extending over a period 
of twenty years, had paved 1 
the way at last for the fin: ' 
achievement of the pole itself. 
He had penetrated farther in- . 
to the heart of the frozen ' 
Arctic circle than any other -^ 
previous adventurer. An ac- 
count of this 1900 trip was 
published by him in 1907, en- 
titled "Nearest the Pole." It embodies the results of 
probably the richest and most original experience 
that fell to the lot of any arctic explorer. Many of the 
events recorded are of a thrilling character; some are 
strange and uncanny. Of special interest is Mr. 
Peary's account of the live creatures encountered by 
him in regions which are commonly supposed to be 
fatal toanimal life. In his last and most memorable 
attempt, 1908-09, he started with better knowledge 
of the route, and better resources dian ever before, 
and his ship, the Roosevelt, was reenforced in the 
strongest manner possible to resist the pressure of 
polar ice. The Roosevelt left New York July 6, 
1908, for Sydney, Nova Scotia, from which she 
sailed on July 17th, arriving at Cape York. ( Sreen- 
land, on August 1st. The party consisted of ('a pi. 
Robert A. Bartlett, master of the Roosevelt, Dr. 
John W. Goodsell, surgeon of the expedition; Prof. 
Ross G. Marvin, of Cornell University and Peary's 
secretary and assistant ; Prof. Donald B. McMillan, 
of Worcester Academy, George Borup and Matthew 
Henson, a faithful negro servant who had accom- 
panied Peary on his previous arctic expeditions, as 
well as the officers and crew of the Roosevelt. They 
established winter quarters at Cape Sheridan, ( Irant 
Land, in September, 190S, anil at once began to hunt 
and make all preparations for the dash to the pole. 
His plan of operation, which was the result of 
the many previous years of experience, was to send 
the necessary food and supplies in a series of relays 
or divisions, and these supporting parties were to 
return one at a time as their services were no longer 
needed. When the last of these supporting parties 
(the fourth) left him at 87 48' north latitude, 
Peary had but one companion (Henson) and five 
Eskimos. The final at tempt for the pole began Feb. 
15, 1909. He rapidly passed the British record on 
March 2d, crossed the 84th parallel of latitude on 



62 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



March llth, the 85th on March 18th, the S6th on 
M:irch 23d, passed the Italian record on March 24th, 
the 87th parallel March 27th, Peary's own previous 
record on March 28th, crossed the 88th parallel 
April 2d, the 89th parallel on April 4th, and on 
Apr. 6, 1909, reached the north pole, the successful 
achievement of twenty-three years' effort. The ex- 
plorer's attainment of his great object is noted in the 
following entry in his diary, made some hours after 
taking a hasty noon observation at 89 57' north 
latitude, only a few miles from the north pole: 
" The pole at last ! The prize of three centuries, my 
dream and goal for twenty years, mine at last ' I 
cannot bring myself to realize it. It all seems so 
simple and commonplace. As Bartlett said on 
turning back, when speaking of being in those 
exclusive regions where no mortal has ever pene- 
trated before: 'It is just like every day.' " In his 
account of what he did immediately after reaching 
the pole, Comr. Peary says: "The thirty hours at the 
pole were spent in taking observations; in going 
some ten miles beyond our camp and some eight 
miles to the right of it ; in taking photographs, 
planting my Hags, depositing my records, studying 
the horizon with my telescope' for possible land, 
and in searching for a practicable place to make a 
landing. Ten hours after our arrival the clouds 
cleared before a light breeze from our left, and from 
that time till our departure in the afternoon of 
April 7th .he weather was cloudless and flawless. 
The minimum temperature during the thirty hours 
was I).'!, the maximum 12 (below zero). We had 
reached the goal, but the return was still before us." 
Starting southward the following day, he arrived 
on board the Roosevelt twenty days later. The 
only serious mishap to the party was the unfortunate 
death of Prof. Marvin, who was in charge of the third 
supporting party, and who was lost on his return 
trip to Cape Sheridan. The steamer reached Ha it If 
Harbor, Labrador, on .Sep- 
tember 8th, and New York 
on September 29th. On 
Nov. 3, 1909. the National 
Geographic Society award- 
ed him a gold medal. 
The results of Peary's 
explorations are admitted 
to be of great importance. 
During the twenty-three 
years since they were first 
begun, he not only discov- 
ered and accurately defined 
arctic and polar areas hith- 
erto unknown or imperfectly 
known, but he made scien- 
tific observations of much 
value in meteorology, geol- 
ogy, glaciology and natural 
history. Large numbers of 
specimens of arctic flora 
and fauna were collecifil. 
and the habits of the Es- 
kimos werethoroughly stud- 
ied. He lias permanently 
changed and improved the 
methods of arctic travel. The discovery of the 




whether land is likely to be found in lage areas of 
yet unexplored Arctic ocean. It had been held 
until recently that Arctic waters are shallow. But 
as Peary's last sounding, within five miles of the 
north pole, showed a depth of 9,000 feet without 
touching bottom, he has established that the polar 
waters are in a comparatively deep basin. Another 
warrantable inference is that there is little or no land 
in that part of the Arctic ocean between the pole 
and Greenland and Grant Land. Peary had been 
honored by various scientific societies long before 
he reached the north pole. He was awarded the 
Kane gold medal by the Philadelphia Geographical 
Society and the Daly gold medal by the Ameri- 
can Geographical Society in 1902, besides being 
elected president of the latter society in 1903 and 
to membership in various other learned societies. 
He has contributed valuable papers to geographical 
journals, and in 1898 published "Northward Over 
the < ireat Ice." Comr. Peary was married Aug. 11, 
1888, to Josephine, daughter of Herman Diebitsch, 
of Washington, D. C., who was a professor for 
many years at the Smithsonian Institution. 
Mrs. Peary should share in her husband's glory, for 
the assistance, encouragement and loving sympathy 
she gave him in the long years of struggle'and dis- 
appointment and hopes deferred. She accom- 
panied him on several of his Arctic expeditions, 
remained in winter quarters during his sledge 
journeys and was the first white woman to winter 
with an Arctic expedition. Comr. Peary wrote 
about his wife thus: "It should be remembered 
thai within sixty miles of where Kane and his little 
party endured such untold sufferings, within eighty 
miles of where Greely's men one by one starved to 
death, and within less than fifty miles of where 
Hayes and his party and one portion of the Polaris 
party underwent their Arctic trialsand tribulations, 
thi- tenderly nurtured woman lived for a year in 
safety anil comfort; in the summertime climbed 
over the lichen-covered rocks, picking flowers and 
singing familiar home songs, shot deer, ptarmigan 
and ducks in the valleys and lakes, and even tried 
her hand at seal, walrus and narwhal in the bays; 
and through the long, dark winter night, with her 
nimble fingers and ready woman's insight, was of 
inestimable assistance in devising and perfecting 
the details of the costumes which enabled Astrup 
and myself to make our journey across the great 
ice-cap in actual comfort." She was with him on 
his first two expeditions and again in 1897. In 
1900 she went north to meet her husband in tii3 
ship Windward, but it was caught in the ice, and 
she wintered with her little daughter at Cape 
Sabine. Records of these experiences from a 
woman's point of view were published in "My 
Arctic Journal" (1894), and "The Snow Baby" 
(1901). They have one daughter, Marie Ahnigh'ito 
Peary, born at Bowdoin bay in 1894, the most 
northerly born white child in the world, and one 
son, Robert E. Peary, Jr. 



ARNOLD, Bion Joseph, electrical engineer, 
was born at Casenovia, Mich., Aug. 14, 18(31, son 
of Joseph and Geraldine (Reynolds) Arnold. His 
family settled in the colony of Rhode Island before 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, the earliest 
recorded member being Jeremiah Arnold, born at 
Smithfield, R. I., in 1700. From him the line of 
descent runs through Jeremiah Arnold 2d ami his 
wife, Elizabeth Knight; their son, Ichabod Arnold, 
and his son, Jeremiah Arnold 3d and his wife, Percy 
Rounds, parents of Joseph Arnold. His father, 
a lawyer by profession, was a pioneer of Nebraska 

_ and a member of the territorial legislature during 

places are of great value as affording to geographers 1865-66. Bion J. Arnold's mechanical renius dt- 
data from which they will be enabled to infer veloped at a very early age. When six years old he 



north pole has paved the way for observations 
of refinement with the pendulum and in the 
sciences of magnetism and meteorology, which will 
enable a rigid determination of the figure of the 
earth, thus fixing the first constant in astronomical 
di-tances. One specially valuable part of his work 
was the soundings made at different points between 
Cape Columbia and the north pole. These soundings, 
revealing the depth of the Arctic ocean in various 



* sv t 




()! AMKKICAN HKXiliAI'lIY. 



63 



began to make small boats, sleds and models of 
farm implements; he had made a small steam 
engine at the age of fifteen, devising and using the 
common piston valve before he had seen il eUe 
where, and in his seventeenth year, without ever 
having seen one, he constructed a bicycle from a 
small advertising cut in "Youth's Companion." 
He originated the suspension type of wheel, now 
so common in bicycle construction; and a. year 
later, while at the University of Nebraska, he pro- 
duced a complete locomotive one-sixteenth full 
.si/.c. lie was educated at the public schools of 
Ashland, Neb., at the University of Nebraska, and 
at Hillsdale College (Michigan), devoting special 
attention to the science of mechanics. He was 
graduated at Hillsdale, B.S. in 1884, M.S. in 1XS7 
and M.Ph. in 1S89. He then took a post-graduate 
course at Cornell University during 1888-89, and 
received the degree of E.E. from the University of 
Nebraska in 1897. In 1903 he received from Hills- 
dale College an engrossed testimonial diploma in 
recognition of his "distinguished learning and 
achievement in invention and in mechanical and 
electrical engineering," a form, of honor almost 
unique and of more significance than an ordinary 
degree. In June, 1907, Armour Institute of Chicago 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of Sc.D. 
Immediately after graduation he became general 
agent for the Upton Manufacturing Co., builders of 
traction engines, of Port Huron, Mich. A year later 
he' entered the employ of the Edward P. Allis Co. 
as draftsman, and shortly afterwards was offered 
a position as chief designing engineer of the Iowa 
Iron Works at Dubuque. While there he designed 
and built numerous steam engines, some developing 
as high as 1,500 horse power. Desiring experience 
in a different line he resigned in 1897 to become 
mechanical engineer foi the Chicago & Great 
Western railway, for whom he redesigned some of 
their locomotives and prepared the drawings for 
new equipments. Up to this period Mr. Arnold's 
intention had been to acquire a general experience 
in the various branches of engineering work. 
Turning now to the field of electricity he deter- 
mined to make that his particular profession, and 
with that end in view he went to Cornell University 
for special study. Upon leaving Ithaca he entered 
the service of the Thomson-Houston Company, in 
charge of its St. Louis, Mo., office. Later, during 
1890-93, he acted as consulting engineer for this 
company after it had been consolidated with the 
Edison General Co. While with this concern he 
also acted as consulting engineer for the Intramural 
Railway Co., the builders of the elevated railroad 
'at the Columbia exposition at Chicago in 1893, 
which was the forerunner of the present elevated 
electric roads. So successful was this third-rail 
electric road that Mr. Arnold decided to open an 
office in Chicago and did so in 1893. His marked 
ability as an electrical engineer, combined with that 
extraordinary talent for mechanical construction, 
Boon placed him at the head of his profession, 
where he not only remained but is now looked upon 
as one of the greatest advocates and most successful 
pioneers of new ideas which mark the progress of 
electric traction. After completing the Intramural 
railway he built the property of the St. Charles 
Street railway in New Orleans, La., and has since 
devoted his attention largely to the construction 
and operation of electric railways, in which he has 
accomplished numerous distinct advances. Being 
early impressed with the value of storage batteries 
in connection with electric traction work he set 
himself to perfecting plans for their use. One of 
his earliest successes in pioneer electric railroading 
was the equipment of the Chicago and Milwaukee 
electric railroad with a substation storage-battery 




and rotary converter system, using high tension 
alternating current for power transmission, which 

proved a great success and has since In me the 

standard type of construct ion for interurban electric 
roads, having reached its highest stale of develop- 
ment in the system put in operation by the New 
York Central railroad. That road commissioned 
him in 111(11 to study and report upon the feasi- 
bility of electrically operating its trains in and out 
of New York city, and for the five years following he 
was a member of the commission in charge- of 
electrifying over 300 miles of the road's irack, 
which, with the terminal in New 
York city that these changes 
necessitated, involved an ex- 
penditure of over 160,000,000. 
In 1902 he was engaged by the 
city of Chicago to make an 
exhaustive study and report 
upon the entire traction system 
within its limits, and in four 
months he produced a 300-page 
report embodying a scientific 
analysis of the.en tire proposition 
so replete with arguments 
and statements of facts that his 
recommendations were adopt- 
ed, and formed the basis of a 
comprehensive system of sur- 
face, elevated and underground 
railways later developed by him 
as chief engineer. In connection 
with this undertaking Mr. Ar- 
nold headed a commission ap- 
pointed to carry out the terms 
of an ordinance to regulate the operation of the street 
railways, a plan providing all the advantages of 
municipal ownership, but leaving the operation of 
the roads under the management of practical rail- 
way men. In connection with his extensive work 
on electric railway problems Mr. Arnold has in- 
vented a magnetic clutch, a storage battery and a 
number of other valuable devices relating chiefly 
to electric railway work. One of his latest and most 
brilliant achievements is his pioneer work in develop- 
ing single phase electric traction. In this new field 
he conducted a series of experiments during 1900-04 
with an electro-pneumatic system of his own inven- 
tion. This work, conducted at a personal expense 
of over $40,000, gave a tremendous impetus to the 
development of the single-phase railway motor, and 
as it still further reduces the cost of the installation 
and operation of electric roads, the single-phase 
system is being adopted by a number of steam 
railroads such as the St. Clair tunnel of the Grand 
Trunk railway system connecting Port Huron, 
Mich., and Sarnia, Out ; the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford railroad and the Erie railroad. 
Mr. Arnold has also made valuable contributions 
to the problem of compact and efficient power 
plants for large buildings, his idea being to use a 
generating unit in conjunction with storage bat- 
teries for equalizing the load, and to operate all 
machinery, including the elevators, by electric 
motors. He first employed this plan when he was 
consulting engineer for the Chicago board of trade 
in 1895, and it has since become the common prac- 
tice. In 1908 he was retained as consulting engi- 
neer by the Public Service commission for New Y'ork 
city to solve certain problems in connection with 
the operation of the subway system of the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Co., and to make recom- 
mendations regarding future subways, and is still 
acting in this capacity. He has also acted as direc- 
tor of appraisals for the same commission, in valu- 
ing all of the surface street railway properties of the 
city of New Y'ork, and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 



64 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



system. He is acting in a similar capacity for the 
city of Pittsburg, analyzing the transportation sys- 
tem of that city with a view to making recommen- 
dations regarding its improvement. Mr. Arnold has 
contributed extensively to the discussions of the 
technical societies to which he belongs, and is the 
author of many treatises, probably the most im- 



science and English literature at Knox College, 
Galesburg, 111., during 1886-89; professor of politi- 
cal economy and social science at Indiana Uni- 
versity, 1889-91, and professor of political science 
a1 I'nrnell University from 1891 to the present time. 
In 1899 Prof. Jenks was engaged as expert agent by 
the United States industrial commission to super- 

portant being "The Chicago Transportation Prob- vise their investigation of trusts and industrial com- 
lem^' (1902), being the^elaborate report^to the city binations, arranging for and examining the witnesses 

and editing the testimony and reports. In these 
reports he wrote "The Effect of Trusts on Prices," 
and prepared the legal report containing the 
Ma mtes and decisions of federal, state and terri- 
torial law on the subject of industrial combinations. 
As consulting expert of the United .Stair- depart- 
ment of labor, he prepared the interpretation of its 
"Report on Trusts" 1900). In 1901 he was ap- 
pointed special commissioner of the war depart- 
ment to visit the English and Dutch colonies in the 



of Chicago mentioned above, and which has become 
a text-book on traction matters. He is a member 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the 
American Society for the Promotion of Engineering 
Education, the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, of which he was president 
during 1903^04, and the Western Society of Engi- 
neers, of which he was president during 1906-07. 
He was a delegate to the International Electrical 
Congress at Paris in 1900, and in 1904 he was chair- 
man of the executive committee and vice-president 
of the International Electrical Congress at St 
Louis. He is a member of the Union League. Mid- 
day, Engineers' and South Shore clubs of Chicago 
and the Transportation and Engineers' clubs of 
New York. He is a trustee of Hillsdale College 
and was president of the Chicago-Corn ell Association. 
He was married Jan. 14, 1880, to Carrie Estelle, 
daughter of Henry Berry of Reading, Mich., who 
died in 1907, leaving two sons, Stanley Berry and 
Robert Melville Arnold, and one daughter. Maude 
Lucille Arnold. He was married again in New Y'ork 
city. Dec. 22, 1909, to Mrs. Margaret Latimer Fonda, 
daughter of Geo. L. Latimer. Mr. Arnold stands 
preeminently at the head of his profession in the 
United States, a master of mathematical theory as 
well as mechanical and electrical practice. 

JENKS, Jeremiah Whipple, educator and 
author, was bom at St. Clair. Mich., Sept. 2, 1856, 
son of Benjamin Lane and Amanda iMesser) Jenks. 
His first American ancestor was Joseph Jenks of 
Hammersmith, England, who was induced by Gov. 
Winthrop to settle at Lynn. 
M iss. Here he established 
''the iron and steel works," 
in the year K142. beini.' the 
fir-t builder of machinery in 
this country, as well as the 
first patentee of invention-, 
having built the first fire- 
engine in America and pat- 
ented the present form of 
grass scythe. His son. Jo- 
seph, founded Pawtucket. R. 
L, and made that town t he- 
great iron workshop of tin- 
colonies. Joseph Jenks' son 
Nathaniel was a major of mi- 
litia; his son Jeremiah u is 
^, one of the signers of the A - 

fa vCc^-/'- soc ' a tiontest 1 "andalieuten- 

f " ant of Newport volunteer- at 

/ the battle of Ticonderoga. He 

married Lucy AVhipple and 
their son was Jeremiah Whip- 
pie, who married Hester Lane and was the grand- 
father of the subject of this sketch. Prof. Jenks 
led the Michigan public school- and in 1^.7-. 
was graduated at the University of Michigan, 
receiving the degrees of M.A. in 1879 and LI..D. 
in 1903. He received the degree of Ph.I>. at 
the University _ of Halle in 1885. After his gradu- 
ation he studied law ami was admitted to tin- 
Michigan bar. He taught Greek, Latin and i .< i 
man at Mt. Morris College, and English literature 
at Peoria high school. He was professor of political 




East in order to secure information on the questions 
of currency, labor, taxation and police, which 
might be of service to the government in connection 
with legislation in the Philippine islands, and in that 
capacity he visited Egypt, India, the Si rail- Settle- 
ments and the Federated Malay States, Sumatra, 
.lava and the Philippine islands. On his return the 
government published a report on certain economic 
questions in the English and Dutch colonies of the 
far East. In 1903 the Mexican government invited 
him with Messrs. Charles A. t'o.iant and Kdward 
Brush to vi.-it Mexico as an adviser in connection 
with the reform of their monetary system. Later 
that same year Pres. Roosevelt appointed him a. 
member of the commission on international exchange 
with H. H. Hanna and < 'harles A. ( 'onant (q.v.). This 
commission visited the leading countries of Europe, 
and later, as a representative of the commission he 
\i-iied China. Japan and the Philippine islands in 
connection with the reform of the Philippine cur- 
rency and the projected reform of the Chinese cur- 
rency. He also edited the second volume of the 
report of the commission on international exchange 
which was issued as a government publication, 
two volumes, one in 1903 and the other in 1904. In 
1907 he was made by Pres. Koo.-evelt a member of 
thel". S. immigration commission. Prof. Jenks is the 
author of "Citi/enship and the Schools" (,1905), 
' Hi-eat Fortunes" (1906), and "The Political and 
Seoial Significance of the Life and Teachings of 
Jesus" i HI06), "Road Legislation for the American 
State" (1889) "The Trust Problem" il!M)'J>, " Prin- 
ciples of Politics" (1909), as well as of many 
contributions to encyclopedias, reviews and mag- 
azines in Germany. England and the United 
States, especially on the subject- of trusts, mono- 
polies, money question, and political methods. Prof. 
Jenks' career has a unique character in American 
university life. Successive generations of college 
students testify that his work in the class-room is 
ever vital with reality, that it develops a sane and 
judicial spirit in the student, and that it inspires 
also to active efforts for civic usefulness. His public 
service as expert adviser to various legislative and 
executive bodies has probably exceeded that of any 
other living economist, and his first-hand studies of 
trusts, monetary problems and immigration have 
aided both the specialist and the public to a better 
understanding of these questions, and have in a 
peculiar and notable manner advanced the cause 
of -ocial reform and of political science in America. 
He is a member of the American Economic Associa- 
tion, of which he was president dm-ins 19.l."> 1)7; is a 
member of the Century Club and the National Arts 
I 'lil> of New York city. He uas married at Mt. 
Morris. 111.. Aug. _'\ IsM, to Ge >rgia, daughter of 
George W. Bixler, and has two sons :ihd one 
daughter. 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



65 



MOORE, William Henry, lawyer and finan- 
cier, was burn in L'tica, N. Y., Oct. 2"), 1841-!. son 
of Nathaniel K. and Rachel A. (Beckwith) Moore, 
both (if whom were natives of New York slate. 
The family was resident in New England in early 
colonial days, and his father was a well-knowu 
and highly respected merchant of Utica, who died 
in l^'.lll. 'The son of well-to-do parents, young 
Mo,, iv had the best educational advantages. He 
attended the seminary at Oneida and the Uortland 
Academy at Homer, N. Y., and then entered Am- 
hrr-i ('n'lleu'e in 1867, but was compelled by sick- 
ness tn give up his studies before graduation. 
While in searcli of health he visited Wisconsin, 
and deriving benefit from the climate, settled tem- 
porarily at Eau Claire. Here he began to study 
law in" the olllce of W. P. Bartlett, and in 1872 
was admitted to the bar. His first practice was in 
theolliee of Edward A. Small, a corporation lawyer 
of Chicago, and shortly afterwards he entered 
into a partnership with him. which continued 
until Mr. Small's death in 1381. He then formed 
a partnership with his younger brother, James 
Hobart Moore, who recently had been admitted 
to practice. The linn soon became known as one 
of the best and most successful at the Chicago 
bar. numbering among its clients such well-known 
firms as the American Express Co., the Adams 
Express Co.. the Merchants Dispatch Transporta- 
tion Co., the Yanderbilt Fast Freight Line, and 
similar leading business houses and wealthy cor- 
porations of Chicago. During the earlier years 
of his career Mr. Moore was the chief trial lawyer 
of the linn, and was in court continually. Com- 
bining with an intimate knowledge of fundamental 
and statute law great natural sagacity, and con- 
stantly exercising the most scrupulous care in pre- 
paring his cases, he rarely failed of success. Mr. 
Moore soon began to develop rare powers of organ- 
ization, and in the recent history of the great move- 
ment for industrial centralization, as the head of 
the law firm of \V. H. & J. H. Moore, his achieve- 
ments place him among the greatest financiers of 
the country. He was one of the principal pro- 
jectors of the Diamond Match Co., organized in 
1889 from a Connecticut corporation with $3.000,- 
000-capital to an Illinois corporation with 6,000.- 
000 capital. In 1890 a combination of eastern 
cracker factories was made under the name of 
the New York Biscuit Co., capitalized at $10,000,- 
000. The brothers were the leading spirits in the 
management of the match and biscuit companies 
until 1S9I5, when owing to the depreciation of the 
stuck of these companies, the firm failed for several 
million dollars. It was evident to everybody that 
the brothers had lost nothing but their money, that 
their confidence in themselves and their "hearty 
competent grip upon life were unimpaired, and they 
immediately addressed themselves to the reshap- 
ing of their fortunes. Their creditors had such 
confidence in their ability to recover that the 
firm was not formally declared insolvent or put 
into bankruptcy. It is said that the settlements 
wen 1 on the debtors' own terms. To quote an 
article in " Everybody's Magazine :" " William H. 
Mod:-!.- especially has that gift of power upon men 
which no one can quite analyze or define. He has 
a remarkably able mind and a remarkable facility 
of movement. He is at ouce quick and sure, ur- 
bane and firm. . . . But above all else, that 
ready, competent, imperturbably good-humored at- 
titude of both the brothers counted. It seemed so 
inevitable that men whom failure could not daunt 
were again to command success." Mr. Moore soon 
demonstrated that this confidence was justified, 
and the brothers surprised the business world by 



the promptness with which they liquidated all 
their obligations. About this time a tierce trade 
war was begun between the New York Biscuit Co. 
and the American Biscuit Manufacturing Co., 
a rival combination formed of \\ estern cracker 
makers, and the oiiteonn of the stiife \\iis the 
consolidation of these two companies and the 
United States Baking C'o. into one company, the 
National Biscuit Co., in 1898. In December of 
the same year the Moores promoted and organized 
the American Tin Plate Co.; in February. 1899. 
the National Steel Co., and in April, I'H'M, the 
American Steel Hoop Co. All of these companies 
were consolidations in the steel trade, early trans- 
actions that were to lead up finally to the present 
United States Steel Corporation. In May. \x'M, 
they proposed to take over the Carnegie Steel Co., 
capitalized at $623,000,000, but the time was not 
ripe for such a huge capitalization. They next 
bought out the American Sheet Steel Co., with 
849,000,000 capital, and in March, 1901, tho 
American Can Co., with $88.000.000 capital. 
Meanwhile, Mr. Moore's idea of a gigantic merger 
of steel and iron interests was gaining adherents, 
and negotiations were continued from time to time 
until an agreement was signed in New York, Feb. 
23. 1901, by the representative of a syndicate, 
headed by J. Pierpont Morgan, to finance the deal. 
This was the origin of the United States Steel Cor- 
poration, which took over, among other concerns, 
the American Tin Plate Co, the National Steel 
Co.; the American Steel Hoop Co., and the Ameri- 
can Sheet Steel Co., controlled by Mr. Moore. In 
1901 the sphere of their operations was further 
widened by acquiring control of the Chicago, Hock 
Island & Pacific railway, his associates in the 
transaction, besides his brother, being Daniel G. 
Reid and William B. Leeds. This was the begin- 
ning of the railroad career of the men now known 
familiarly in Wall street as the "Rock Island 
crowd." By the end of that year Mr. Moore and 
his associates had assumed control of the railroad, 
and began to carry out a series of railroad trans- 
actions that rivaled the most ambitious under- 
takings of James J. Hill or Edward II. Harriman. 
By the purchase of the Choctaw, Oklahoma & 
Gulf railroad, the leasing of the Burlington. Cedar 
Rapids & Northern, the acquisition of the St. 
Louis and San Francisco system, and other addi- 
tions, the Rock Island road was increased from 
3,600 miles and a property value of $116,000.000 
in 1901 to about 15,000 miles at a total valuation 
of $900,000,000, in 1907. and the Rock Island be- 
came as much of a "Moore " road as the New York 
Central was ever a " Vanderbilt" road. While 
the powers in command had extended to others 
than the Moore brothers, unquestionably the guid- 
ing spirit and chief of them all was William H. 
Moore. Since 1900 his office has been in New York 
city. He is a director of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western railroad, the Rock Island Co., 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway Co., 
the St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad Co.. the 
Chicago it Eastern Illinois Railroad Co., the Chicago 
& Alton Railroad Co. . and other railroads. He is 
also a director of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion, the American Can Co., the National Biscuit 
Co., First National Bank of New York, and Fidel- 
ity Fire Insurance Co., of New York. He is a 
member of the Metropolitan Club, the Union 
League ( 'lub, Lawyers' Club, Downtown Club, 
Army & Navy Club, Racquet and Tennis Club, 
New York Yacht Club, and Garden City Golf Club 
of New York, the Myopia Hunt Club of Massachu 
setts, the Calumet and the Chicago clubs of Chi- 
cago, and the New York Chamber of Commerce. 



66 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




to 

j\tsLAs<~*^) ? c ^-r\ 

IS ' ~ 



Outside his business. Mr. Moore finds keen enjoy- 
ment in his stable of harness horses, of which he 
has one of the finest collections in the world. He 
He was married in Chicago, 111., in 1879, to Ada, 
daughter of his first law partner, Edward A. Small. 
and had three sons: Hobart Jloore. who died in 
1903; Edward Small, of St. Louis, and Paul 
Moore. 

MORGAN, John Pierpont, banker and finan- 
cier, was born in Hartford, Conn., April 17, 1837, 
son of Junius Spencerand Juliet (Pierpont) Morgan. 
His father (1813-90) was a 
native of West Springfield. 
Mass., and a descendant of 
Capt. Miles Morgan, (q. v.) 
a Welshman, who sailed 
from Bristol, England, in 
January, 1636, landing in 
Boston in the following 
April and was one of the 
company which founded 
Springfield, Mass., when-, 
fighting first the Indians 
and later the British, his 
descendants slowly secured 
a foothold. His second 
wife was Elizabeth Bliss 
and the line of descent is 
traced through their sun 
Nathaniel, who married 
Hannah Bird; their son 
Joseph, who married Mary 
Stebbins; their son Joseph, 
H i.o married Experience 

Smith; anil their son Joseph, a farmer of Spring- 
field, who married Sally Spencer, and was the 

frandfather of the subject of this sketch. Junius 
pencer Morgan (1813-90) was born in West 
Springfield (now Holyoke), Mass., and educated 
at Hartford, Conn. After serving an apprentice- 
ship under Alfred Welles, of Boston, he engaged 
in banking in New York city as a member of the 
firm of Morgan, Keteham & Co. A year or 
two later he returned to Hartford to enter the 
dry-goods firm of Howe, Mather & Co., which 
afterwards became Mather, Morgan & Co. Its 
extensive business relations with Boston re- 
sulted in Mr. Morgan's next connection, with Mr. 
James M. Beebe of that city, in the firm of Beebe, 
Morgan it Co., widely known as one of the largest 
dry-goods houses in the United States. In 1853 
he visited England where he met George Peabody 
(q. v.) and in the following year they established 
in London the banking house of George Peabody 
& Co., which by the retirement of Mr. Peabody in 
1864 became J. S. Morgan & Co., and ranked 
among the largest in the world. Mr. Morgan's 
loyalty to his native land induced him to render 
substantial aid to the federal government during 
the civil war and his gifts to Trinity College and 
other American institutions attest his'philanthropic 
spirit and interest in education. Besides being a 
man of energy and splendid business ability he 
was highly cultured, broad-minded and of distin- 
guished appearance. His wife, the mother of the 
banker, was the daughter of Rev. John Pierpont, a 
noted clergyman, poet, and temperance worker. 
The first fourteen years of the life of J. Pierpont 
Morgan were spent in his native city. For a short 
period he attended a country school, but in 1851 
the family removed to Boston, and the son became 
a student in the English high school. His mind 
inclined strongly towards the scholar's life, though 
mathematics were his forte. He was graduated at 
the Boston school at the age of seventeen, and for 



two years continued his studies at the University 
of G'ottingen, Germany. Here he heard lectures 
in history and political economy, and won decided 
distinction by his mathematical work. He was 
graduated in 1857. Upon his return to the United 
States he became associated with the house of Dun- 
can, Sherman <fc Co. of New York city. In 1860, 
then twenty -three years of age, he was appointed 
the American agent for George Peabody it Co. of 
London. Experience with the risks and responsi- 
bilities of great business transactions then became 
familiar to him. After four years he organized the 
firm of Dabney. Morgan and Company, and in 1871 
he entered a business relationship with the Drexels 
of Philadelphia. During the civil war he was 
able, through this strong connection, to render 
substantial assistance to the federal government, 
and this service he has repeated on a number of 
other occasions of emergency; in 1876-78, when 
his firm was prominently identified with floating 
government bonds, and in 1895, when they sup- 
plied the U. S. treasury with $64,000,000 in gold, 
for bonds, to restore the normal surplus of $100,- 
000,000. In 1871, with Anthony J. Drexel, of 
Philadelphia, he formed the firm of Drexel, Morgan 
Co., which was for many years a powerful in- 
fluence in resisting all forms of stock-jobbing and 
chicanery, was a tower of strength in times of 
panic and financial distrust, and a leader in some 
of the greatest financial and corporate enterprises 
of the century. In 1890 the elder Morgan's death 
left his London house and connections all over 
the world to his son. By the death of Mr. Drexel, 
in 1893, Mr. Morgan became senior partner of 
Drexel. Morgan & Co., having for many years pre- 
vious directed the firm's business, and on Jan. 1, 
1895, it became J. P. Morgan & Co. This is a part- 
nership, among the partners being Charles Steele, 
George W. Perkins and other prominent financiers. 
In 1899 this firm financed the first foreign loan ever 
negotiated in this country ; supported by its con- 
nections abroad the Mexican national debt was 
converted. In the following year it supplied Great 
Britain with funds to carry on the South African 
war, and since then it has taken a prominent part 
in several other foreign loans. In 1901 the house 
of Morgan was commonly reported to represent up- 
wards of eleven hundred million dollars. Mr. Mor- 
gan's activities are primarily those of a banker, 
acting as an agent for rich clients in the invest- 
ment of money. At the same time he may be 
called a practical railroad man, a steel manufac- 
turer and a coal operator, because he is inter- 
ested in such things and deals in them. But he 
is essentially a worker with money a master of 
finance. No man has greater influence in financial 
and industrial circles, nor is any individual more 
trusted. He has been called the statesman of the 
business world : a builder of a gigantic industrial 
empire. The interests of Mr. Morgan are fairly 
innumerable, and many other banks and financial 
institutions acknowledge his influence. He is a 
director in numerous railroad companies, notably 
the New York Central and Lake Shore systems. 
The foremost railroad system of the southern 
states, with over eight thousand miles of track, 
is veritably his creation, while his power in the 
so-called "coal roads" of Pennsylvania was ex- 
hibited during the coal miners' strike of 1902. 
Besides the above Mr. Morgan's controlling power 
has been felt by the New York, New Haven and 
Hartford, the Reading, Lehigh Valley. Erie. North- 
ern Pacific. Big Four. Chesapeake and Ohio and 
other systems, the total capital of these gigantic in- 
terests exceeding a billion dollars. Mr. Morgan 
is also a director in the Western Union Telegraph 



V: 






OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



67 



Company, the Pullman Palace Car Company 
the Aetna Fire Insurance Company and the 
(ieiienil Electric Company. His almost half cen- 
turv (if constant activity defies tabulation. He- 
organizing and reconstructing bankrupt corpo- 
rations has been such a marked feature of Mr. 
Morgan's career that in Wall street the process has 
become known as " re-Morgani/.ing. " rnqucs- 
ably the tinancial masterpiece in the career of .1. 
Pierpont Morgan was his organization of the I'nitcd 
States Si eel ( 'orporation. A combination of steel in- 
terests bad been contemplated for some years pre- 
vious (see .Moore, W. H., above). Already he had 
successfully organized the Federal Steel Co., and he 
was a heavy stockholder in the National Tube Co. 
and the American Bridge Co. On Dec. 12, 1900, 
Charles M. Schwab delivered an address on the 
steel anil iron industry of America at the dinner 
given at t he I'niversity Club, New York city, which 
Mr. Morgan attended. He was much impressed 
with the address, and from that time began to con- 
sider favorably the consolidation which resulted in 
the organization of the largest corporation ou earth. 
A few days after the dinner John W. Gates and 
Mr. Schwab, who were in favor of a steel con- 
solidation, went to see Mr. Morgan They arrived 
at his house at 9 P. M. , and it is said the discussion 
lasted until five o'clock the next morning. Mr. 
Morgan was shown the big possibilities of the steel 
business, and was persuaded to act. He sent 
Schwab to Andrew Carnegie to secure his purchase 
price; he then called iu Judge E. H. Gary, with 
whom he had been previously connected in steel cor- 
porations, and finally consul ted Henry C Frick and 
many other financiers. The preliminaries having 
been arranged, Mr. Morgan rushed at his work like 
a Titan who had at last found a task worthy of his 
strength. His plan at first was to combine only 
four companies, the Carnegie Co., the National 
Tube Co., the Federal Steel Co., and the American 
Steel and Wire Co., but a survey of the field 
showed him that four other important companies 
could be brought into the confederation, the Na- 
tional Steel Co., the American Tin Plate Co., the 
American Steel Hoop Co. and the American Sheet 
Steel Co., and these eight companies formed the 
original basis of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion, and represented seventy per cent, of the entire 
iron and steel industry of America. The concern 
was incorporated in New Jersey, Feb. 25, 1901. 
It consisted of $366,097,697 in bonds (held chiefly 
by Carnegie), $510.281,100 in preferred stock, and 
$508,302,500 in common stock, a capitalization of 
nearly fourteen hundred million. Subsequently 
the American Bridge Co., the Lake Superior Iron 
Mines Co., the Shelby Steel Tube Co., the Union 
Steel Co., the Clairton Steel Co., and the Tennes- 
see Coal, Iron and Railroad Co. were taken into 
the corporation. The United States Steel Corpora- 
tion owns as much laud as is contained in the states 
of Massachusetts, Vermont and Rhode Island; it 
employs one hundred and eighty thousand work- 
men, with a pay-roll of some one hundred and 
twenty -eight million dollars yearly; it owns and 
operates a railroad trackage that would reach 
from New York to Galveston, possessing thirty 
thousand cars and seven hundred locomotives; it 
has nineteen ports and owns a fleet of one hundred 
large ore-ships; it produces one-sixth of all the 
iron ore in the world, and makes more steel than 
either Great Britain or Germany. Soon after the 
successful launching of this enormous corporation, 
Mr. Morgan went to England and bought one of 
the biggest English steamship companies, the Ley- 
land line. Henceforth his power as a financier was 
acknowledged throughout the civilized world. His 



frequent aid to Wall Street iu times of panic is a 
matter of public record. Two years after the panic 
of 1H93, when gold was flowing out of the country, 
Mr Morgan together with other bankers agreed to 
buy two hundred million dollars worth of govern- 
ment 1 Is. paying in gold. This immense finan- 
cial undertaking saved the day. but because of the 
large pay exacted for their services public opinion 
poured forth torrents of abuse. In the threatened 
panic' of ISiW, Mr. Morgan once more came for- 
ward with an oll'cr to provide gold for the govern- 
ment and in that of 1SI07 it was under his leader- 
ship that a number of financiers relieved the acute 
money stringency which constituted one of the 
most critical situations in American finance. Mr. 
Morgan's first passion outside of work is the col- 
lecting of rare books and works of art, and he 
unquestionably ranks among the greatest collectors 
of modern times. Besides possessing a large number 
of famous paintings, among which are many of 
the world's rarest canvases, his art treasures in- 
clude a collection of Chinese porcelains and Li- 
moges ware acknowledged to be the finest in exist- 
ence; a collection of bronzes, also said to be the 
finest in the world, as well as collections of tapes- 
tries and antique furniture, among the latter being 
the famous Henschel collection of Gothic furniture, 
acquired by Mr. Morgan in 1907. His library is 
chiefly notable for its examples of early illuminated 
manuscripts, particularly of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth century; a collection of early Bibles, 
original manuscripts of English classics of price- 
less value; an extensive collection of first editions 
of English literature, as well as many other literary 
rarities of historic as well as intrinsic value. This 
library is housed in a magnificent building erected 
for the purpose, adjoining Mr. Morgan's residence, 
which was completed in 1906. It is classic in de- 
sign, built of white marble, and a marvel of archi- 




tectural beauty. Mr. Morgan has been a liberal 
giver of art collections to public institutions. 
Cooper Union has on display a collection of fabrics 
he gathered. Both the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art and the American Museum of Natural History 
possess rare gifts from him: the former a priceless 
cabinet of Greek coins and Egyptian scarabs, rare 
engravings, and a porcelain collection valued at 
$500,000; the latter has on exhibition the collection 
of Tiffany gems worth a million dollars. It was 
largely due to the efforts of Mr. Morgan that Sir 
Caspar Purdon Clarke came to the United States 
and accepted the office of director of the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art. On his search for art ob- 
jects Mr. Morgan had a curious experience. Un- 
wittingly he purchased a precious cope, once the 
property of Pope Nicholas IV. that had been stolen 
from the cathedral at Ascoli in 1002. Upon learn- 
ing the state of affairs he returned the cope :ii once 
to Italy. In recognition of this LTaeious act King 
Victor Emmanuel conferred upon him the Grand 



68 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



Cordon of Saints Mauritius aud Lazarus, which 
made Mr. Morgan "acousinof his majesty. " Pope 
Pius X. gave liim audience, and later the Italian 
Academy of Twenty -four Immortals presented him 
with a medal commemorating his generous act. 
Two of Mr. Morgan's best known philanthropies 
have been the establishment of the New York 
Trade School, at the cost of over five hundred 
thousand dollars, and a similar but smaller trade 
school for the boys of St. George's Church. Mr. 
Morgan's yearly donations easily amount to a rnil- 
linii dollars. Notable among his gifts are si, 000,- 
000 to Harvard University for a medical school; 
for a lying-in hospital near Stuyvesant square, 
New York, 81,300,0.00 ; toward 'completing M. 
John's Cathedral, $500.000; to the Young Men's 
Christian Association, 81(10.000; to the Looiuis Hos- 
pital for Consumptives, 8- 1 " 1 ."""; for a library at 
his father's birthplace, Holyoke, Mass.. $100,000; 
for the preservation of the Hudson river Palisades, 
xrjVniiO; for a new parish house and rectory for 
M. Gcorne's Church, 8&50.000; fora department 
of natural history at Trinity College. Hartford, 
70,000. Mr. Morgan was a large contributor to 
the Queen Victoria memorial fund aud to the Gal- 
veston relief fund. He installed a complete elec- 
tric plant in St. Paul's Cathedral in London, and 
built a hospital at Aix-les Bains in France. Many 
of his private charities are unknown, even to closest 
friends. His patriotism was demonstrated in the 
Spanish-American war. when, his magnificent 
yacht Corsair, renamed the Gloucester, was placed 
at the disposal of the United States government. 
Mr. Morgan is a warden of St. George's church, 
president of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, a 
member of the New England Society, and many 
societies and clubs. He was married in 1865. to 
Frances Louise, daughter of Charles Tracy, a noted 
lawyer of New York, and has one son, John Pier- 
pont Morgan, Jr., who represents the London 
banking house, and three daughters. 

SCHWAB, Charles Michael, manufacturer, 
was born in Williamsburg, Blair county, Pa. 
Feb. 18, 1862, son of John A. and Pauline 
(Farabaugh) Schwab, of German descent. His 
father was a woolen manufacturer at Loretto, 
Pa., to which place he removed in 1872, and 
there the son received his elementary education. 
Of higher education he had only what he couhl 
obtain in St. Xavier's Catholic College, a small 
religious foundation, where he was graduated 
at the early age of sixteen, 
His business life began as a 
stMLre driver, running back 
and forth between Loretto 
and Cresson, a distance of 
Tour miles. But he aspired 
for better opportunities of 
advancement, and with the 
civil engineering profession 
in view, he entered the em- 
ploy of tin- Edgar Thomson 
Sleel \Vorks. where he dis. 
played uncommon ability 
Mtid did not long remain in 
., the grade of the unskilled 
laborer. Quick, intelligent, 
observant and utilizing liis 
leisure in reading, he did 
well whatever came his way. 
and when a chance for ad- 
vancement offered, be was 
the one naturally selected. Within six months lie 
Lad become assistant superintendent, in chariie of 
the engineering corps, of the Edgar Thomson plant. 




which was then the most important of its class in 
the world. From this point his advancement was 
rapid and without interruption. He assisted the en- 
gineering corps in laying out the grounds for a new * 
steel factory, and displayed a natural talent for the 
work. In 1881 he became chief engineer and 
assistant manager. He supervised the construc- 
tion of eight of the nine blast furnaces compris- 
ing the Edgar Thomson steel plant, and an 
elaborate improvement to the rail mill. He was 
devoted and untiring in his attention to every 
detail, and as chief engineer and assistant man- 
ager he gave that immense industry an impetus 
that gratified and amazed his employers. In 
1887 he became superintendent of the great 
Homestead works of the Carnegie Steel Co., in 
command of an army of 8.000 employes. Under 
his management the mills were enlarged and 
improved, and became the largest producers of 
steel blooms, billets, structural iron, bridge steel, 
boiler plate, armor plate, ship and tank plate 
and steel castings in the world, their annual 
output being 2,000,000 tons. In 1889 he was 
called back to the Edgar Thomson works to be- 
come general superintendent, but in 1892 he 
returned to Homestead and directed both plants. 
The most brilliant incident in Mr. Schwab's 
career as a manager was his reorganization of 
the latter works after the great strike in 1892. 
The plant had been badly designed and imper- 
fectly equipped, and the labor was utterly de- 
moralized; yet within six months he had estab- 
lished a loyal and enthusiastic corps of mechan- 
ics and a great and profitable output. Andrew 
Carnegie recognized in Schwab this genius in 
the management of men and machinery, and 
offered him the vice-presidency of the Carnegie 
Steel Company, but Schwab declined, giving as 
his reason: ' I am a bigger man at the works." 
He was elected a member of the board of man- 
agers in 1896, and in February, 1897, succeeded 
John G. A. Leishman as president. As president 
of the Carnegie Co., Mr. Schwab's position was 
one of practical control of the steel business of 
the United States. When conferences were be- 
ing held to consider a consolidation of the large 
Steel manufacturing interests. Mr. Schwab was 
deputed by J. Pierpont Morgan to learn defin- 
itely if Andrew Carnegie would sell his control 
of the properties he represented. Mr. Schwab dis- 
charged this commission promptly and obtained 
authorization from Carnegie to offer his hold- 
ings for $492.556,160, which made the formation 
of the United States Steel Corporation possible. 
The merger was effected in the spring of 1901, 
and Mr. Schwab became its first president. He 
filled this responsible position with character- 
istic ability, applying the methods of the Car- 
negie management all along the line. If the 
costs at one furnace or mill were a fraction of a 
cent higher than those of another, or its prod- 
ucts less in proportion to interest and labor 
charges, it was at once regarded as a weak spot 
in the system, and was given attention. The 
best men of the technical staff were sent there 
to study its conditions. Whatever was needed 
was provided, machinery not up to the standard 
was scrapped and replaced, managers were 
shifted, labor stimulated, and the thrill of a 
new life sent tingling through its sluggish 
pulses. In dealing with labor. Mr. Schwab 
has always been conspicuously successful, be- 
cause he has taken a broad view of the wage 
question and been ever ready to pay whatever 
rate of wages a man was worth. In discuss- 
ing this subject he once said; "The rate of 



OF AMEK1CAN BIOGRAPHY. 



69 



a man's wages is negligible. Whether cheap 
at $100 a day, or dear at one dollar, is wholly 
relative. We have men in our mills who 
earn forty dollars, fifty dollars and even more 
a day, and we pay them willingly. They are 
not managers or superintendents, but just me- 
chanics who do some one thing and do it su- 
pivmely well." This view of the value of men 
made Mr. Schwab impatient of the policy of the 
labor unions, which continually sought to re- 
strict the usefulness ajid earning power of the 
industrious and ambitious individual for the 
advantage of a mass of wage earners who are 
neither industrious nor ambitious. The temp- 
tation to qualify for wages manyfold greater 
than any union could demand or tolerate was 
mainly instrumental in effecting the disruption 
of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and 
Steel Workers, at one time the most powerful 
labor organization in the country. Mr. Schwab's 
policy attracted to the mills controlled by him 
the' lirst men in the trades they represented, and 
the treatment they received was an object lesson 
in the value of independence to the man who is 
fit to stand alone. His own enthusiasm was in- 
fectious, and no man could long remain in his 
employ without finding himself planning to 
turn out a little more work at a little less cost 
per unit. If he could not do this he was a 
brake on the wheel. If he could, he was sure to 
find himself compensated at his own valuation 
or more. He resigned the office of president, 
Aug. 4, 1903. Meanwhile he had purchased con- 
trol of the Bethlehem Steel Company of South 
Bethlehem. Pa., with the intention of combining 
it with the merger, then forming, of the leading 
ship yards of the country. After the ship-build- 
iiiR combine went to pieces, he was credited 
with the unprecedented generosity of taking 
over, without loss to the holders, all of the ship- 
building stock which he had been instrumental 
in having subscribed. He recovered control of 
the Bethlehem plant, and by reorganizing and 
re-equipping it made it a formidable competitor 
with the most advanced and highly specialized 
plants in the world, and in many respects be- 
yond comparison with the best of them. Mr. 
Schwab is warm-hearted and generous to a 
fault, as is shown by the love in which he is 
held by his workmen, by the gratitude of thous- 
ands who have been the beneficiaries of his 
kindness, and by the improvements and en- 
richments which he has conferred upon the 
home town of his youth. Loretto. and upon the 
religious institutions of that place. He gave 
$50.000 for the founding of a hall in connection 
with Mt. Aloysius Catholic Academy at Cresson, 
Pa. He erected a monument in memory of the 
famous missionary. Prince Gallitzin; and built 
at Richmond Beach, New York city, a magnifi- 
cent health resort for the city's poor sick chil- 
dren. He was married at Wetherly, Pa., in 1893, 
to KmmaE., daughter of R. E. Dinkey of that place. 
They have no children. 

GABY, Elbert Henry, lawyer and financier, 
was born at Wheaton, (a suburb of Chicago), Du 
Page co., 111., Oct. 8. 1846; son of Erastus and 
Susan A. (Vallette) Gary, grandson of William 
and Mary (Perrin) Gary, and a descendant of 
Arthur Gary, who emigrated to this country from 
England about 1640. Mr. Gary's parents were 
among the pioneers of Du Page county. Illinois, 
imil his boyhood life upon his father's farm devel- 
oped that superb physique which has always been 
noted in him, and that enabled him to accomplish 




in later life Herculean tasks with an ease and facil- 
ity that surprise;! those who were unacquainted 
with him in his earlier years. Of a studious 
nature, he was ambit i< ms to acquire a thorough 
education, and after attending the public schools 
entered \Vlnaloii College. Having decided to fol- 
low the legal profession, hi- entered the law ollii e 
of Vallelle A- ('oily, of >,'aper\ ille. Ill . one of Ihe 
best Unovwi law linns in that part of the country. 
He then took a course in the law department ol the 
University of Chicago, where lie was graduated 
LL. 15. in .lune, IstiT. Before entering upon his 
practice he took a position as chief clerk in the 
superior court clerk's cillice in Chicago, and there 
by his diligence, industry and intelligence acquired 
a knowledge of forms and 
practice that was of infinite 
iienetit to him when he ULMM 
his legal career. This oc- 
curred in the year IN! 1. Two 
years later he formed a part- 
nership with his brother, 
Noah E. Gary, and before 
IOIIL' he became recogni/.ed as 
one of the most capable trial 
lawyers in Chicago. In 1879 
.Judge Hiram II. Cody retired 
from the circuit bench and 
joined Mr. Gary's firm, which 
then became known as Gary, 
Cody & Gary. He devoted 
himself particularly to a 
study of the law alTeetingcor- 
porations. He became gen- 
eral counsel nt the Northwest. 
cm Elevated K'ailroad Co., 
the western department of the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad, and a number of other large corporations, 
including the American Steel and Wire Co. and 
the Illinois Steel Co., he being also a director in 
the last two. In 1882 he was elected judge of Du 
Page county, and was re-elected in 1886, and 
during the two terms lie served on the bench 
he was frequently called upon to assist the county 
judge of Cook county (in which Chicago is situ- 
ated). He presided with dignity, coupled with 
a courtesy that enabled every lawyer to feel that 
he was assured of fair treatment and proper con- 
sideration. His experience on the bench and the 
fairness and ability with which he discharged his 
duties widened his acquaintance with the bar and 
the business men of Chicago, and brought him 
many new clients and enlarged his reputation. 
For many years before he left Chicago to enter 
that wider field of usefulness in New York city, 
it is said that he probably had a larger yearly 
retainer than any other lawyer in Chicago. 
His grasp of business conditions and business 
propositions was remarkable, and those in charge 
of the great commercial and industrial interests of 
Chicago and the West soon learned that his advice 
was invaluable to them, and it was this business 
ability that ultimately led to his abandoning the 
practice of his profession and engaging in the 
great business enterprises in which he achieved 
such remarkable success. In 1N7M he had organ- 
i/.ed the Gary-Wheaton Bank in his native city, of 
which he served as president until 1898. This 
was a successful business venture from the start. 
He had also been closely associated with those 
who built up the iron and steel interests of Illinois. 
He took a leading part in the organization of the 
Consolidated Steel and Wire Co. in 1890, and 
eight years later of the American Steel and Wire 
Co.. which included the manufacturers of seventy- 
five percent, of the entire steel rod and wire prod- 



70 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



ucts of the United States. His talents as an organ- 
izer are further demonstrated by his services in 
the organization of the Federal Steel Company with 
a capital stock of 8200,000.000. in whicli he took a 
leading part. Mr. Gary's theory was that by own 
ing mines, manufactories and means of transpor- 
t, it inn, the work of such a company could be more 
effectually and economically done than by leaving 
these several departments in the hands of separate 
companies. He retired from the practice of law 
and removed to New York city to become president 
of this new organization. As stated above, (see 
Morgan, J. Pierpont ) the Federal Steel Co. is one 
of the constituent companies of the United States 
Steel Corporation, with the organization of which 
Mr. Gary was prominently identified. He was 
made- chairman of the board of directors as well as 
of the finance committee of this corporation. In 
honor of Mr. Gary, and to commemorate the im- 
portant part he took in the formation of this enter- 
prise, the new city of Gary in Lake county, Ind., 
was named after him. The city of Gary was laid 
out in 1906 on the shores of Lake Michigan as the 
most suitable location for a mammoth plant con- 
sisting of sixteen blast furnace's, ninety -eight open 
hearth furnaces, coke works, and finishing mills 
for making all kinds of structural steel, rails, 
plates, bar iron, axles, etc., and so planned as to be 
capable of indefinite expansion. The plan of con- 
struction, which exceeded in magnitude anything 
of the kind ever undertaken before, provided for the 
housing of many thousands of workmen, and the 
land on the south side of the Calumet river was 
reserved for that purpose. The distinction of 
this " magic city," as it has been called, consists 
both in the rapidity of its growth and its perfec- 
tion in every detail What was in June, 19i"i, a 
barren waste had become, approximately two and 
a half years later, an industrial centre in full 
activity, joining with a plant completely equipped 
fur an immense output, a residential district pro- 
viding for all the necessities, comforts, educational 
and spiritual advancement, and amusement of its 
inhabitants. The actual manufacturing was begun 
in December, 1908. when the following features 
were completed an artificial water-way for the 
harboring of the ore vessels, extending a mile in 
land from Lake Michigan; beside it the unloading 
machinery and the blast furnaces for turning the ore 
into iron, and behind this the blast and open-hearth 
furnaces for turning the iron into steel, and mills 
uherethesteel is rolled into commercial shapes. 
The population of the town at that time already 
numbered over 15,000, housed in comfortable 
dwellings largely owned by themselves; two 
hotels, two banks, a newspaper and many stores 
were in operation, and plans laid for schools, 
churches of various denominations, and a theatre. 
No other concern being prepared to undertake a 
work of such magnitude, the construction was en- 
trusted to two subsidiary concerns formed by the 
United States Steel Corporation, while the actual 
work was in the hands of various sub-contractors. 
In order to avoid unnecessary labor all the under- 
ground work, such as the laying of sewers and 
conduits, was done first, so that the entire city 
literally grew almost simultaneously from its foun- 
dations up The carrying out of the plan in the 
face of many difficulties in such a way as to pro- 
vide for the future needs of a community which 
was predicted to reach the number of 60,000 within 
a very short time, attests to the ingenuity and 
f< iresight of the founders and the eminent engineers 
cn.irajred in the work. Mr. Gary is also a director 
a large number of other corporations. He was 
presidentof thetown of Wheaton, 111., during 1872- 



73 and upon its incorporation as a city in 1892 waa 
elected its first mayor, serving for two terms, and 
for several years he served as president of its 
board of education. He was president of the 
Chicago Bar Association during 1893-94, and is 
a member of the Metropolitan Club, the New 
York Yacht Club and the Lawyers' Club of New 
York, the Union League and the Chicago Club 
of Chicago, the Automobile clubs of Great Britain 
and Ireland, Germany. France and America, and 
also a member of the New York Chamber of 
Commerce The degree of LL. D. was conferred 
upon him by McKendree College. Mr. Gary was 
married June 23, 1869, to Julia E. , daughter of 
Amos C. Graves, of Aurora, 111., and has two 
daughters. Gertrude, wife of Dr. Harry W. Snt- 
cliffe, and Bertha, wife of Robert W. Campbell. 
Mrs. Gary died in June, 1902, and he was married 
again on Dec. 2, 1905, to Mrs Emma T. Scott, of 
New York city. 

GAYLEY, James, metallurgist, was born at 
Lock Haven. Pa.. Oct. 11, 1855, son of Samuel A. 
and Agnes (Malcolm) Gayley. His father was a 
native of the north of Ireland, and coming to this 
country in early manhood became a Presbyterian 
minister in Pennsylvania. His maternal grand- 
mother was a sister of Sir Henry Bell, who first 
established steam navigation on the Clyde in Scot- 
land. He was educated at the West Nottingham 
Academy in Maryland. This institution was tlie 
alma mater of Dr. Benjamin Rush, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, and also of Dr. 
Samuel Finley. fifth president of Princeton Col- 
lege. From the West Nottingham Academy Mr. 
Gavley went to Lafayette College, taking a conise 
in the department of mining engineering, and 
was graduated in 1876. He began his professional 
career as chemist of the Crane Iron Co. of C'ata- 
sauqua, Pa. Three years later he went to the Mis- 
souri Furnace Co. of St. Louis in the capacity of 
superintendent. That position he resigned to as- 
sume the management of the blast furnaces of the 
E & G Brooke Iron Company at Birdsboro, Pa. 
In 1885 he was put in charge of the furnaces of the 
Edgar Thomson Steel Works at Braddock, Pa., 
which were owned by Carnegie Brothers & Co. 
Ltd., and which subsequently became the Carnegie 
Steel Company. There he 
was largely instrumental in 
bringing American blast fur- 
nace practice up to a plane 
never before attained. His 
record with the blast fur- 
naces, everything considered, 
has not been surpassed for 
fuel economy, output in pro- 
portion to cubic capacity of 
stock or durability of linings. 
The furnace practice in the 
Pittsburg district, where fuel 
was relatively cheap, was to 
use it wastefully and carry a 
heavy blast Mr. Gayley at- 
tained better results with a 
moderate blast and relatively 
low fuel consumption per 
ton of iron. He was next 
promoted to be manager of 
the entire Edgar Thomson 
plant, and in 1897 became 
managing director of the Carnegie Steel Company. 
While at the Edgar Thomson works he was the 
first to install charging bins for the raw materials 
at the blast furnaces and also installed the first 
compound condensing engine for supplying air 
blast to a blast furnace. At the ore docks of the 




TW* 
NEW YORK 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



71 



Carnegie Steel Co. at Conneaut, O. , on Lake Erie, 
he installed the first mechanical ore uuloacler 
and designed a vessel construction adapted to 
the use of such unloaders. During his brilliant 
career as au iron and steel maker, Mr. Gayley 
has made many important contributions to the 
progress of the" metallurgical industry. Among 
his valuable inventions may be mentioned the 
bronze cooling plate for blast furnace walls ; the 
auxiliary stand for holding the ladle while the Bes- 
semer heat is being poured, supplementing the 
crane and enabling two vessels to do the work for 
which four were formerly required, and the " dry 
blast." The last-named invention is probably the 
most important since Neilson's application of tbe 
hot blast in its relation to the reduction of iron ores, 
but its usefulness is not restricted to blast furnace 
practice. Indeed, it is likely to revolutionize 
every branch of metallurgical industry in which 
oxides are deoxidized or metals reduced without 
oxidation. One of the chief causes of variations 
in the working of a blast furnace and of inequality 
in its product is found in the greater or less per- 
centage of moisture in the blast. In a single day 
this will sometimes range between practical dry- 
ness and practical saturation. Since iron was first 
made in the blast furnace it has been known that 
when the moisture content of the atmosphere was 
high the fuel consumption increased and the 
quality of product deteriorated. But when the 
air was dry the furnace worked better, consumed 
less fuel per unit of output and made a higher 
grade of iron. It was well known that this in- 
equality was due to the variable humidity of the 
blast, but such vicissitudes of furnace working 
were accepted as inevitable until Mr. Gayley con- 
ceived the idea of drying the air by taking the 
water out of it, and thus maintaining through all 
seasons and all changes of weather the excellent 
conditions of furnace operation experienced when 
the weather is so cold as to reduce the humidity of 
the air to zero. This he accomplished by the simple 
and obvious expedient of dry ing the air by refrige- 
ration. Before going to the blowing engines the 
blast passes through a chamber containing pipes 
in which brine, cooled by anhydrous ammonia, is 
circulated. Upon these pipes the moisture of the 
air is precipitated, and builds up in frost crystals, 
which are subsequently dissolved by heat. The 
dried air current then passes to the hot blast stoves, 
and from them into the furnace. The result is an 
important fuel economy, with a previously unob- 
tainable uniformity of furnace product. The net 
gain is from fifteen to twenty per cent., an impor- 
tant matter in the operations of a year. Even more 
conspicuous advantages are likely to result from 
this method of securing a dry blast, in other metal- 
lurgical operations, notably the decarbonization of 
pig iron in the Bessemer converter. It is the one 
thing needed to perfect the pneumatic steel process 
and place it beyond the destructive competition of 
the open hearth. Mr. Gayley is probably the 
most highly qualified technical expert among 
those prominent in the steel industry. When the 
great merger which created the United States Steel 
Corporation was formed in 1901, he was made first 
vice-president, and carried into the larger organ- 
ization not only au invaluable experience but the 
confidence and influence of Andrew Carnegie and 
the capitalists who then associated themselves with 
the business. His work was of a most important 
character in having charge of the department 
of raw materials and their transportation, and 
he ably filled the position until I'.HIO, when he 
retired from the company. Mr. Gayley is a 
director of the Windsor Trust Co., president of 



the Lake Superior Consolidated Mines, and a 
director of various railroads in the Northwest. 
He is also a member of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers, of which he served as president 
during 1904-1U06, and he is a member of the 
British Iron and Steel Institute, the Lawyers' Club, 
the Engineers' Club, the Metropolitan Club and 
the University Club of New York city. Mr. Gay- 
ley's contributions to the technical literature during 
the past twenty live years have been numerous 
and important, and are found chiefly in the trans- 
actions of the American Institute of Mining Engi- 
neers, the British Iron and Steel Institute, and 
other American and foreign societies of which be 
is a prominent and honored member. Among his 
contributions to the transactions of the American 
Institute of Mining Engineers are : " A Chilled 
Blast Furnace Hearth ; '' " Development of Amer- 
ican Blast Furnaces, with Special Reference to 
Large Yields; " " The Preservation of the Hearth 
& Bosh Walls of the Blast Furnacj ; " and " Ap- 
plication of Dry-Air Blast to the Manufacture of 
Iron." In 1906 the University of Pennsylvania 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of doctor 
of science. Mr. Gayley presented to Lafayette 
College Gayley Hall, for the study of chemistry and 
metallurgy in 1902. He was married in St. Louis, 
Mo., February, 1884, to Julia Thurston, daugh- 
ter of Col. Curtiss C. Gardiner. Her mother was 
a lineal descendant of Myles Standish, and Col. 
Gardiner of Lion Gardiner, the first owner of 
Gardiner's island off Long Island. They have 
three daughters, Mary Thurston, Agnes Malcolm 
and Florence Gayley. 

COREY, William Ellis, capitalist and second 
president of the United States Steel Corporation, 
was born at Braddock, Pa., May 4, 1866, son of 
Alfred A. and Adaliue (Tutz) Corey. His father 
was a coal merchant, and a 
descendant of Benjamin 
Corey, who was the owner 
of a prosperous farm of 
nearly 300 acres which is 
now within the limits of 
New York city, and which 
he conducted successfully 
for many years. Young 
Corey received his education 
in the public schools of 
Braddock and at Duff's 
Business College, Pittsburg, 
Pa. At the age of sixteen he 
entered the chemical labor- 
atory of the Edgar Thomp- 
son Steel Works. This was 
at a time when the combined 
efforts of Andrew Car- 
negie and Capt. William 
Jones were spurring on 
the works to the break- 
ing of records at a pace 

which startled the entire manufacturing world, and 
young Corey became one of the most conspicuous 
members of 'a group of some forty energetic young 
men who, under the leadership and tutelage of Mr. 
Carnegie, developed and organized the manufac- 
ture of steel along lines which have placed the 
United States in the foremost rank among the 
nations engaged in that industry. He is a distinct 
type of the self-educated man. He was quick to 
see the opportunities that the new and growing 
industry offered, and he bent all his energies to 
developing his mind and augmenting his public 
school education by attending night school while 
working in the daytime on a coal tipple. Promo- 




THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



tion came rapidly to such a lad. In 1884 he was 
made weigh-master, aud two years later received 
a clerkship in the business office. He left the serv- 
ice of the Edgar Thompson Steel Works in April, 
1887, to accept employment in the open hearth 
department of the Homestead Steel Works; in 
1889 he was made superintendent of the plate mill, 
and in February, 1893, was promoted to be super- 
intendent of the armor plate department. Four 
years later he was made general superintendent of 
tlie works, succeeding Charles M. Schwab. About 
the same time he was admitted as a partner into 
the Carnegie Steel Co., Ltd., to which position was 
afterwards added the superintendency of the Car- 
rie Furnaces aud the Howard Axle Works, thus 
becoming a director of the largest group of iron 
and steel manufacturing plants in the world and 
the commander "I a large army of skilled artisans 
and operatives. It was while he was employed at 
Homestead that Mr. Corey invented a process for 
producing reforged armor. Mr. Corey always per- 
formed his work faithfully, diligently and effi- 
ciently, and early demonstrated that the multipli- 
city of interests and responsibilities placed upon 
his young shoulders was not more than he could 
assume, and that the confidence and trust imposed 
in him by Mr. Carnegie and others were not mis- 
placed. On April 1, lilOl, he was elected president 
of the Carnegie steel Co., the National Steel Co., 
and the American Steel Hoop Co., and on Aug. 1, 
1903, he been me president ofthe I'nited States Steel 
Corporation, succeeding his boyhood companion 
and lifelong friend, Charles M. Schwab. The busi- 
ness careers of Mr. Corey and Mr. Schwab disclose a 
striking analog}'. Both men were horn poor and 
educated themselves; both m-e fr"in (lie ranks of 
a dollar a-day laborer, and both were superinten- 
dents of important departments of great iron and 
steel industries at the age of twenty-one. Both 
became specialists of international repute in the 
manufacture of armor plate, and both distinguished 
themselves in breaking the record of productive 
capacity in the inchislries with which they were as- 
sociated. In the orderly development of these two 
careers it was the most natural thing in the world 
that Mr. Schwab shoi.ld be made the first president 
of the 1'nited Slates Steel Corporation upon its 
organization in 1901 and that Mr. Corey should 
succeed him in that office in 1903. lie is reserved. 
self contained and cautious. Mr. Schwab is 
dramatic and audacious; while Mr. Corey is 
methodical, diligent and indefatigable, ruling men 
by thoroughness of organi/ation, exact supervision 
and mastery of details. He has few interests apart 
from the vast enterprise with which he is identified. 
The record of the operations of the United States 
Steel Corporation during the presidency of Mr. 
Corey presents an impressive story of American 
industrial enterprise. In the period since Mr. 
Corey's eleclion the corporation has paid tocapital 
and labor upward of a billion of dollars, close to 
75 per cent, of the whole amount having gone to 
labor. It has paid to employes more than sr.'.oOO,- 
000 in bonuses, premiums and dividends on shares 
of its stock held by them. Its employes have in- 
creased from about 15(1,000 to nearly 225,000, and 
its annual pay roll has risen from $130,000,000 to 
$175,000,000. The expansion of the corporation 
during Mr. Corey's administration includes three 
events of special importance. The first was the 
virtual completion of the "steel city" of Gary, 
Ind., (see Gary, Elbert II.). on the shores of Lake 
Michigan, where a total of 8100,000.000 will have 
been spent in establishing a new industrial com- 
munity. The second was the acquisition of the 
Tennessee Iron aud Steel Co., and the third was 



the purchase of the Iron ore properties represented 
by James .1. Hill. With these additions to its 
holdings the United States Steel Corporation is 
capable of producing more steel than England or 
Germany. Under the policies instituted by Mr. 
Corey the productive capacity of the plantsowned 
by the corporation has increased 33 per cent., and 
the cost of production has decreased 10 per cent. 
The property held by the corporation includes 
nearly 125 blast furnaces, which turned out 42 per 
cent, of the 26,000,000 tons of pig iron produced 
in this country in 1907 ; some 150 or more works; 
1.000 miles of main line railroad, 50, 000 cars, 1,000 
locomotives ; 50 mines, 18 docks for shipments of 
ore and coal. 105 ore ships, and more than 20 per 
cent, of the world's known supply of iron ore. 
Apart, however, from its physical magnitude, 
representing a share and bond capitalization of 
nearly $1,500,000,000, the United States Steel 
Corporation has gained recognition as a new and 
powerful factor in modern industrial development 
by its policy of publicity, whereby the operations 
and condition of the corporation are fully disclosed 
to the country in regular official reports. Still 
more important in its bearing upon industrial 
problems was the introduction of a broad-gauge 
system of profit-sharing under which upwards of 
40,000 employes of the corporation have become 
holders of its shares, thus making them partners 
in what is perhaps the most entensive co-operative 
enterprise in the world. In the development of 
the corporation along the lines here indicated, Mr. 
Corey has been an active and sympathetic leader, 
and his efforts have won the earnest approval of 
the foremost students of industrial economy both 
in America and Europe. In administering the 
complicated and numerous duties of his high posi- 
tion Mr. Corey is painstaking, exacting, thorough 
and a believer in perfect organization. His mag- 
nificent achievements are entirely the result of his 
persistent, hard labor and strict application. He 
exemplified his own definition of a successful man 
when he said: " The man who succeeds is the man 
with bulldog tenacity who nc\er gives up. He 
is the man who does not only what he is told but 
more." Mr. Corey is a member of the British Iron 
and Steel Institute, the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers, and a director of the American 
Ire. n and Steel Institute. He is also a member of 
ihe Arilsley Club, the Metropolitan Club, of 
New York, 'the Automo- 
bile Club of America, the 
Metropolitan Club of 
Washington, and the Du- 
i|Uesne Club of Pittsbnrg. 
He is a hearty supporter 
of outdoor sports, includ- 
ing football and baseball, 
and his favorite recreation 
is horseback riding, in 
which he is an acknowl- 
edged expert. lie was 
twice married; first to 
Laura Cook, by whom he 
had a son. and who di- 
vorced him in 1906: and 
second to Mabelle Oilman, 
an actress. 

CONLEY, William 
Henry, manufacturer, 

was liornin Pittsburg. Pa,. June 11. 1840. son of 
George Washington and Matilda (Balsley) Conley. 
He came of along lived family, whose members as 
a rule lived beyond the age of eisrlity. Its first 
representative in this country was Nicholas Conley, 









HK 



OF AMERICAN mocKAl'HY. 



73 



an immigrant from Ireland, who served in the revo- 
lutionary war on the side of the colonists. William 
Henry Conley licpin to earn his living at the age 
of twelve, working in a woolen mill in Alleghany. 
Pa., his mother having been left a widow. A few- 
years later he was apprenticed loan uncle in the 
printing business, slaying with him for ten year- at 
Blairsville, o. lie removed with his uncle to Ply- 
mouth, <_>., about 1S.">?, where he met. his wile and 
there remained until 1605 when he returned to I'ill- 
burg. He entered a commission house and later 
became a bookkeeper for James M. Hiter, sheet- 
iron worker and eoppcr-sniitlii In 1873 Mr. James 
M. Kiter died and .Mr. Conley took a half -interest 
in the busine-s with Thomas B. Kiter, the firm 
name being changed to Hiter A: I'oidey : he attend- 
ing to the linancial and otlice work while Mr. Kiter 
attended to the outside and mechanical part. Pros- 
perity attended the new company; its plant was 
enlarged from time to time, until it became the most 
extensive of its kind in the world, engaged in the 
erection and equipment of steel plants, oil refineries, 
blast furnaces and rolling mills. In lss4 John \V. 
Beaver (now of Wellman, Si-aver, Morgan A: Co., of 
Cleveland) and AVilliam ('. Coflin (later vice-presi- 
dent of the Kiter-Conley Co.), joined the firm as as- 
sociate engineers. Mr. C'onley's connection con- 
tinued until his death in 1897 and his name still lives 
in the corporate title. Mr. Conley was for more 
than tw-enty years a director in the old Third Na- 
tional Bank of Alleghany, now the Allegheny Trust 
Co. He was not a member of any lodge orclnb, but 
was a man of eminently social habits, and of a 
geniality that resulted in the formation of many 
strong friendships. During his residence in Ohio 
he was a member of the Lutheran church, but after 
settling in Pittsburg he went to the Methodist 
church. He was deeply interested in missions and 
church work in general, and was accustomed to 
give Bible readings which were very fruitful of 
good. His natural modesty prevented the public 
from knowing the objects and extent of his gifts 
to charity, but these were large and bestowed with 
great impartiality. Mr. Couley was fond of music, 
sang with taste, and had considerable proficiency 
in playing the flute and the guitar. He was mar- 
ried at Plymouth, O., in 1860, to Sarah, daughter 
of Josiah Schafer of old Pennsylvania German 
stock, and he died at Pittsburg, Pa., July 25, 
1897. 

COFFIN, William Carey, civil engineer, was 
horn at Allegheny, Pa., Sept 7, 1802, son of 
William Carey and Jane McCormick (Osbornc) 
Coffin. He is a descendant of Tristram Coffin 
(1603-81 ). the original settler of Xant ticket island, 
Mass., whose descendants number over 150,000, 
including many noted names in American history. 
His education was received in the schools of his 
native city and at the western University of Penn 
sylvania, where he was graduated C. K. in 188:!. 
For a year after leaving college he was employed 
by the Keystone Bridge Co., Pittsburg, and in 
1884 became chief engineer of the Fort Pitt 
Boiler Works, where he remained sixteen months. 
From 1885 to the present time (1910) he has been con- 
nected with the firm of Kiter Conley Manufacturing 
Co., manufacturers of iron and steel, of which 
he became vice president on its incorporation in 
1898. Mr. Coffin has earned a well-merited dis- 
tinction in the work of designing and managing 
blast furnaces and steel plants; having designed 
and constructed some of the larger works in the 
United States and Canada, notably tin- blast furnace 
plant of the Dominion Iron and Steel Co.. S\ dncy. 
N. S. He has made an exhaustive study of com- 
mercial and manufacturing conditions in Europe, 



and has filled contracts for the- construction of 
steel structures in England, Ireland. Holland, anil 
other countries, including tramwa\ s and power 
houses in <ilasi;ow, llri-lol and Dublin. Among 
professional and learned bodies of which he is a 
member are the Engineers' Club of New York 
e i t v . the Engineers' Society of Western Pennsyl- 
vania, the American Society of .Mechanical Kn 




gineers and the American Institute of Mining 

Engineers. He is also a 

member of the I)uc|uesnc, 

University anil Country clubs 

of Pittsburg, and a Scottish 

Kite Mason of the 3-d degree. 

He was married, in isst, to 

Vida, daughter of Alfred C. 

Hurst of Beaver, Pa. They 

have one daughter, Mary. 

VAN EVERY, John 
Brock, telegraph official, was 

born in Kochester, N. Y., 
July 30, 1839, son of Isaac 
P.roek and Martha (Caldwell) 
Van Every. lie was edu- 
cated in public and private 
schools in his native- city and 
at the age of fifteen took his 
lirst business position, that of 
a clerk in a banking otlice. 
In 1864 Mr. Van Every en- 
tered the service of the 

Western Union Telegraph Co. as assistant to 
Edward Chapman, auditor of the company at 
that time. Mr. Chapman was succeeded by Wil- 
liam H. Abel, who was forced by ill health to 
resign in October 1872. Mr. Van Every's skill 
as an accountant had been noted by the officers of 
that company, and it was the unanimous opinion 
that no more competent man could be found to till 
the vacancy ; accordingly he became the head of 
the auditing department and continued in that 
capacity when in 1879 he was elected acting vice- 
president, and in 1895 a vice-president. This 
responsible office he still holds (1910), continuing 
a term of service in the company interests of 
nearly fifty years' duration. Every business detail 
of this great corporation comes under his direct 
supervision, entailing the exercise of a masterful 
vigilance and of executive ability of the highest 
order. Mr. Van Every is a member of the 
Lawyers' Club and of the Society of the Genesee. 
He was married at Paris, Ontario, Canada, Feb. 16 
1866. to Martha Anne, daughter of Elias P. For- 
syth. and has three sons living, Ernest Brock; 
Leonard Hall, and Herbert Forsyth. 

CLARK, Thomas Frederic, telegraph official, 
was born in Norfolk, England, July 9, 1845, son of 
Robert and Susan (Curry) Clark. He received a 
nood English education in private schools and 
under private teachers. He began his business 
career in 1866 in a clerical position in London. 
Afterwards he was employed in the engineering 
department of the Electric and International Tele- 
graph Co., which passed under government con- 
trol in 1S70, when he entered the Postal Telegraph 
service. In May. 1S71, he came to the United 
States, and being introduced soon after his arrival 
to (Jen. Eckcrt, at that time general superintend- 
ent of the eastern division of the Western Union 
Telegraph Co. in New York, lie became the latter's 
private secretary. When Gen. Eckert became 
president of the American Union Telegraph Co., 
Mr. Clark was elected secretary of that company; 
and on consolidation of the telegraph companies 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




in January, 1881, he returned to the service of the 
Western Union Telegraph Co. He was elected 
secretary of the American Telegraph & Cable Co. 
in 1882, and of the International 
Ocean Telegraph Co. five years 
later. In 1894 he was elected as- 
sistant to the president, in 1897 
acting vice-president, and in 
1898 a director and vice-president 
of the Western L'nion Telegraph 
Co. He is also a director of the 
New York Telephone Co., New 
York Mutual Telegraph Co., 
Franklin Telegraph Co., Amer- 
ican Telegraph it Cable Co., 
International Ocean Telegraph 
Co., Gold & Stock Telegraph 
Co., Dominion Telegraph C'o. 
of Canada, and several other 
companies affiliated with the 
Western Union Telegraph Co. 
Mr. Clark possesses considerable 
literary ability and wields a 
fluent and graceful pen. lie 
was married in New York city, 
July 8, 1879, to Mrs. Jenny Foster, daughter "of 
Henry and Susan Phelps. 

ATKINS, George W. E., telegraph official. 
was born at Waverly, Humphreys co.. Tenn., 
Oct. 26, 1850, son of Addison L. and Nancy S. 
(Coffin) Atkins. He received a common-school 
education in his native town and at llieasre of 
fifteen years, his father's resources having been 
impoverished by the civil war, he became a mes- 
senger in the telegraph office of the Nashville and 
Northwestern Railroad Co. . at Johnson vi lie, Tenn,, 
and there learned telegraphy. He was afterwards 
employed as manager and telegraph operator at 
various telegraph offices in Kentucky. Temie-- 
see and Alabama, in the office of the train dis- 
patcher of the Louisville and Nashville railroad 
at Louisville, Ky., and as manager at Gallatin, 
Tenn., from which he was promoted, to service as 
a first-class operator in the main office of the 
Western Union Telegraph Co.. at Nashville, Tenn. 
While in Nashville, he studied shorthand, and be- 
came so expert a stenographer, that he was trans- 
ferred from the operating room to the office of the 
general superintendent of the Western Union at 
Louisville, and in 1875 accompanied him to New 
York city as his a--i- 
tant. In 187S he became 
the assistant to the vice- 
president of the com- 
pany, and was after- 
wards put in charge of 
the contract department, 
having in the meanwhile 
studied law at every op. 
portunity. In 1906 he 
was elected acting vice- 
president and in 19117 a 
member of the board of 
directors and a \ tee 
president of the- com- 
pany. He is also vice- 
president of the Gold 
and Stock Telegraph 
Co., president of the 
Gold and Slock Life 
Insurance Association, 
a fraternal insurance 
organization; was treasurer of the Telegraphers' 
Mutual Benefit Association for ten years, and is a 
member of the board of directors of a number of 




telegraph companies leased to or controlled by the 
Western Union Telegraph Co. He was married at 
Louisville, Ky. , Sept. 15, 1875, to Mary M., 
daughter of Albert G. Chew, and has two sons. 

FEARONS, George Hadsall, lawyer, was born 
at Newport, Ky., Nov. 9, 1853, son of George 
Richard, and Jennie Phoebe (Hadsall) Fearons, 
the former a native of Dublin, Ireland; the lat- 
ter of Kentucky. He was educated in public 
and private schools at Newport; at Mt. St. 
Mary's College, Emmetsburg, Md., at St. Louis 
University, St. Louis, Mo., and at the College of 
St. Francis Xavier, where he was graduated in 
1871. He continued his studies at schools in 
Paris, Stuttgart and other European cities. 
During 1872-73 he studied law in his father's of- 
fice in Newport, and in the office of Hon. John 
G. Carlisle, Covington, Ky., and then took the 
course at the Cincinnati Law School. For three 
years, 1877-80. he taught school at Toledo and 
Cincinnati, O.. serving as principal at both 
places. In 1881 Mr. Fearons removed to New 
York city to become an assistant to the attorney 
of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and 
in 1885 succeeded him as attorney, being then 
only thirty-three years of age. In March, 1892, 
lie was appointed general at- 
torney to the company. He 
was made general counsel to the 
Southern Hell Telephone and 
Telegraph Co. of New York in 
|ss5, and continued as such 
until Jan. 1, 1904. He was 
instrumental in organizing the 
American District Telegraph 
Co. of New Jersey in 191 li, 
which brought together the dis- 
trict and electric signal coin- 
panics operating in the L'nited 
Mates for the Anglo-American 
Cable Co., and the Direct 
United Statics Cable Company, 
lie is president of the Havana 
District Telegraph Co., and 
vice-president of the Domin- 
ion Messenger and Signal Company of Canada, 
and of some sixty other corporations both at 
home and abroad, and looks after the legal busi- 
ness of all of them. In his capacity as general 
attorney of the Western Union Telegraph Co., 
he has charge of all of their legal business, 
legislative matters, claims, etc. Every legal de- 
tail relating to Western Union suits through- 
out the United States comes under his personal 
supervision. To Mr. Fearons probably more than 
to any other, are due the present laws bear- 
ing upon telegraphy in this country. In every 
state of the Union the question of the exact 
responsibility of the Western Union toward the 
public has been the cause of litigation or legis- 
lative enactment and in nearly every case Mr. 
Fearons and his associates have appeared to 
plead the cause of the company before the court 
or before congress. A notable case was the suit 
of Primrose vs. Western Union Telegraph Co., 
(U. S. Reports. 154, p. 1.), filed January 1888, 
in which it was held by the U. S. supreme court 
that the printed conditions on the reverse of the 
telegraph blank are a binding contract on both 
parties. This was the first and only message 
case before the supreme court and determined 
the character of the responsibility of the com- 
pany. Primrose was a wool merchant of Phila- 
delphia and sued the company for $50,000, dam- 




OF AMERICAN HlOliRAPHY. 



75 



ages for changing the word "bey" to " buy," in 
a message to his Montana agent. The first word 
was a key word and meant " have sold" and (lie 
change and its result caused a loss to the sender. 
Mr. Fearons is a member of the Bar Association of 
the. State of New York and of the American Bar 
Association. He was married in New York city, 
.June 10, 1870, to Helen M., daughter of Edward 
Phelan, of Mobile, Ala. She died in July 1897, 
and he was married again at Augusta, Ga., Jan. 
19. 1899, to Marion F., daughter of Edward 
Phillips. By his first marriage he had a daughter, 
Geraldine, who became the wife of Edward S. 
Skillin, and by his second marriage a sou George 
Iladsall Fearons, Jr. 

TAGGART, William Rush, lawyer, was born 
nt Smithville, Wayne co., Ohio, Sept.. 4, 1849, son 
of Dr. William Wirt and Margaret (McCaughey) 
Taggart, and a great-grandson of John Taggart, 
who came from Newtown-Limavaddy, Ireland, in 
1700, and settled first in York county, Pa., remov- 
ing after the revolution to Belmont county, O. 
His great-grandfathers on both sides served in the 
revolutionary war, while his grandfather, Isaac 
Taggart, fought in the war of 1812. Both parents 
were of Scotch-Irish descent and were born in Ohio. 
William K. Taggart was educated in the Wooster 
(Ohio) high school, and in the University of Woos- 
ter, where he was graduated in 1871. He studied 
law with Martin Welker and Charles M. Yocum, 
as well as at the law school of the University of 
Michigan, where he was graduated in 1875. Dur- 
ing 1872-7;! he was connected with the U. S. geo- 
logical survey. In 1875 he entered the office of the 
solicitor of the Pennsylvania Railroad Co. at Salem, 
( ). , as assistant and in 1878 became solicitor. Since 
1887 he has practiced in New York city, where he 
he was connected with the firm of Dillon & Swayue 
during the first four years of his residence. Since 
1890 he has been solicitor of the "Western Union 
Telegraph Company, with full charge of the liti- 
gations of that important corporation in New York 
city. One of his most noteworthy cases on behalf 
of this corporation was when the government at- 
tempted to cancel the contracts between the West- 
ern Union Telegraph Company and the Union 
Pacific, Northern Pacific, Central Pacific, and At- 
lantic & Pacific railroad companies. He was coun- 
sel in the case of Sturges vs. the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Co. ; in that of Laid- 
law vs. Russell Sage; and in 
the foreclosure proceedings 
upon the lines of the Wabash, 
St. Louis &, Pacific railroad 
east of the Mississippi, us 
well as in the subsequent re- 
organization, lie was con- 
nected with the Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton Railway 
Co., as a member of its board 
and executive commiltcc 
during 1895-1904, and with 
the Mansfield Street Railway 
Co. during 1893-1903, as an 
owner and member of its 
board. At present he is a 
director of the Rapid Ad- 
dressing Machine Company. 
He is a member of the 
Quill Club, the Union 
League Club, New York, 
the Ohio Society, the New- 
York City Bar Association, the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion, the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, and 
the National Academy of Science; is a Knight 





Templar and an earnest member of the Presby- 
terian Church lie is a man of exacting integrity 
and displays a rare good humor when relaxed from 
commercial cares. Mr. Taggart was married at 
Salem. ()., Sept. \'.\, 1877, to Margaret, daughterof 
Samuel Waterworth, of Salem, Ohio, and has two 
daughters and a son. 

BROOKS, Belvidere, general superintendent 
of tint Western Union Telegraph Co., was born at 
Wheelock, Robertson co., Texas, July 6, 1859, son 
of Belvidere and Nancy 
White (Patrick) Brooks. 
His father (1835-02) was 
a physician of note who 
was killed in the civil 
war. The son was edu- 
cated in the public schools 
of his native place, and 
in 1871 began business life 
as a messenger boy in a 
telegraph office at Nava- 
sota, Texas, where his 
widowed mother was 
living. During the years 
1877 and 1878 he was em- 
ployed as an operator and , 
in other places of trust on v 
the Houston and Texas 
Central railroad. In 1879 
he entered the Western 
Union Telegraph service 
and worked as an operator 
at Waco, Dallas, Sherman 
and Houston. In April, 
1880, Mr. Brooks was appointed manager at Nava- 
sota, and in January, 1881, was promoted to a 
clerkship in the superintendent's office at Dallas. 
After a few months' service in that position, he 
was appointed manager at Waco, and subsequently 
managed the offices at El Paso and Galveston. On 
Nov. 1, 1890, Mr. Brooks became manager of the 
office at Denver, Colo., where he remained until 
Jan. 1, 1893, and was then appointed assistant 
superintendent of the third district, with head- 
quarters in that city. He was advanced to the 
general superintendency of the eastern division, 
May 1, 1902, comprising the territory east of Pitts- 
burg and Buffalo, and north of Washington, in- 
cluding the maritime provinces of Canada, with 
headquarters in New York city. There are seven 
districts in the division, and the oversight of 
these requires thorough system, close attention to 
details and constant watchfulness. Mr. Brooks is 
a member of the Lawyers', Lotos, and New York 
Athletic clubs. Although preeminently a business 
man, he can enjoy recreation as eagerly as anyone, 
his favorite pastime being automobiling. He was 
married at Waco, Texas, June 20, 1883, to Alpha 
M., daughter of George Bruce Gerald, and nas 
four sons: Gerald, Belvidere, George Bruce and 
Joseph W. Brooks. 

BARCLAY, John Charles, telegraph man- 
ager and inventor, was born at Greensburg, Pa,, 
April 17, 1850, son of John and Julia (Bricker) 
Barclay, and a descendant of John Barclay, who 
emigrated from Scotland to America in 1684. Mr. 
Barclay began his business career at twelve years of 
age, by working as messenger in the Pennsylvania 
Railroad office at Greensburg, Pa., and in theconrse 
of a few months he became an operator. In 1878 he 
removed to Chicago. 111., and while working in an 
office studied at. the Chicago College of Dental 
Surgery, where he was graduated with the degree 
of D.D.S. in 1887. He practiced dentistry in 



76 



THE NATIONAL, CYCLOPAEDIA 




Chicago for eleven years, at the same time 
serving as night manager of the main telegraph 
office, and so acceptably were his duties per- 
formed, that in 1S98 he was induced to give up 
. dentistry ami to take the posi- 
tion of electrical engineer for 
the western division of the 
Western Union Telegraph Co., 
with headquarters in Chicago 
For four years he had charge 
of lines in the territory north 
of the Ohio and west of the 
Mississippi, and was obliged to 
travel far and wide. In I'.i'iJ 
he was transferred to Ne\v 
York city as chief electrical 
engineer, and in the following 
year was made assistant gen- 
eral manager. While in Chi- 
cago, Mr. Barclay became im- 
pressed with the fact that the 
system of receiving messa- 
ges had serious defects, and 
began experimenting to improve it. In 1904 he 
patented the printing telegraph known by his 
name, which receives and prints messages on 
a standard typewriter, and which was said to 
be the most important invention in the tele- 
graph world since Edison introduced the quad- 
ruplex system. The system is capable of suc- 
cessful operation over any distance now covered 
by the ordinary Morse circuits. For high speed 
transmission, a perforated paper strip is em- 
ployed, which transmits over a wire a succes- 
sion of electrical impulses of various combina- 
tions. By an ingenious arrangement of select- 
ing relays, the impulses representing each char- 
acter are directed to a particular one of the 
thirty-two magnets, there being one magnet for 
each character: and for spacing between words, 
carriage shifting and paper-feed mechanism. All 
of these functions are performed locally, the im- 
pulses transmitted over the line wire being re- 
quired to actuate only one receptive relay. The 
printing of the message is accomplished on a 
typewriter of standard type, is printed on a 
regular telegraph message blank, and is all that 
could be desired in appearance and legibility; 
the letters being; large, well shaped and evenly 
spaced, and the alignment practically perfect. 
A part of the system is a typewriter transmit- 
ter, also the invention of Mr. Barclay, by means 
of which the electrical impulses are conveyed 
directly to the line by manipulating the type- 
writer key-board, and the operator sends his 
message directly to the line, thus saving the 
time consumed in handling a perforated tape, 
A knowledge of telegraphy is not essential to 
the use of this apparatus, accuracy of trans- 
mission being dependent only on accuracy in 
touching the keys, and the speed obtainable is 
only limited by the capability of the transmit- 
ting operator. Unless there are weather dis- 
turbances on the circuit, the service is practi- 
cally automatic: the old-time "sounder" and 
the need of receiving operators are done away 
with, and the reception of a message safe- 
guarded and free from errors is assured. The 
Barclay typewriter telegraph is now in use on 
most of the western union great trunk lines. Mr. 
Barclay also invented a lightning arrester and 
fuse, an improved quadruplex relay, a rheostat 
and a combination fire-alarm and night watch 
call box, which is in general use by the Ameri- 
can District Telegraph Co. of New Je r< "?y 
throughout the United States. Mr. Barclay is a 



director in a large number of telegraph companies, 
viz.. the American District, of Mew York and of 
Mew Jersey ; Atlantic and Ohio ; Lyuchburg and 
Abiugton ; Delaware Kiver; Continental, of Penn- 
sylvania; Kern Burner; Ohioaml Mississippi ; Paei- 
lic and Atlantic ; New York Postal : Philadelphia 
Local ; Philadelphia ami Wilkesbarre ; Southern 
and Atlantic ; Erie County ; Marine and Inland ; 
j,a-t Tennessee . Susquehanua River and Morth 
and West Branch ; American Union ; Missouri and 
Western : National Telegraph, and San Antonio 
and Arkansas Pass. He'is president of the Old 
Time Telegraphers Historical Association ; is a 
member of the Xew York Athletic and Atlantic 
Yacht clubs, and of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. In Masonic circles he i- a 
member of the .Mystic Shrine and of the Knights 
Templar. 

DEAX.Y, William Joseph, telegraph expert, 
was born in Mew York city, Sept. 17, 1843, son of 
Michael C .and Mary Dealy. His father came from 
Ireland in 1*41 and settled in Mew York city. 
The son was educated in the public schools of 
Mew York city and Philadelphia, and as a mes- 
senger boy for the Atlantic and Ohio Company in 
Philadelphia began his telegraphic career on Aug. 
'.). 1N57. A year later he became an operator and 
in 1*5'.l he \\u-vrnt to Magnolia. Mil., by the Phil- 
adelphia. Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad 
Company. During the civil war, in April, 1861, 
he was captured by bridge burners near Baltimore 
and by them detained vmtil the work of destruction 
was completed. < in September of the same year 
he became attached to the United States Military 
Telegraph services and was again captured in 1862 
at Harpers Ferry, but contrived to escape. A 
year later he was called to Washington, serving 
under the war department, and he merited the con- 
li'l, nee of the government to such a degree that 
he was entrusted with the secret military cipher 
ami appointed manager at Fortress Monroe. After 
the war Mr. Deal}' entered the employment of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company in Mew York 
city as manager of the " cable room." In 1875 he 
was attached to the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company's ollicc. in Mew York city, and in 1879 
changed to the American Union Telegraph Com- 
pany's office. Later in the year he became superin- 
tendent of the French Atlantic Cable Company, and 
in 1881 the American Telegraph and Cable C'o. sent 
him to Europe to ovgani/.e 
its foreign staff. Returning 
he was appointed cable 
manager of the Western 
Union Telegraph Co., and 
put in charge' of the general 
'operating department. In 
1885, in addition, he be- 
came manager of the com- 
mercial news department 
of the Gol, land Stock Tele- 
graph Company. Since 
1>>'.iohe has conducted that 
department with ability 
and fidelity. He is identi- 
fied with a number of tele- 
graphers' societies, includ- 
ing the Telegraphers Mu- 
tual Benefit Association. 
Gold and Stock Life Insu- 
rance Association, the Old 
Timers, and the United 
States Military Telegraph Corps. Mr. Dealv was 
married in Mew York city Nov. 27. 1S73. to Ednn. 
daughter of George A. Nicholls. They have four 
children, Harry, Lela. Edna, and Frank. 




01 AMi:i;U\N UIOUKAl'llY. 



77 




HOLMES, William, telegraph tariff expert, 
was born in Cleveland, 0., Jan. 1*, 1*14, son of 

Amos K. and Ada (Proudfoot) Holmes, lie was 

eilucated in the schools of Cleveland, (>., and his 
lirsl biisiness experience 
was as clerk in the office 
of the Western I'nion 
Telenraph Company of 
Cleveland, O.. in isiil. 
During the civil war he 
enlisted with the 84th 
Ohio volunteers. United 
States infantry, and was 
honorably discharged in 
1S02. After the war he 
returned to the service of 
the Western Union Tele- 

F graph Company. He was 
\seut to New York in 1868 
f to introduce the system 
of tariff rates by squares 
which his ingenuity had 
perfected and which he 
had suggested to the com- 
pany while in Cleveland 
four years before. The 
old system was to estimate the tolls by distance, but 
that 'became impracticable whenalarge number of 
offices was established, and Mr. Holmes plan pro- 
vides for the grouping of offices in squares of2,500 
square miles and using air lines for distances 
between the squares to determine rates between 
individual offices. This was a great improvement 
and has been in vogue ever since. Mr. Holmes is 
now superintendent of the tariff and check bureau 
of the Western Union Telegraph Company, in 
New York city, to which position he wasappointed 
in 1880. 

STEELE, Isaac Nevett, lawyer and diplomat, 
was born at Cambridge, Md., April 25, 1809, son 
of James and Mary (Nevett) Steele, and grandson 
of Henry and Anne (Billings) Steele. Henry 
Steele w"as a native of England, and emigrated 
from Whitehaven to Oxford, Md., in 1730; he was 
a representative of Dorchester county at the 
convention which met at Annapolis, Md., in June, 
1774. Isaac Nevett Steele was educated in the 
Cambridge Public Academy under Rev. Nathaniel 
Wheaton, and at St. John's College, Annapolis, Md. , 
and Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. He began 
his law studies at the age of eighteen in the offices 
of Alexander C. Magruder and David Hoffman. 
After admission to the bar he rose rapidly to prom- 
inence, becoming not only aleaderof the Maryland 
bar, but also ranking as one of the foremost law- 
yers in America. In 1839 he was appointed deputy 
to Attorney-General Josiah Barley for the Balti- 
more couu'tr court, an appointment that was con- 
tinued by his successor. He was city attorney 
during 1872-74. In 1*49 Mr. Steele was made 
charge d'affaires to Venezuela by Pres. Taylor, 
and remained at Caracas for four years. Upon 
one occasion he narrowly escaped death at the 
hands of robbers who broke into the legation in 
tin- hope of finding the money of diplomatic rep- 
resentatives, which was sometimes entrusted to 
the charge d'affaires for safe-keeping. While in 
Venezuela Mr. Steele gained great credit for having 
secured the settlement of heavy claims on the part 
of citizens of the United States, which had been so 
long postponed as to be regarded as hopeless. 
Resuming his legal practice upon his return to 
the United Slates in 1853, he added to his laurels 
as a brilliant practitioner. There were few cases 
before the Maryland courts during his long pro- 
fessional career, involving great principles or large 




He died in Balti- 



interests, in which he was not prominent, as coun- 
sel and his name appears more frequently in the 
pages of Maryland reports than any other lawyer 
of Ills time, "lie was noted for the clearness <>1 his 
Statements, the strength and force of his !... 

bis power as a cross-examiner. Among the cases 

of note successfully handled by him was I he pr< .se- 
dition of Adam Horn, in 1843, whose conviction 
I,,,- murder he secured alter a seven days' trial. 
Mr. Steele was one of the 
charter members of the 
Maryland Club, and was 
one of its first governors. 
He was also a member of 
the Maryland Historical 
Society, and was the second 
president of the Bar Asso- 
ciation of Baltimore. He 
was married at Washington, 
D. C., Jan. 22, 1*49. to Rosa 
Landonia, daughter of Hon. 
John Nelson, attorney-gen- 
eral of the United States. 
and had five sons : James 
Nevett, John Nelson, Char- 
les, Samuel Tagart and 
Henry Maynadier Steele, 
and three daughters, Mary, 
Rosa Nelson and Kate Steele. 
more, Md.. April 11, 1891. 

STEELE, John Nelson, lawyer, was born at 
Hagerstowu, Md.. April 1, 1853, son of Isaac 
Nevett and Rosa (Nelson) Steele. His father was 
United States charge d'affaires to Venezuela in 
1849. and his mother was a daughter of John Nel- 
son, attorney-general of the United States. The 
son was educated in private schools of Baltimore, 
Md., and was graduated at the University of Vir- 
ginia in 1873 with the degree of B. L. Being too 
young to be admitted to the bar, he took the law 
course of the University of Maryland and in 1874 
received the degree of B. L. from the law depart- 
ment of that University. lie was admitted to the 
bar in Baltimore, Md., in 1875, and began his 
professional career in the law offices of his father 
in that city with whom he was associated for 
fourteen years. In 1889 Mr. Steele formed a part- 
nership under the firm name of Steele, Semmes & 
Carey (Mr. Semmes being a nephew of the cele- 
brated Admiral Semmes, of Confederate fame), a 
firm which secured eminent standing both at the 
bar and in financial circles. Afterwards, as Steele 
and Semmes, it won the continued respect and com- 
mendation of the public as general practitioners, 
and for its skilful handling of interests entrusted 
to its care in the state and federal Courts. Some 
of the important cases argued by him in the court 
of appeals of Maryland are the following: Lazear 
v. National Union Bank of Maryland, Garrett v. 
Lake Roland Elevated Railroad "Company, Scott 
v. Baltimore ifc Ohio Railroad Company, and Don- 
nelly v. Baltimore Trust & Guarantee" Company ; 
and in the supreme court of South Carolina, the 
case of Moore v. Tillman. the governor of the state, 
invohiiii; the constitutionality of an act passed by 
the state of South Carolina, "for the refunding of 
its six per cent, bonds. Mr. Steele made a spe- 
cialty of corporation law, in which he was a 
recognized authority. In 1906, he moved to 
New York to become the general counsel of the 
American Smelting it Refining Company, the 
firm of M. Guggenheim's Sons, and the various 
companies with "which that firm is connected. 
Mr. Steele's practice at (lit 1 present time is con- 
fined to the business of M, Guggenheim's Sons 
and the corporations in which they are interested. 






78 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




for which charge his experience in the laws 
governing such enterprises admirably fits him. 
Sir. Steele was park commissioner for Baltimore 
city during 1898-1900, presi- 
dent of tlie Bar Association 
of Baltimore in 1900, and 
during 1900-6 president of 
the State Board of Law Ex- 
aminers of Maryland. He is 
a member of the Union, 
Calumet, Lawyers' and City 
Luncli clubs of New York, 
the Garden City Golf Club, 
the Baltimore Country Club 
and the Maryland Club of 
Baltimore. He was married, 
March 4, 1880, to Mary Al- 
ricks, daughter of William 
M. Pegram of Virginia and 
has one son, John Nelson, 
Jr., and one daughter, Mar- 
garet M. Steele. 

STEELE, Charles, lawyer and capitalist, was 
born in Baltimore. Md., May 5. 1857, sou of Isaac 
Nevett and Rosa (Nelson) Steele. On his mother's 
side one of his ancestors was Roger Nelson, who, 
while serving as a brigadier-general in the revolu- 
tionary war, was severely wounded at the battle of 
Camden. Subsequently for several years he was 
a member of congress, and from 1810 until his 
death associate judge of the fifth judicial court of 
Maryland. His sou John, the maternal grand- 
father of thesubject of this sketch, was a distin- 
guished member of congress, United States minister 
to Naples, audduring 184345 attorney-general'of 
the United States. Charles Steele was educated at 
the University ofVirginia and was graduated there 
with the degree of M. A. in 1878. He then studied law 
at Columbia College, New York and in the office of 
S. L. M. Barlow and DavidDudley Field. Having 
been admitted to the bar in 1880, he formed a legal 
co-partnership with AVilliam Dorsheimer, who was 
lieutenant-governor of New York. This partner- 
ship continued under the name of Dorsheimer, 
Bacon & Steele until 1884, when he retired from 
the firm. Meanwhile he had been associate coun- 
sel of the New York, Lake Erie ifc Western railroad 
before it was reorganized as the Erie, and in that 
capacity he worked unerringly toward the solution 
of the many complications, both legal and financial, 
in which the company was involved. His training 
with the road was of subsequent great value to 
him, when he became a member of the firm of 
Seward, Guthrie & Steele, and took a leading part 
in the reorganization of a number of the lines 
which are constituents of the present Southern 
railway system. When, in 1899, Charles H. Coster, 
a member of the firm of J. P. Morgan & Co., died, 
Mr. Steele was invited to take this place. Mr. 
Steele is a legal specialist and a master of the 
science of business management. As an authority 
on corporation law and railroad specialist he ranks 
among the foremost. He is a director of the United 
States Steel Corporation, Adams Land & Building 
Co., Alabama Great Southern Railroad Co., At- 
cliison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Co., Central 
Railroad of New Jersey, Chicago & Erie Railroad 
Co., the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville Rail- 
way Co., the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Rail- 
way Co., the Erie and Jersey Railroad Co., the 
Erie Railroad Co.. the General Electric Co., the 
Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway Co., the In- 
ternational Harvester Co., the International Mer- 
cantile Marine Co., the Lehigh Valley Railroad 
Co., the Lehigh Valley Railway Co., the Natioual 



Tube Co., the New Jersey & New York Railroad 
Co., the New York, Susquehanna & Western 
Railroad Co., the Northern Pacific Railway Co., 
the Pere Marquette Railroad Co., the Santa Fe, 
Prescott & Phoenix Railway Co., the Southern 
Railway Co., and the Standard Trust Co. ; member 
of the board of managers of the Adams Express Co., 
and president and director of the Buffalo Creek 
railroad. Mr. Steele is a member of the Associ- 
ation of the Bar of the City of New York, the St. 
Anthony Society, and the Union, Lawyers', Met- 
ropolitan, New York Athletic, Racquet and Tennis, 
Church and Down Town clubs of New York. He 
was married in 1885. to Nannie Gordon, daughter 
of Seth B. French, and has three daughters. 

STEELE, Henry Maynadier, civil engineer, 
was born in Baltimore, Md., Sept. 26, 1865. the 
fifth sou of Isaac Nevett and Rosa L. (Nelson) 
Steele. He received a thorough classical educa- 
tion, attending the Shenandoah Valley Academy 
at Winchester, Virginia, and after graduating there 
in 1882 took a special course of two years at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He began 
his professional career with the engineering depart- 
ment of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, engaged 
on maintenance of way work, and preliminary and 
location surveys. He became associated with the 
United States geological survey for a brief period 
in 1886, resigning to ac. 
cept the position of inspec- 
tor of masonry construc- 
tion for the New York, 
Lake Erie & Western 
railroad. In March, 1887, 
he was appointed assis- 
tant engineer in charge of 
field work and general 
construction on the Erie 
railroad, and held that 
position until December, 
1890, when he was pro. 
moted to the office of prin- 
cipal assistant engineer. 
In this capacity, he di- 
rected the preparation of 
all plans, surveys and 
construction work inci- 
dent to the chief engineer's 
office of this important 
railway system during one 
of its extensive reconstruction periods. On account 
of ill health, in January, 1893, Mr. Steele was com- 
pel l.d to resign from the Erie Railroad Co. and from 
participation in active railway work. He returned 
to his native city (Baltimore) and there opened an 
office as southern agent for the Hall and Johnson 
Railroad Signal Companies, in which capacity he 
advised with many of the southern group of rail- 
ways, as to the most advanced methods of inter- 
locking signal and block signal equipments. Con- 
tinued ill health necessitated the abandonment of 
his active professional duties for some years, which 
were spent in Asheville, N. C., where Mr. Steele 
did some scattered work as consulting engineer, 
but devoted most of his time to the regaining of 
his health. In October, 1897, he was appointed to 
the office of civil engineer for the Central of Geor- 
gia Railway Company, engaged upon special re- 
porting and surveying work, and in November, 
1900, was elected to the office of chief engineer of 
this railway system. He was actively engaged in 
thr reconstruction, development and extensions of 
this railway until July. 1906, and during this period 
resided in Savannah, Georgia. Hr n -iirnrd from 
the Central of Georgia Railway Company in July, 




^ 






OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



79 



1906, to accept the office of chief civil engineer 
for the engineering and contracting firm of J. (J. 
White & C'o. of New York, which otticc he still holds 
(1U10). Mr. Steele is a member of the American 
Society of C'ivil Engineers, the American Railway 
Engineering & Maintenance of Way Association, 
the' National Geographic Society, the American 
Academy of Political and Social [Science, the Amcr 
ioin Forestry Association, the Engineers' Club, the 
New York Athletic (.'lull, the Railway Club, the 
Lawyers' Club of New York, and the Rockaway 
Hunting Club of Cedarhurat, L. 1. lie was married 
Fdi. (i, is'it, to Margaret llollins, daughter of Hollins 
McKimof Haltiinore. and has two sons, Henry M. 
and llollins MrKim, and one daughter, Elise Voor 
hees Steele. 

BURRELL Frederick Augustus Muhlen- 
berg, financier, merchant, manufacturer and 
philanthropist, was born at Aaronsburgh, Pa., 
March 13, 1808, sou of John 
Ilgen and Susan Elizabeth 
(Schwartz) Burrcll. On ac- 
count of the large family, he 
early realized the necessity 
of making his own way in the 
world, without material help 
from his parents, and so 
anxious was he to embark on 
a business career that at the 
early age of thirteen years he 
secured a position with the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Co., 
and soon became one of their 
telegraph operators. Mean- 
while he entered upon a 
systematic course of study 
to prepare himself for col- 
lege under the tutelage 
of his elder brother, at 
Pennington, N. J. Later, 
he entered the Pennington 
Seminary, and then matriculated at Columbia Uni- 
versity. He had reached his sophomore year, 
when his father died unexpectedly and a large 
share of the support of his mother and young 
brothers and sisters fell upon him. He at, 
once obtained a position as train despatcher 
and agent with the Ninth Avenue Elevated Rail- 
road Co., New York. After a short time he en- 
tered the employ of John Dunphy, one of the 
pioneers in the leather trade in the district 
known as " The Swamp," near the Brooklyn 
Bridge. In his capacity as clerk for Mr. Dun- 
phy, he attracted the attention of Charles A. 
Seiiieren, another leather tanner and merchant, 
who took a fancy to the young man. Knowing 
Mr. Burrell's father, Mr. Schieren suggested 
that his opportunities would be better if he 
transferred his services to the latter's own firm, 
and he did so in 1878. Subsequent events 
showed that Mr. Schieren's judgment of young 
Burrell's capacities had not been at fault, for 
in eight years his services had become so valu- 
able, and his knowledge of the details of the 
business was so thorough, that when the busi- 
ness was incorporated on Feb. 1, 1908, Mr. Bur- 
rell was made vice-president, a position he still 
holds (1910). During Mr. Burrell's connection, the 
firm has been wonderfully prosperous, and its 
business has increased enormously. The main 
office is a magnificent building in New York, 
with branches in Chicago. Boston, Philadelphia. 
Pittsburg, Denver and Brooklyn, and several in 
Europe. Mr. Burrell has been active in many 
directions outside the leather business. He has 
been a trustee of the Brooklyn Savings Bank, 




// 



and a director of the Holston Extract Co., of 
Bristol, Tenn., and of the Quogue Gas Co., of 
Quogue, Long Island. He was one of the organ- 
izers of the Flatbush Trust Co., and secretary 
of its organizing committee, and has since 
served as a director and member of its execu- 
tive committee. He is also vice-president of 
the Dixie Tanning Co., a corporation of Bristol, 
Tenn. Mr. Burrell has also been very active as 
a philanthropist. He has long served as the 
vice-president of the Brooklyn Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Children, and has in- 
augurated a number of the movements that 
have resulted in so much good in that direc- 
tion, and he is a trustee of the Brooklyn Young 
Women's Christian Association, of which his 
wife is treasurer. He is a deacon of the Cen- 
tral Congregational Church of Brooklyn, to the 
building up of which he has devoted much time 
and attention. Mr. Burrell is a man of much 
refinement and his tastes are musical and ar- 
tistic. He was married in 1888 to Alice Maud, 
daughter of Richard Thackray, of Brooklyn, 
and has four children, Edith Gertrude, Harold 
Arthur, Kathrine Thackray and Frederick 
Donald Burrell. 

SCHIEREN, Charles Albert, )Jr., treasurer 
of the Charles A. Schieren Co., was born in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., May 8, 1869, son of Charles 
Adolph and Mary Louise (Bramm) Schieren. 
His father (q. v.) is one of the foremost citizens 
of Brooklyn, having served as the mayor of 
that city, 1893-95. and is the inventor of the 
" electric belt," the " American joint leather 
link belt," and the " perforated belt," which 
are extensively used throughout the entire 
world, and whose tanning business in Bristol, 
Tenn., Brooklyn, N. Y., and in the Schieren 
building, 30 to 38 Ferry street. New York, is 
one of the largest and best equipped establish- 
ments of its kind in the world. The son re- 
ceived a thorough education in the Polytechnic 
Institute of Brooklyn. He began his business 
career in his father's company in 1886 as office 
boy. Two years later he was promoted to be 
advertising manager. In 1890 he went on the 
road as traveling salesman for some seven 
years, and the present high standing of the 
concern is largely due to his success and execu- 
tive ability. He has been a partner in the 
business since 1898, and upon the incorporation 
of the business in 1908, with a capital stock of 
$1,000,000, he became trea- 
surer, a position he now oc- 
cupies. He was largely in- 
strumental in developing the 
foreign business of the con- 
cern, having established a 
branch house for Europe at 
Hamburg in 1900. In 1906, 
Duxbak waterproof and 
steamproof leather belting 
was introduced, which has 
met with phenomenal success 
and is now being sold and 
used in all foreign countries 
as well as in the United 
States. He is a member of 
the Union League Club of 
New York, the New York 
Yacht Club, the New York ^ . ~ J) O 

Athletic Club, the Lawyers' 

Club, the Columbia Yacht Club and the Ma- 
chinery Club, being treasurer and a member of 
the board of governors of the last. Mr. 
Schieren is unmarried. 







80 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 




BORGLUM, [John] Gutzon [de la Mothe], 

sculptor and painter, was born near Reno. Nev.. 
Mar. 2"). 1S67. son of James de la Mothe and Ida 
(Michelsen) Borglum, and a brother of Solon S. 
Borglum. His father, by profession a physician, 
was born in Demark, whence he emigrated to the 
United States in 1864. settling first in Omaha, 
Neb., and later practicing medicine in Fremont, 
Neb The son's early education was obtained in 
the public schools in Fremont and Omaha, and at 
St. Mary's College, Kansas. His artistic bent 
became apparent at an early age, and his first 
serious art studies were begun at 
the San Francisco Art Association 
under the tutelage of \*irgil Wil- 
liams and of William Keith, the 
famous landscape painter. To the 
latter he especially owed his 
early impulse toward the roman- 
tic and dramatic in art expression. 
In 1SOO-91 he went abroad, and 
after a stay of about six months 
in Paris sent to the Salon a piece 
of sculpture a horse stain ling 
guard over his dead Indian master 
which was a theme from the 
life most familiar to him, and 
was portrayed with simplicity 
and sincerity. It was accepted, 
and obtained for Mr. Borglum the 
honor of a membership in the Societe Nationale 
des Beaux Arts. He exhibited in the Salon in 
the following year both canvases and sculpture 
ami in the same year also held an exhibition of 
his work in Spain. " Returning to the United State- 
in 1S03, he devoted himself to modelling and paint- 
ing, mainly such subjects as he held to be essentially 
characteristic of American life. It was at this 
period that his brother. Solon, joined him, and 
studied under him. In ls!l,~> he took some small 
pieces of sculpture and some paintings to England, 
and in the next year held a "one man" exhibition 
at the Hanover galleries, London. His produc- 
tions were highly commended, and aroused especial 
interest for their distinctively American type. The 
queen of England sent to have three of his canvases 
shown at Osborn, and his exhibition was imme- 
diately followed by orders from all sides for por- 
traits and busts. About this time he began to 
essay drawing. lie pictured the incidents of the 
Boer war for a number of publishers, and in IV is, 
he received a commission to paint the mural 
decorations for the (lueen's hotel at Leeds. In 
spite of his successes in Kndand and the honors 
accorded him by the French national academy. 
Mr. Borglum again returned to the United States 
in 1902, and opening a studio in New York city, 
entered the list of competitors tor the Grant 
Memorial at Washington. Since that time he 
has painted the Shakespearian character pro! raits 
for the house of Philip Ashton Rollins of New 
York: twelve panels illustrating "Midsummer 
Night's Dream;" "The Coming of Guinevere," 
and various smaller pictures Here he also com- 
pleted his group "Mares of Diomedes," now in 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York city. 
and executed the small bronzes of Ruskin and 
Nero, and the sixty devices for gargoyles for the 
Princeton dormitory, class of '70. In 100S he 
rutcd in marble a colossal head of Abraham 
I incoln, the original of which, being purchased by 
nnoisseur and presented to the United States 
government, stands in the rotunda of the Capitol 
at Washington, while bronze replicas arou ed 
the admiration of the public throughout the 
country. Another work of large proportion is 
his equestrian statue of Sheridan in Washington. 



The group ' North America" for the Bureau of 
American Republics, Washington and a bas-relief 
depicting Washington's farewell to his generals 
for the same building were completed in 1009. 
Some of his other notable compositions are: " Aban- 
doned." owned by George W. Young of Xew York; 
"The Horse Thief," "Pan's Hollow," and "Home- 
ward," on canvas, and "Death and the Chief," 
"Scouts," " Pursued by U. S. Troops," "Remorse," 
" I've piped to ye and ye have not danced," "The 
True Atlas," "Mothernoqd" and "The Martyr" 
in sculpture. Mr. Borglum is said to have been 
influenced by his early religious environment 
towards the the realistic manner of the Italian 
Renaissance, but gradually he has tended per- 
ceptibly towards the impressionistic and idealistic 
school, particularly as represented in Rodin ;:nd 
Whistler. Yet he has never allowed himself to 
be carried to the verge of incoherence. He adheres 
to a manly clearness in externals, whatever elusive 
element of poetry or mysticism may be inherent 
in his theme, and he employs a technic so discrim- 
inating that while the idea perpetually subserves 
detail, it does so through balanced values of process 
that make the whole satisfying and intelligible. 
In his small bronzes as in his large pieces a 
like mastery of theme and process is manifest. 
His "Ruskin" was characterized as the "biggest 
little monument" ever produced, his Lincoln a 
living image of the original, while his "True Atlas" 
is an exquisite handling of an idealistic subject 
with sufficient realism to make it essentially human. 
His work is a marked contribution to modern 
art. vet it possesses much of the elemental power 
which does not allow identification with the warp 
and mode of any limited period. Mr. Borglum 
was married at Short Beach, Conn., May 20, 1009, 
to Mary Williams, daughter of Giles Montgom- 
ery, a missionary in Turkey. Mrs. Borglum is 
a graduate of Wellesley College, and a distin- 
guished scholar and assyrologist, who received the 
degree of Ph.D. from the University of Berlin in 
1901. 

WHARTON, Edith, author, was born in New 
York city, in 18I>'2, daughter of George Frederick 
and Lucretia Stevens (Rhinelander) Jones. Her 
great-grandfather on the maternal side was Gen. 
Khenozer Stevens (1751-1S2:{), who participated in 
the " Boston tea-party," took part in the expedition 
against Quebec, and commanded the artillery at 
Yorktown. She is closely related to the Scher- 
tiierhorn and Rhinelander families, the names being 
those of two of her grandparents. As a child she 
lived much abroad, and received a classical educa- 
tion. Her first published story, "Mrs. Manstey's 
View ," appeared in " Scribner's Magax.ine" in Is'.ll. 
This was followed by a number of short stories, 
the refined intellectual quality of which placed them 
in that class whose chief exemplar in America had 
hitherto been Henry James Her first book, 
although not a novel, revealed a characteristic of 
the author which is fundamental to all her w rit ings 
aesthetic culture. It was "The Decoration of 

Houses" ils',17), written in collaboration with 
( )gden Codman, Jr. Later she wrote " Italian 
Villas and Their Gardens" i.I'MW. and "Italian 
Background-" (1905), books of the ~ame order. 

\ ie\ie\\er in "Putnam's Magazine" said of them: 
"To the vast amount of wealth in this country, so 
blindly and often so fatuously groping after 
expression, Mrs. Wharton has pointed a way. . . . 
She is the first to combine in the service of the 
propaganda in question a social authority, a iech- 
nical knowledge, and a literary talent like her own. 
The fact marks an interesting point in the history of 
American culture." In I S'.i'.l a collect ion of her short 
stories was published under the 1 t itle of " The ( ireater 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



81 



Inclination," followed in 1000 hy "The Touch- 
stone," a novelette, in which character is studied 
from an essentially feminine point of view A 
collect ion of short stories called "Crucial Instances" 
appeared in 1891, and in !!)_' Mrs. \Vliarton trans- 
lated Hermann Sudermann's play, " Es lebe das 
Leben" under the title of "The Joy of Living" for 
the English actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell. Her 
version made this dramatic masterpiece a literary 
one as well, preserving both the Germanic treat- 
ment of the theme by the author and the univer- 
sality of its appeal. In the same year her first long 
novel, "The Valley of Decision, was published. 
The book was the result of long and sympathetic 
study of Italy. Its purpose was to picture the 
disintegration of old ideals which took place in that 
country in the eighteenth century, when monarchi- 
cal anil religious traditions were giving place to 
the conception of man's right to govern himself 
ami his soul. So successful was the achievement 
of this design that the work was hailed as a new 
order of literature, not an historical novel in the 
usual sense of that term, but history itself, vivified 
by recreative imagination. The newspaper press 
was extravagant in its praise, expending epithets 
which should havo been reserved for Mrs. Wharton 's 
later publications. The "Pall Mall Gazette" 
called it a "great novel, perhaps the greatest of its 
kind our language has produced," and the New York 
"Critic" said: " It is as near to perfection as things 
human get to be." Comparisons of the author to 
Henry James gave place to comparisons with Mrs. 
Humphry Ward, an indication that Mrs. Wharlon 
was shortly to be recognized as a master sui genjr^ 
of her art. This recognition came with "Sanctuary" 
(l(IO:i), the story of a woman's conscience and 
affections twice racked in a matter of honor, (irst 
by her betrothed, and twenty-five years afterward 
by her son. Her "Descent of Man and Other 
Stories" (1904), won greater popularity than her 
previous books, and with the publication of "The 
House of Mirth" (1905), she achieved the height 
of both popular and artistic success. Entitling this 
novel from a text in Kcclesiastes: " The heart of fools 
is in tin' ho'iseoi mirth," she depicted the emptiness 
and folly of the life of the idle rich, showing in 
particular the demoralizing effect of such an exist- 
ence upon a beautiful anil brilliant girl, who, how- 
ever, is saved from moral ruin, though at the cost of 
social position, beauty, health, and life itself, by 
the influence of a man whose love in her folly she 
had rejected. The novel was for some time the 
most talked about book in America. Its remark- 
able hold upon readers was due, as Henry Dwight 
Sedgwick pointed out in the "Atlantic Monthly," 
to the masterful way in which the author brushed 
aside the accepted canon of " literary determination 
and realism," in order to concentrate the reader's 
interest upon her heroine. It was dramatized by 
the author in collaboration with Clyde Fitch, but 
met with only moderate success on the stage, anil 
in I'.IOS a translation was published in France, 
with an introduction by Paul Bourget, who declared 
that "The House of Mirth" was the greatest novel 
that the United States has produced, ranking with 
the work of no less a master than Balzac. That 
she is in sympathy with French life and character 
was shown by her novel "Madame de Treymes" 
(I 1 . 107), whose purpose was to contrast the sol- 
idarity of the French family with the individual 
freedom maintaining in America, and in I'.MIS she 
wrote a novel in French entitled " Les Metteurs en 
Scene," a story of rich Americans worming their 
way into Parisian society by the aid of a young 
well-born Frenchman and a charming girl who have 
made it their business to secure social recognition 
for wealthy people ambitious of such distinction. 



Her other books are "The Fruit of the Tree" 

I!lll7l, and "A Motor Flight through France," 

I'.IOS). the latter combining fancy and insight and 

ancient lore with characterizations of famous 

cathedrals, wayside inns, fortified churches, and 

villages not on maps or timetables. Mrs. Wharton 

was married in 1S85 to Edward Wharton, a banker 

of New York. 

LOWELL, Abbott Lawrence, twenty-fourth 

president of Harvard University (1909 ), was 

born in Boston, Mass., Dec. 13, 1856, son of Augustus 
and Katherine Bigelow (Lawrence) Lowell. His 
first American ancestor was Percival Lowell, who 
sailed in the "Jonathan" from Worcestershire, 
lOngland, in 1039, and settled at Xewbury, Mass. 
The line of descent is traced through his son John ; 
his son John, who married Hannah Proctor; their 
son Ebenezer, who married Elizabeth Shailer; their 
son Rev. John, who married Sarah Champney and 



was the first Lowell to graduate at Harvard College 
(1721); their son John, who married Sarah Higgin- 
son; their son John, who marrie. I Rebecca Amory; 
their son John Amory, who married Susan C. Lowell, 
and their son Augustus, who was the father of the 
subject of this sketch. Hon. John Amory Lowell 
(<|.v.) was the first trustee of the Lowell Institute 
and Judge John Lowell was a direct ancestor of 
Francis Cabot Lowell, one of the chief founders of 
cotton manufacturing in Massachusetts; of John 
Lowell, Jr., the founder of Lowell Institute, and of 
James Russell Lowell, the poet. Pres. Lowell's 
mother was a daughter of Abbott Lawrence (q.v.), at 
one time United States minister to England. Abbott 
Lawrence Lowell was graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity in the class of 1877. He was especially pro- 
ficient in mathematics and also distinguished him- 
self in athletics, having won on one occasion both 
the mile and three-mile race in the same afternoon. 
After two years at Harvard Law School and one 
year in the law office of Messrs. Russell & Putnam 
of Boston he received the degree of LL.B. in 1880. 
He was immediately admitted to the bar, and for 
seventeen years practiced law in partnership with 
his kinsman Francis Cabot Lowell. Frederick Jesup 
Si imson being a member of the 
firm during the last six years. 
Retiring from the bar in 1897, 
he became lecturer at Harvard 
Universityand two years later 
was appointed professor of 
the science of government. 
He filled this chair so accept- 
ably and displayed such quali- 
ties of business ability, tact 
and executive force that when 
Pres. Eliot resigned in 1909 he 
was selected by the corporation 
to succeed him. In his in- 
augural address on Oct. 6, 
1909, Pres. Lowell said: "A 
discussion of the ideal college 
training would appear to 
lead to the conclusion that 
the best type of liberal edu- 
cation in our complex mod- 
ern world aims at producing men who know a 
little of everything and something well." Soon 
after taking office he introduced a radical change in 
Harvard 'selective system by abandoning the plan of 
unlimited electives and providing for a considerable 
amount of work by the student in some one field 
and the general distribution of other subjects under 
the direct ion and ad vice of the faculty. His writings 
have won him international recognition as one of the 
few high authorities on the history and science of 
government in the English-speaking world. They 
are: "Transfer of Stock in Corporations," in col- 




82 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



laboration with Judge Francis C. Lowell (1884); 
"Essays on Government" (,1889), "Governments 
and Parties in Continental Europe" (1896), 
"Colonial Civil Service," in collaboration with Prof. 
H. Morse Stevens (1900); "The Influence of Party 
upon Legislation in England and America" (1902) 
and "The Government of England" (1908). From 
the moment Pres. Lowell began his teaching at 
Harvard he impressed both students and colleagues 
with his forceful personality. His elementary course 
in government was considered the most stimulating 
line of instruction, as well as the most popular, 
given to undergraduates. He was a member of the 
Boston school committee and the executive com- 
mittee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
and is now a member of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
and the Phi Beta Kappa fraternity. Pres. Lowell 
has been trustee of the Lowell Institute of Boston 
since 1900. In that capacity he has the full financial 
management of the trust, selects the lecturers and 
in all ways carries on the affairs of the institute in 
the service of public education. He was married 
June 19, 1879, to Anna Parker, daughter of George 
G. Lowell of Boston, also a descendant of the above 
mentioned Judge John Lowell. 

WARFIELD, David, actor, was born in San 
Francisco, Cal., Nov. L'S, 1866, son of Gustave 
and Louise (Shindler) Warfield. He attended the 
public schools of that city, but his opportunities 
for further study were cut short by the necessity 
of helping to support his family. In early childhood 
he developed a capacity for acting, and his account 
of those boyhood experiences is vividly interesting. 
"If I were to try to remember when my thoughts 
first turned to the stage, I should find that they were 
always there. At school I recited 'The Charge of 
the Light Brigade, "The Frenchman and the Flea 
Powder,' and all the rest dear to the young heart. 
That was in San Francisco when I had to sell papers 
before and after school, and at night I would hand 
out programmes at the theatre, just to be near where 
others were acting. It was a busy life that necessity 
made me lead, but it brought me'so much happiness 
that it never seemed like 
work. In every assemblage 
of people there is a comedi- 
an, and 1 think 1 was that at 
school. I studied, I loved 
books, and I never played 
hooky, but I liked to upset the 
seriousness of things by ask- 
ing the teachers questions 
that made the other children 
laugh. My real education was 
secured in the streets, though 
I did not realize it then, by 
studyingpeople and character 
and absorbing what 1 saw. It 
was my habit to guess the 
calling of a man from his 
general appearance. As a 
natural consequence 1 unbur- 
dened my mind of all these 
observations by giving imita- 
tions to my newsboy col- 
leagues in the streets, and that led me directly 
toward the stage." His first efforts were far from 
encouraging. At the age of twenty he was en- 
gaged by a company performing in the smaller 
towns along the coast, but it did not survive 
the first month, and a second company which he 
joined soon afterwards met a similar fate. Then 
he went on the vaudeville stage, and his failure 
\\as so complete that he gave up all hope of ever 
succeeding in that profession. But the stage had a 
fascination for him which he could not shake off, 




and with a determination to win, and the courage 
of his extreme youth, he went to New York, where 
he made a bitter struggle for an opportunity to get 
a foothold. One evening, when his hopes were 
unusually low, he obtained permission to do some 
"turns" at a concert hall of the cheaper sort on 
Eighth avenue. He was successful and was given 
a week's engagement at a small salary. A number 
of limited engagements followed without any long 
intervals in which he was out of work. He appeared 
first in "The Inspector," a drama of New York 
police life, and then in "O'Dowd's Neighbors," in 
which he took the part of an Irish servant girl. 
His best efforts were called out when he had the 
good fortune to become a member of John Russell's 
comedians. There his acting was first recognized 
as of very hig^h promise. His next engagement was 
with the' Casino Opera Co., New York, where, in a 
series of burlesques he portrayed various comedy 
types that first brought him into real prominence, 
lie appeared in a number of widely diversified parts 
that of a Ghetto type of Jew; Fouche, Napoleon's 
famous prefect of police, in "Madame Sans Gene," 
and the Laird in Du Manner's "Trilby," and so 
cleverly and artfully did he present these difficult 
parts that he at once became the chief attraction of 
the performance. This pronounced success led to a 
place in that post-graduate school of burlesquers, 
the Weber & Fields company, where his clever 
acting won the warm praise of Coquelin, the French 
comedian. Meanwhile his talents had come under 
the observation of David Belasco (also a native 
of San p>ancisco, who knew Warfield in their boy- 
hood days), who believed that in this rising young 
actor there was the latent power and necessary 
genius to develop an artist of the highest ability, 
and after Warfield 's contract with Weber & Fields 
was ended, he was taken in hand by Belasco. His 
first effort under this new management was as a 
star in "The Auctioneer," a modern character 
drama of New York life. Simon Levi, the chief 
part in this play, was the finished product of all the 
actor's previous efforts in the portrayal of Hebrew 
character. It was recognized as a masterpiece, 
although, as Wartirld had figured for some time in 
the interpretation of Hebrew types and was himself 
a Hebrew, it excited no particular astonishment 
among his admirers. To the discerning few it was 
nevertheless a revelation by reason of his power 
in pathetic passages and his knowledge and grasp 
of character. But a far more striking proof of the 
breadth and fineness of his genius was afforded by 
his delineation of Ludwig von Barwig, the leading 
character in "The Music Master," in which his 
mastery of the sources of emotion, his moving 
simplicity, his control of the vocal resources of his 
art were unquestioned and revealed a dramatic 
ability to whose future attainment even the critics 
were not disposed to set narrow limits. Judged by 
the length of time it has run. the aimnmt of the 
box office receipts, and the fame it has brought to 
the actor, "The Music Master" has been considered 
unique among American dramatic productions. So 
thoroughly had \Vartield mastered the principles 
of his art. and so completely did lie throw himself 
into the play, that it has often been said that he 
never acted the part twice in quite the same way. 
His enlarging perception of its possibilities led him 
to add new touches, to emphasize the same emotion 
in new ways, and constantly to strive for that finish 
and completeness of representation which would 
measure art by the facts of life. As Wes' Biglowe 
in "The Grand Army Man," he played a role 
more in harmony with American popular tradition, 
recalling the civil war. The relation between 
Belasco and Warfield is more than the calculating 
collaboration of a great actor and a great theatrical 






OF AMI, UK AX 



83 



manager. It is based upon strong friendship and 
a mutual appreciation of capacities that supplement. 
each other. Mr. \\arfield refused a guaranteed 
salary of $100,000 a year, offered by a theatrical 
syndicate, choosing rather to remain with the 
friend who gave him his first great opportunity in 
the higher sphere of his profession. lie is in hearty 
sympathy with the aim of Mr. Belasco to ele\ai'e 
the tone of the American stage by freeing jt from 
influences tending to lower popular taste anil depress 
individuality; but apart from that, the personal 
loyalty of the actor to his manager is well known. 
Mr. \\artield was married in 1889 to Mary Gabrielle 
Bradt of San Francisco. 

BELASCO, David, playwright and stage man- 
ager, was born at San Francisco, Cal., July 25, 
is.v.t, son of Humphrey and Kena (Martin) Belasco, 
both natives of England. His education was 
bc^un by a Catholic priest at. Vancouver, B. C. 
ami terminated at Lincoln College, California, where 
he was graduated in ]S7f>. His inclination towards 
his future profession seemed inborn, since almost 
from childhood he sought to dramatize every story 
that came into his hands, his early efforts in this 
direction being presented before admiring boyish 
audiences. His first original drama, produced at the 
early age of fourteen, was entitled "Jim Black; or 
The Regulator's Revenge," in seven acts and some 
thirty scenes. It was played at Mozart Hall, San 
Francisco, a family resort devoted tomusicand beer, 
which had been rented to him for the performance. 
In this youthful effort he undertook the title role 
himself, being assisted by some of the genuine 
toughs of the neighborhood introduced to give local 
coior, anil the play was so realistic that it ended in 
n fist fight between the actors and the native 
"supers" that brought the performance to an 
abrupt end. This strong inclination for realism has 
clung to Mr. Belasco throughout his whole career, 
his crude first attempt developing into realistic 
effects in which nature's rough edges are smoothed 
down by art. Mr. Belasco's connection with stage 
management developed from the humble role of 
call-boy at Baldwin's Theatre, San Francisco. His 
ability so quickly manifested itself that he became 
the stage manager in 1878, at nineteen years of age, 
and held the same position in the Grand Opera House 
and the Metropolitan theatre of that cky, being 
accounted the youngest stage manager on the 
Pacific slope. The companies that he directed at 
this time contained many actors and actresses who 
were afterwards celebrated stars, and it was during 
these years of stock work in the rich West that Mr. 
Belasco perfected himself in his art and laid the 
foundation of his present reputation. In 1880 he 
removed to New York, whither his fame had pre- 
ceded him, the Mallory brothers engaging him to 
take care of their productions in the Madison Square 
Theatre. From the start he combined the art of 
dramatization with that of management, adapting 
foreign plays and dramatizing novels, while also 
doing original work. In all he wrote at this period 
about a hundred such plays which were produced 
with a varied fortune of failure and success. The 
Knowledge that a genuine new playwright had ar- 
rived arose from some of these productions, three of 
then./' La Belle Russe," "Valerie" and "Hearts of 
Oak," being performed in 'New York and enjoying 
prosperous runs. His first pronounced success came 
in 1SS4, when his charming comedy of "May 
Blossom" captured the theatrical world. Few 
more delightful plays have ever been written, and it 
took the lead among the dainty, artistic productions 
for which the Madison Square Theatre became 
famous during that period. In 1885 he joined hands 
with Daniel Frolunan, assuming the management of 



tin- la tt er's productions of the Lyceum Theatre, and 
here he collaborated effectively with Henry C. De 
Mille, the playwright in a number of successful plays. 

such as " The Wife," "The Charity Ball" and " Lord 
Chum ley," the latter the play which launched E. H. 
SoihiTu on his prosperous career. His next effort, 
"Men and Women," written for Charles Frohman, 
was produced at Proctor's Twenty-third Street 
Theatre, and was followed by "The Girl I Left 
Behind Me," written in collaboration with Franklin 
Fries, and made the opening production of the 
Empire Theatre, New York. In 1895 appeared one 
of his best-known 




s est-nown plays, 
The Heart of Maryland," 
which put Mrs. Leslie Car- 
ter, a protegee of his, on the 
road as a star. It is well 
to state at this point that. 
Mr. Belasco had in him the 
making of a fine actor as 
well as a capable manage T 
and playwright, and that 
his early cast in his own 
boyish play was followed by 
youthful parts in "Meta- 
mora"with Edwin Forrest 
and "Pizarro" with Charles 
Keene, and later in juvenile 
parts with Booth, Edwin 
Adams and Adelaide Neil- 
son. He is said to possess 
fine powers as an actor, and 
before he took a position in 
the Baldwin theatre, had 
made a round of the mining camps with AnniePixley, 
going through all the hardships and diversities of 
fortune incident to such a career. In 1897 he 
first undertook management on his own account, 
producing "The First Born" by Francis Powers, 
which was the artistic success of the season, 
and in the following year starred Mrs. Leslie 
Carter in his own version of "Zaza." "Naughty 
Anthony," a farcical comedy, was produced by him 
in 1899, and afterwards his dramatization of John 
Luther Long's Japanese story of "Madame Butter- 
fly." These two plays were performed with great 
success in London theatres in 1900. "Madame Du 
Barry" was his next great triumph, played in 1901 
in the New National Theatre of Washington and the 
Criterion Theatre of New York. His own house, the 
Belasco Theatre, New York, was opened in 1902, with 
two favorite plays from his pen : "The Darling of the 
Gods," a drama of old Japan, written in collabora- 
tion with John Luther Long, and "Sweet Kitty 
Bellairs," founded on the novel, "The Bath Com- 
edy," by Egerton Castle. Another play in which 
he collaborated with John Luther Long was " Adrea," 
a classic tragedy produced in 1905. In September. 
1904, appeared one of his most charming poetical 
productions, "The Music Master," which David 
Warfield made famous, and in 1905 he presented 
"The Girl of the Golden West, "a drama of the days 
of '49 in California, Miss Blanche Bates playing tin- 
leading part in this, as she had done in several of his 
earlier compositions. In 190G he produced at the 
Belasco theatre "The Rose of the Rancho," and in 
1907 opened his new Stuyvesant theatre with David 
Warfield in "The Grand Army Man." In 1908 Mr. 
Belasco and Harrison Grey Fiske joined in the 
management of the Belasco theatre, which Mrs. 
Fiske, famous as a great dramatic artist, was to make 
her permanent home and Mr. Fiske's attractions 
were to appear, an arrangement which promised to 
strengthen Mr. Belasco's position as the greatest 
independent producer and writer of plays in Amer- 
ica. In 1908 he brought out "The Easiest Way "by 
Euien Walter, with Miss Frances Starr in the 



84 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 



principal role, and in 1909 "The Lily," a problem 
play that attracted wide attention and increased his 
fame as one of America's leading dramatists. Mr. 
Belasco's personality is unique. Few people ever 
see him. His whole time, summer and winter, day 
and night, is given to his art. the making and staging 
of plays and the tutoring of actors. He never 
scolds his pupils in rehearsal, never loses his temper, 
always seeks to lead and guide, instead of to drive 
them. As for rest, he rarely knows it, being an 
incessant worker, while in financial matters he is so 
indifferent as to be the despair of his business agents. 
He is apparently one of those rare individuals who 
have no time to think of money. 

WORCESTER, Elwood, clergyman, was bora 
at Massillon, O.. May 16, 1862. son of David Free- 
man and Frances (Gold) Worcester, and a descend- 
ant of William Worcester, who came to America in 
1838. settling at Salisbury, Mass. His boyhood 
and youth were spent in Rochester, X. Y., whither 
the family removed while he was a child. He was 
graduated at Columbia University in 1886, and 
having determined to follow the ministry took a 
three years course at the General Theological 
Seminary in New York where he was graduated in 
1S87. He was ordained deacon in 1889, and 
priest in 1890. Meanwhile he continued his studies 
at the University of Leipzig, receiving the degree 
of Ph.D., in 1889. In 1890 he was made assistant 
minister at St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, and was 
appointed to the chair of psychology and Christian 
evidences at Lehigh University, where for six years 
he officiated as chaplain of the university. He then 
accepted the rectorship of St. Stephen's Church. 
Philadelphia, succeeding Rev. Samuel D. McCon- 
nell, and eight years later received a call from the 
Emmanuel Episcopal Church of Boston, Mass, 
where he succeeded the Rev. Leighton Parks. 
His work here has been of an extremely practical 
character, and has made his church a leader in 
novel and effective service to the people. His 
fir-t innovation was to inaugurate a cure for 
tuberculosis, demonstrating 
that patients could be cured 
without being removed from 
their homes. But what has 
given him a national reputa- 
tion is his promulgation of a 
new idea in church work, name- 
ly, the attempt to cure disease 
through mental suggestion. A 
class was formed by Dr. Wor- 
cester in October, 1906. which 
aimed to heal such mental 
ailinen.s as hitherto baffled 
physicians, combined with an 
uplifting religious service. In 
a short time the class grew 
to a membership of over 250, 
and so successful did he become 
that the " Emmanuel move- 
ment," which has taken its 
name from this fashionable 
Back Bay church of Boston, has 

attracted attention among clergymen and physicians 
throughout the entire United States. The fun- 
damental idea underlying the Emmanuel movement 
is thus expressed by Rev. Samuel M'Comb, its 
:i"ociate director: "It is an effort to unite in 
friendly alliance a simple New Testament Chris- 
tianity as modern Biblical scholarship corroborates 
it. and the proved conclusions of modern medicine, 
and more especially of modern psychological 
medicine, in the interests of suffering humanity. 
It imposes no new dogma, philosophical or theolog- 
ical. It claims to be the possessor of no new revela- 




tion except that which is the product on the one 
hand of the growing Christian consciousness, and 
that which on the other hand comes through the 
revelation God makes of Himself in the discoveries 
of science. Its great aim is to give to faith the 
things of faith and to science the things of science. 
Because scientific it distinguishes between those 
forms or types of nervous suffering which are 
functional in character and those which are organic. 
This distinction, it is true, cannot be in the ultimate 
resort defended, but for all practical purposes it 
is valid and well recognized. Hence, one of the 
fundamental principles of the Emmanuel plan, and 
one which distinguishes it sharply from all systems 
of metaphysical healing Christian Science. Mental 
Science, Faith Healing, etc. is that there is first 
of all a thorough medical examination of the patient 
before any psychic treatment is entered upon. 
This examination is necessary, not only in order 
to rule out any organic disease or distinctly organic 
complications of a seemingly pure functional dis- 
order, I nit also in order to obtain an intelligent 
comprehension of the functional disorder itself, 
if functional disorder it be. From another point 
of view, the same necessity becomes obvious. 
Patients, for example, have come to us who have 
been treated by physicians for organic diseases by 
means of drugs and special diet, and upon examina- 
tion it has been found that the disorders were 
purely functional in character. Now, of these 
functional disorders, the nomenclature is constantly 
changing, but, roughly speaking, we may say that 
they fall under the 'following five great groups: 
1. Neurasthenia, or, as it is popularly called, 
nervous prostration, which has an infinite number 
of shades from a slight sense of depression or 
fatigue to the profoundest exhaution of the nervous 
system. 2. Hysteria. This is an abnormal dispo- 
sition of the nervous system, in which the sufferer is 
peculiarly amenable to suggestion and self-sugges- 
tion. 3." Hypochrondria. The main feature of this 
disorder is fear of disease. 4. Psychasthenia. This 
word is only two years old and is used to cover the 
large group of nervous troubles in which the psychi- 
cal element is predominant. 5. Drug addictions. 
Here we have those moral slaveries, such as 
alcoholism, cocainism, morphinism, which, while 
they affect profoundly physiological processes, are 
now recognized as rooted in psychical and moral 
tendencies. The Emmanuel movement believes 
that minister and doctor should unite their forces, 
should come to a common understanding and 
should thus solve the difficulty presented by so 
many semi-moral and semi-nervous disorders by 
attacking them simultaneously from the spirtiual 
as well as from the physical side. Hence, the 
remedies applied in the Emmanuel clinic are 
mainly psychological, moral and religious, but 
not without regard to any physical needs that 
may be evident. The psychic remedies are those 
which have been used for some time past with 
singular success in the great psychotherapeutie 
clinics of Europe and to a much less extent in 
some of the hospitals of this country. We have 
taken advantage of the fruitful union which 
has been consummated between medicine and 
psychology." The success of the plan may be 
attributed entirely to Dr. Worcester's enthusiasm 
with which he has won adherents from medical 
practitioners of national repute as well as from 
scientists, college professors, clergymen, and bus- 
iness men of the highest class. He is the author 
of "Religious Opinions of John Locke" (1890 
"The Book of Genesis in the Light of Modern 
Knowledge" i 1'Mll ). the latter being written in a 
broad spirit, giving the layman the advantages 
of the latest discoveries of the leading men ot 



OK AMKKICAN HHHiHAPIIY. 



85 



science; "Religion and Medicine: The Moral 
Control of Nervous Disorders" (I'.M)S). which is an 
authoritive account of the psychological, medical 
and religious facts and principles upon which the 
practice of psychic healing is based; "The Living 
Word" (190S), on the philosophy of religion; and 
"The Christian Religion as a Healing Power" (ltl(l!l). 
He received the degree of S.T.I), from Hobart Col- 
lege in lS!."i. and from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in iSll'.l. He is a member of the Oriental 
Society and the Academy of Political and Social 
Science, lie was married, Aug. 7, 1S94, to Blanche 
Stanley, daughter of Rt. Rev. Nelson Somerville 
Rulison, second bishop of central Pennsylvania, and 
has four children: ( '(instance Rulison, Gurdon Sal- 
tonstall. Blandina Rulison and David Worcester. 

CLARK, Walter Eli, seventh governor of Alaska, 
was born at Ashford, ( 'onn., Jan. 7, 18(19, son of Oren 
Andrusand Emily Jeannette t Jones) Clark. Heat- 
tended the Connecticut normal school, Williston 
Seminary, and Wesleyan University, where he was 
graduated in 1895. In July of that year he became 
a reporter on the Hartford (Conn.) " Post," but later 
joined the Washington (D. C.) "Times "as telegraph 
editor. After a short time as Washington corre- 
spondent for the New York "Commercial Adver- 
tiser," he went, on the Washington staff of the New 
York "Sun," where he remained for twelve years 
(1897-1909). He wasalso Washington correspond- 
ent for the Seattle "Post-Intelligencer" during 
1900-09. In May, 1909, Mr. Clark was nominated 
by Pres. Taft governor of Alaska, to succeed Gov. 
Hoggart, resigned. He is a member of the Chevy 
Chase Club of Washington, D. C. He was married 
in New York June 15, 1898, to Lucy Harrison, 
daughter of Capt. Edward Norvell of Lynchburg, 
Va. 

MACKAY, Clarence Hungerford,capitalist,was 
born in San Francisco, Cal., April 17, 1874, only son 
William and Maria Louise (Hungerford) 
Mackay. His father (q.v.) 
was a "forty-niner" of Cali- 
fornia, and one of the most 
prominent and picturesque 
characters in American bio- 
graphy; his mother was the 
daughter of Col. Daniel C. 
Hungerford of New England 
stock. Young Mackay spent 
most of his early life in 
London and Paris with his 
mother, who had become 
noted as a patron of art 
and literature and for the 
magnificence of her enter- 
tainments. He was educa- 
ted at Vaugirard College, 
Paris, and at Beaumont Col- 
lege, Windsor, England. He 
had been instructed in a line 
of studies that particularly 
fitted him for a business 
career, and upon his return to the United States in 
1894 he entered his father's office in New York city, 
and acquired that practical knowledge of mercantile 
affairs that later enabled him to carry to successful 
fruition the many colossal enterprises projected by 
his father. The energy, foresight and business 
capacity that were so strongly marked in John W. 
Mackay were inherited by the" son, and at the early 
age of twenty-two, when most young men are 
absorbed by social engagements, M.. Mackay 
became president of the Forcite Powder Manu- 
facturing Co., a position he filled for three years. 
In the same year he was elected a director of the 
Postal Telegraph Co., and of the Commercial Cable 



of 




Co., and in less than a year was made vice-president 
of both companies, a position which gave him the 
administrative control of their operation. Among 
the great enterprises established by his father were 
the Commercial Cable Co., in association with 
James Cordon Bennett, and the Postal Telegraph 
Co., an adjunct of the former. Clarence H. Mackay 
had made the- workings of these systems a special 
study, and his energies were directed towards 
extending their scope. In l,X!l'., upon the con- 
clusion of peace between Spain and the I'liiteil 
States and the resumption of business intercourse 
with Cuba, he organized the Connncivial Cable Co. 
of Cuba, and endeavored to obtain the necessary 
permission to lay a cable to that island, but this was 
refused by the secretary of war, Gen. Russell A. 
Alger. The cable was subsequently laid. The con- 
struction of a cable to the Orient has always been 
a great hobby with Mr. Mackay's father, but it was 
left to the son to carry the project to a successful 
conclusion. The laying of this cable, which was 
begun in 1901, required a period of eighteen months 
and during that time Mr. Mackay gave his per- 
sonal attention to every detail, which involved 
an expenditure of over $9,000,000. Mr. Mackay's 
father died in London July 20, 1902, and in the 
following October he was elected president of the 
Mackay telegraph properties, comprising the Com- 
mercial Cable Co., the Postal Telegraph-Cable Co., 
and the Pacific Postal-Telegraph-Cable Co., the 
most prominent of which is the Postal Telegraph- 
Cable Co. Mr. Mackay is also president of the 
Commercial Pacific Cable Co. and the Mackay 
companies; vice-president of the Federal Sugar 
Refining Co. ; director of the American Exchange 
National Bank, the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., 
the Southern Pacific Co., the United States Mortgage 
and Trust Co., and the Long Island Motor Parkway 
Company, ami a trustee of the New York Life 
Insurance Co. In 1907-08 he was treasurer of the 
Lincoln Farm Association, organized for the purpose 
of preserving the Lincoln birthplace farm in Ken- 
tucky as a national park, for which $130,000 were 
subscribed by the American public. Mr. Mackay 
is a member of the Union, Knickerbocker, Lawyers , 
New York Yacht and Metropolitan clubs of New 
York city, of the Meadow Brook and Westchester 
County clubs, and of the Pacific, Union and Bohe- 
mian clubs of San Fransisco. He has been a 
patron of the trotting turf from his boyhood, and 
while in France won many races; his successes, it 
is said, did much to create a demand for light harness 
horses on the continent. Lentil his father's death 
he was the owner of large stables of thoroughbreds 
for many years, and his horses, including Banastar, 
i for which he paid $11,000), Heno, Aceful, Kamera 
and Mexican, have often carried his colors to victory. 
Mr. Mackay was married in New York city, May 17, 
1898, to Katherine Alexandra, daughter of William 
A. Duer, a lawyer of New York city. Mrs. Mackay 
is the descendant of a long line of men of eminence, 
beginning with William Duer, member of the 
provincial congress of New York, of the conti- 
nental congress, anil of the first state conven- 
tion of New York. She is a prominent member 
of New York society, but is as well known for 
her philanthropy and for her active participa- 
tion in public affairs. She has taken an active 
interest in the public school affairs of Roslyn, 
Long Island, and has been a member of the 
school board of the town since 1905. 

ADAMS, Charles Closson, vice-president of the 
Postal Telegraph Co. of New York city, was born at, 
Freeport, Armstrong co., Pa., Aug. 15, 1858, son of 
Alexander Ainsworth and Isabella (Thompson) 
Adams. His father, who was an iron manufacturer, 



86 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



enlisted in the Federal army at the outbreak of the 
civil war, and lost his life in battle. The son was 
educated in the public schools of Pittsburg anil in 
the academy at Sharpsburg, leaving the latter at the 
age of fifteen. In 1874 he entered the telegraph 
field and did work as operator and manager in the 
oil regions for the Western Union and the Atlantic 
and Pacific Telegraph companies. Returning to 
Pittsburg in 1879, he became an operator for the 
Western Union Telegraph Co., but in 1880 gave up 
this position to remove to Fort Wayne, Ind., where 
he worked in the interest of the Associated Press. 
He again removed to New York city to take a posi- 
tion tendered him by the Western Union Telegraph 
Co. His marked executive ability attracted the 
attention of the Mutual Union Telegraph Co., and 
he was called back to Pittsburg to become the 
manager of its office in that city. When, in 1884, 
that company consolidated with a number of others 
Mr. Adams entered the newspaper service, subse- 
quently making his home in New York city. In 
February, 1884, he was appointed manager of the 
Postal Telegraph Co.'s office in Philadelphia, and in 
1886, its superintendent of the third district. His 
force, tact and energy raised the Postal company's 
service to a high state of efficiency, and led to his 
appointment as general superintendent of the 
southern division of the company. Here he re- 
mained from 190:2-04, when he was elected vice- 
president of the Postal Telegraph Co. and removed 
to New York city. Mr. Adams was appointed com- 
missioner for the Valley Forge (Pa.) reservation by 
Gov. Stone. He is a member of the Lotos Club of 
New York city, of the Fellowship and Five O'clock 
clubs of Philadelphia, and of the Huntington Valley 
Country Club of Philadelphia. He was married in 
Philadelphia, Feb. 15, 1896, 
daughter of Maurice F. Spillin. 
dren: Grace E., Alexandria A. 
Kathcrine Virginia. 

FISHER, Irving, economist and educator, was 
born at Saugerties, N. Y., Feb. 27, 1867, son of Rev. 
George Whitctirld and Elmira 
(Wescott) Fisher, grandson of 
John and Elmira (King) Fisher, 
great-grandson of Zachariah 
and Delight (Norton) Fisher, 
and great-great-grandson of 
William Fisher, a soldier in the 
revolutionary war. His father 
was a Congregational clergy- 
man, who shortly after his 
son's birth removed to Peace- 
dale, R, I., where young Irving 
received his early education. 
He was prepared for college at 
the Hillhouse high school. New 
Haven, Conn., and at Smith 
Academy, St. Louis, Mo. ; was 
graduated at Yale University in 
1888, and received his Ph.D. 
degree there in 1891. He was 
then appointed tutor in mathe- 
matics at Yale, and in 1893 
became assistant professor of mathematics. Dur- 
ing 1893-94 he studied in Paris and Berlin, and 
on his return to America resumed his work as as- 
sistant professor of mathematics at Yale. A year 
later, in 1895, he was made assistant professor of 
political economy, becoming full professor in 1S9S. 
At this period Prof. Fisher's health became impaired 
and In' p in1 the years 1898-1901 in Colorado and 
California. There is probably no man in America 
who has contributed more toward the solution of 
debatable ((iicstions in economic- and the mechan- 
ism of financial exchange than Prof. Fishsr. His 



to Elizabeth K., 
He has four chil- 
Charles C., Jr., and 




thesis for his Ph.D. degree was entitled ' Mathemat- 
ical Investigations in the Theory of Value and 
Prices," which was at once widely recognized by 
specialists. Prof. Edgeworth of Oxford in 1893 in 
the "Economic Journal" said: "Without forecast- 
ing a future so remote, we may at least predict to 
Dr. Fisher the degree of immortality which belongs 
to one who has deepened the foundations of the 
pure theory of economics." In 1896, in conjunc- 
tion with Prof. A. W. Phillips, he published his 
"Elements of Geometry," which enjoys a wide cir- 
culation in scholastic circles, and in 1900 was trans- 
lated into Japanese; and in 1897 he published "A 
Brief Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus," 
which has been translated into German and Italian. 
In 1906 appeared his first important work in book 
form, "The Nature of Capital and Income," which 
Chief Justice Knowlton of Massachusetts character- 
izes as "a great book, analytical, logical, and philo- 
sophical in a high degree." The author bridges the 
gap between political economy and the theory of 
bookkeeping, and deals with fundamental concepts 
of wealth, capital, and income. The book puts into 
convincing form some of the most disputed con- 
ceptions, and it ranks among the memorable con- 
tributions made by Americans to economic study. 
This was followed by "The Rate of Interest: Its 
Nature, Determination and Relation to Economic 
Phenomena'' (1907), the latest and most scientific 
discussion of the subject of interest in any language. 
Being for three years a victim of incipient tuber- 
culosis, which was conquered by scientific, practical 
treatment, Prof. Fisher has devoted much time to 
the study of the statistics and history of tuber- 
culosis, as well as of death rates in general and the 
means of reducing mortality through preventive 
medicine and practical hygiene. He is the inventor 
of two tents, the forms of which make outdoor living 
possible in almost all weathers, and one of which won 
first prize from the "New York Medical Journal;" 
he has published numerous articles on tubercu- 
losis in the United States and its reduction, and 
has conducted exhaustive experiments in diet 
and endurance tests at Yale University which have 
demonstrated that "low protein" conduces to en- 
durance. He is a member of Roosevelt's conservation . 
commission, and wrote a report on "National 
Vitality, Its Wastes and Conservation," published 
in 1909, of which Dr. Norman Ditman of Columbia 
University said: "It is the greatest medical step of 
the century." Prof. Fisher had devised a mechan- 
ical diet indicator for saving time in computing food 
constituents and in a different field invented an 
overlapping card index, now being introduced by 
the Library Bureau. In his researches pertaining 
to human longevity, some of the conclusions he 
advances are that "the average American lifetime 
i- shorter than that of other foremost nations, and 
that it could be lengthened fully a third ; that half 
this improvement could be effected simply by purer 
air, purer water and purer milk, and that the possi- 
ble gain from reducing mortality among infants 
and young children would be especially great. He 
estimates that the money saving to the nation as a 
result of such decrease of mortality and sickness 
would be more than 81,500,000,000 per annum, and 
that the contributory remedies include a competent 
national department of health. He is president, of 
the committee of one hundred on national health, 
of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. Prof. Fisher has written many techni- 
cal articles for the leading periodical publications of 
America and Europe, and has contributed papers on 
economics and other subjects to the learned socie- 
ties of both continents. The most important of 
these arc: "Couriiot and Mathematical Eco- 
nomics" (.isiixi; "MortalityStatisticsof the United 



OF AMKKICAN BIiMiKAl'in '. 



States Census" (1899); 



The Modern Crusade 
Gold Product ion 



against Consumption" (1903) ; "Gold Production 
and the Rate of Interest" il905>; "A New Method 

of Indii-ating Food Values" (1906) ;" Economics as 
a Science " I'.illii : " Statistics of Diet in Sanatoria 
for Consumptives" il'.KII'O; "Why Has the Doc- 
trine of Laissey, Fain- Been Al landoncd'.' " >l'."17i; 
The Influence of Flesh Eating on Endurance " 



National Education Association in 1908. Hi- was 
married in 1x71, to Lettie, daughter of Lee Brown 
nl' K l^c'rtoTi. Wis., and has two children. 




port on National Vitality. Its Wa.-tes and Con- 
senation" I'.ioii); "The Costs of Tuberculosis in 
the I'nited Slates and Their Reduction" (I'll)'.)'; 
"What the Health Movement Means" (l'.)O'.l), and 
"\\ai- upon the Great White Plague" (1909). He 
is a member of the American Economic Association, 
of the Royal Economic Association, a fellow of the 
Koval Statistical Society, a fellow of the American 
A-siiciation for the Advancement of Science; also a 
member of the American Mathematical Society, the 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, the 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, 
the American Statistical Association, the Washing- 
ton Academy of Science, the New York Reform 
Club the New England Free Trade League, the 
International Free Trade League, honorary member 
of the Cobdcn Club, and is vice-president of tin- 
British Food Reform Association. He was mar- 
ried June 21, 1X1C5, at Pcacedale, R. I., to Margaret, 
daughter of Hon. Rowland Hazard of Peacedale, 
R I., and has three children: Margaret, Caroline, 
and Irving Norton Fisher. 

HARVEY, Lorenzo Dow, educator, was born in 
New Hampshire, Nov. 23, 1848, son of John S. and 
Mary (Sanborn ) Harvey. His father was a merchant 
and farmer who purchase;! a farm in Rock county, 
Wis., in 1X50, and there the son was reared and at- 
tended the district schools. He completed a col- 
lege course at Milton College, Wis., having taught 
four winters in district schools to assist in paying his 
college expenses, and was graduated in 1872. After 
leaving college he had a varied experience in the 
educational field covering work in private schools, 
ungraded village schools, high schools and normal 
schools and as a member of the board of education in 
Sheboygan and Oshkosh, Wis. While a member of 
the board of education in Sheboygan he was also 
city superintendent of public schools. In the normal 
school work he was teacher of political economy and 
civics in the Oshkosh normal school, 1885-92, and 
for the following six years was president of the Mil- 
waukee normal school. In 1890 he was president 
of the Wisconsin Teachers Association and for ten 
years was chairman of the legislative committee 
of that association. In 1897 he was made vice- 
president of the National Educational Association 
ami president of the library department of that 
association, t'o which office he was reflected in 1898. 
He was elected state superintendent in 1898, and 
was. reflected in 1900. He was superintendent of 
the Stout training schools at Menomonie, Wis., in 
1903-08 and since 1908 has been president of 
Stout Institute. He is the author of "Harvey's 
Practical Arithmetic" (1909), and devised a venti- 
lating apparatvis for schoolrooms and an appliance 
to assist the pupil in learning penmanship. Mr. 
Harvey considers education not only a means to 
sustain personal independence, but he regards the 
getting of an education as a citizen's duty toward 
the state. On the other hand, it is the duty of the 
state to provide for the education of every child 
within its borders. To this end the child-labor and 
truancy laws should be so harmonized that the edu- 
cation of the child, not its labor, is made the chief 
concern. Mr. Harvey was elected president of the 




irt 

M? 
f fZ*ws~ 




ELLIOTT, Maxine, actress, was born in Rock- 
land, Me.. Feb. 5. 1X7:5, daughter of Thomas and 
Adelaide i Hall) Dermott, a sea captain of that city, 
and of early New England ancestry. Her early 
e lucation was received at tin- Notre Dame academy, 
of Roxbury, Mass., and after being graduated she 
went on a long voyage with her father to South 
America and Spain. Having manifested a pro- 

noui d inclination toward a 

theatrical career she went to 
New York upon her return to 
America, anil, although but 
sixteen years of age, began the 
study necessary for the adop- 
tion of the stage as a profes- 
sion. Her name of Jessie 1 )er- 
mott was changed to Maxine 
Elliott at the suggestion of 
Dion Boucicault, at that time 
her tutor in the dramatic art. 
Miss Elliott's first appearance 
on the stage was with E. S. 
Willard, the English actor, in 
his first visit to this country 
in 1890 under A. M. Palmers 
management. During this first 
season she was given minor 
roles in "The Middleman" and 
"John Needham's Double," 
but during the following year 
she played the parts of Beatrice 
Selwyn in "A Fool's Paradise" and Lady Gild- 
ing in "The Professor's Love Story. Her 
talent was soon recognized, and in the spring of 
1893 she played the original Violet Woodman in 
"The Prodigal's Daughter." This was followed l>v 
a brief engagement in "The Voyage of Suzette, 
after which she was engaged by Rose Coghlan as 
leading lady and played in her repertoire as Dora in 
"Diplomacy," Alice Verney in "Forget Me Not," 
and Grace Harkaway in "London Assurance." In 
1895 she became a member of Augustin Daly's com- 
pany. Under the severe tutelage and careful direc- 
tion of this master of stage craft her dramatic power 
and artistic skill were fully developed, and she was 
thereafter to be ranked among the foremost actresses 
of the American stage. While with Mr. Daly she 
played Sylvia in "Two Gentlemen of Verona," 
Hermia in "A Midsummer Night's Dream," and 
Olivia in "Twelfth Night," and was given the same 
parts when the plays were produced in London. 
Miss Elliott severed her connection with the Daly 
company in 1897, and was playing a summer season 
as leading lady of the Frawley stock company in 
San Francisco, when Nat Goodwin, who was also 
playing in that city, induced her to join his com- 
pany. She was married to Mr. Goodwin, Feb. 20, 
1898, and shortly afterward became a co-star with 
her husband in a series of plays produced by them 
in both England and America. After touring in 
Australia she created the part of Alice Adams in the 
play of "Nathan Hale," which Mr. Goodwin had 
secured from Clyde Fitch, and her interpretation of 
this character received the highest commendation 
and added greatly to her reputation as an accom- 
plished actress. She also played the heroine in "An 
American Citizen," "The Cowboy and the Lady," 
and" When We W r cre Twenty-one, " appearing in the 
last in London in 1899. In course of time it became 
increasingly difficult to find plays which gave equal 
opportunities to both Miss Elliott and Mr. Goodwin, 
and it was decided that they should star separately. 
Her first venture as an independent attraction was 



88 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 



in 1903, when she appeared as a star in " Her Own 
Way," a new play by Clyde Fitch. In this she was 
instantly successful, the general verdict being that 
the stage h:ul gained a new and brilliant star. When 
she played the part in London in 1905, King Edward, 
who occupied the royal box. led the applause through- 
out the evening, and, at the end of the play, re- 
quested an interview with Miss Elliott, whom he 
highly complimented. This was followed by "Her 
( ireat Match' 1 in 1905, which she presented for two 
years to the largest houses of her career ; but " Under 
the Greenwood Tree'' produced in 1907, and "My- 
self Bettina " in 1908, were comparative failures, al- 
though both plays aided to enhance her reputation 
as an actress. Any play in which Maxine Elliott 
appears becomes by virtue of her presence a picture 
play, not that she falls into calculated poses, but her 
beauty is such, and she is so unobtrusively skillful in 
the enhancing of it, that it makes pictures of itself 
and gives uncommon pleasure. Since 1908 she has 
been the owner and manager of the only theatre in 
America built and conducted by a woman since the 
days of Laura Keene Maxine Elliott's Theatre, 
built in New York in 1908. It is of unusual architec- 
tural beauty, the interior decorations being among 
the most artistic in America. Every i let ail of its con- 
struction was superintended by Miss Elliott, and the 
opening attraction was her own performance of a 
new play, "Chaperon." This was followed by 
" Deborah of Tod's," the title part of which afforded 
an opportunity for the display of her well-known 
histrionic ability, and at the same time made a fitting 
frame for her exquisite beauty. Few plays were 
more splendidly or artistically mounted, and Miss 
Elliott herself directed every detail of its production. 
During the season of 1909-10 she appeared in a suc- 
cessful comedy by Frank Stayton, entitled "The 
Inferior Sex." She was married, Feb. 20, 1898, to 
Nat C. Goodwin, the actor, from whom she was di- 
vorced in 1908. 

BEATTY, John Wesley, art director, was 
born in Pittsburg. Pa., July 8, 1851, son of Richard 
and Elizabeth (Wilson) Beany. His father came 
to America from Scotland in 1S2JS, and settled 
in Pittsburg. He early developed a talent for draw- 
ing and received some primary training at home. 
He also studied engraving on copper and wood. 
In 1876 he went to Munich and continued his studies 
with such purpose that he was elected to member- 
ship in the National Academy of Bavaria. Upon 
his return to America he opened a studio in his 
native city. In 1887 he became principal of the 
Pittsburg Art School and held the position for eight 
years, during which he was inMruniental in bringing 
the collection of Russian paintings by Verestchagin 
to Pittsburg. In 1893 he was a member of the world's 




Columbian exposition jury. Tn 1805 he was invited 
by the trustees of the Carnegie library to assemblea 
loan collection of paintings to be exhibited on the 
occasion of the dedication of the Carnegie library 
building, and in 1890 he was appointed a life member 
of the board of trustees of the Carnegie Institute of 



Pittsburg. Almost immediately after this appoint- 
ment the trustees elected him director of the depart- 
ment of fine arts of the Carnegie Institute of Pitts- 
burg, which has one of the largest endowment funds 
America for the advancement of art and science. 
His official duties have prevented his being very 
active with the brush, but he has painted several 
canvasses of farm life, among them, "Return to 
Labor." which he etched himself and the plate 
"Plowing the Orchard," "The Potato Field," 
"The Clearing" and "The Plowman." Mr. Beatty 
belongs to a triumvirate who are pioneers in the 
management of art museums the other two being 
W. M. R. French, director of the Chicago Institute, 
and Halsey C. Ives, director of the St. Louis City Art 
Museum. These directors have had to make their 
own clientele, it might almost be said, as they went 
along. There was really no demand for the art 
museums that they built up. They created what 
was best for the people, not what the people wanted. 
Their success has been phenomenal ; the institutions 
over which they preside having developed almost 
entirely within a decade, the Carnegie Institute 
being the youngest of the three. In 1896 when the 
cornerstone for the Carnegie library building was 
laid, nothing definite was decided about an art 
department. In July. 1905, Mr. Beatty went 
to Scotland to consult with Mr. Carnegie and a pros- 
pectus was drawn up for the purchase of a rare 
collection of casts. He made a number of important 
purchases including the entire facade of the Church 
of St. Giles in France, cast in plaster (the largest 
plaster cast in existence), and many reproductions 
in plaster of the sculptural treasures of the Troca- 
dero and other museums. In 1896 the trustees dedi- 
cated an annual income of $50,000 (which was in- 
ereas-d by Mr. Carnegie in 1901 to $100,000) in 
perpetuity for the purchase of objects of art for a 
department of fine arts, and with this appropriation 
Mr. Beatty has been able to organize an art depart- 
ment, the principal feature of which is an annual 
exhibition and a series of awards that is truly 
international. The jury consists of leading artists 
of London, Paris, Munich, The Hague and America, 
MI that every artist feels that to-be accepted 
at Carnegie Institute, or to receive a medal there, 
is a greater honor than to exhibit or receive medals 
elsewhere in America, and artists abroad are be- 
ginning to estimate the exhibitions as next in im- 
portance to the Paris salon. Mr. Beatty visits 
Europe almost every year in order to keep in touch 
with what is being done in the art circles on the 
other side. While the major part of his execu- 
tive duties have to do with the organization of 
exhibitions, there being no regular art school con- 
nected with the institute, he has not been blind to 
the possibilities in assisting the public to an appre- 
ciation of the art works exhibited. Just as Mr. 
French in Chicago has arranged for normal instruc- 
tion for the public school teachers, so Mr. Beatty 
has arranged for the training of the school children 
of Pittsburg. On certain days hi the week they 
visit the galleries and make a study of the paintings 
and sculpture which is recognized by the school 
authorities as part of the regular school curriculum. 
Such educational methods guarantee that the coming 
citizens of Pittsburg are sure to show an art culture 
that previous generations have lacked 

MITCHELL, Samuel Chiles, fifteenth president 
of the University of South Carolina, was born at 
Coffeeville, Miss., Her. 21. IMil, son of Morris Ran- 
dolph and Grace Anne i( 'hilesi .Mitchell, and grand- 
son of Benjamin R. and Mary P. (Arnold) Mitchell, 
of Scotch-Irish descent, lie attended the public 
schools, and was graduated at Georgetown College, 
Kentucky, with the degree of M.A. in 1888. During 






OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY 



1891-92 he attended the University of Virginia, and 
in 1899 received the degree of Ph.D. from the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. Soon after graduating he be- 
came professor of history ami Greek in Mississippi 
College; but in 1891 resigned to take the professor- 
ship of Latin in Georgetown College, which he held 
until 1895. During 1895-1 90S he occupied the 
chair of history in Richmond College", anil during 
1908-09 was lecturer on history in Brown University. 
In 1908 Prof. Mitchell accepted the presidency of the 
University of South Carolina. This institution was 
founded in 1S01 and had a successful course up to 
the time of the civil war. After that it had a some- 
what checkered career, owing to the social ami 
political readjustments that took place in South 
Carolina, but to-day it is thriving with more vigor 
than ever before; new buildings are being built, a 
young and aggressive faculty is at work, and it has 
the largest number of students in its history. It is 
the purpose of Pres. Mitchell "for this ancient col- 
lege, rich in tradition, to be related anew vitally to 
the national life and to be responsive to the larger 
movement* in the modern world;" and he is well 
lilted to carry his ideas into practice. As a teacher 
he is stimulating and suggestive, vitalizing the dry 
facts, seizing upon the salient features of an age or 
biography ami re-creating them for his students. 
His generalizations are brilliant, showing keen in- 
sight into character and tendencies. There is, more- 
over, a strong ethical element in his teaching which 
serves to energize his students toward purposeful 
lives; and through his stirring appeals many young 
men of the South enter every year into larger public 
service. To the country at large Pres. Mitchell Ls 
best known as a writer and speaker on topics con- 
nected with the present educational renaissance in 
the South. As an active member of the southern 
education board and as a vigorous leader in educa- 
tional conferences, both state and general, he is 
doing a work of vast import. He was associate 
editor of the " Religious Herald," Richmond, during 
1900-08; president of the Anti-Saloon League of 
Virginia in 1901-03, and was rector of Virginia 
Normal anil Industrial Institution, 1904-06. He 
was a trustee of the Virginia Union University, 
Richmond Woman's College and a member of the 
Virginia Historical Society and the American His- 
torical Association. He is the editor of a volume 
on "Social Life" in the series entitled "The South 
in the Building of the Nation," and a contributor 
to magazines and the "Encyclopedia Americana." 
In 1904 Hampden-Sidney College conferred upon 
him the LL.D. degree, and in 1905 Furman Univ- 
ersity the degree of D.D. He was married in 
Louisville, Ky., June 30, 1891, to Alice Virginia, 
daughter of John A. Broadus, and has five chil- 
dren: John Broadus, Morris Randolph, William 
Terry, Mary Adams, and George Sinclair Mitchell. 

KNEISEL, Franz, violinist, was born in Bucha- 
rest, Roumania, Jan. 20, 1865, son of Martin and 
Victoria (Lukas) Kneisel. His father was a musical 
director, and the son's education was conducted 
from the beginning with a view to a musical career. 
He studied the violin under Griin and Helmes- 
berger at the conservatory of music at Vienna, 
and was graduated at the Vienna Conservatory in 
1SS2. At his first public appearance on Dec. 31, 
1-SX'J, he played Joachim's violin concerto with the 
Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, with such success 
that he was at once engaged as solo violinist in the 
orchestra of the Royal Court Theatre. Shortly 
afterward he became concertmaster of the famous 
Bilse Orchestra, of Berlin, and in 1885 he was ap- 
pointed to the same position in the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra, since which he has been identified 
with American music. His appearance in Boston 




was of a nature to embarrass a more seasoned arii-t, 
for not only did his boyishness suggest less than his 
twenty years, but there was some ill feeling because 
he displaced the venerable Bernhard LLstemann, who 
had l>een Boston's favorite violinist and leading 
musician for more than a generation. The young 
man chose the Beethoven concerto for his dfibut and 
immediately disarmed prejudice by the clarity and 
correctness of his tone and a display of that fine, 
impeccable taste that has since been the distinguish- 
ing characteristic of all his work. The Brahms and 
( loldmark violin concertos were played for the first 
time in America by him with the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra in all the principal cities. He held the 
position of concertmaster of 
the Boston Symphony Orches- 
tra for eighteen years, resign- 
ing in 1903 in order to devote 
the greater part of his time 
to the Kneisel Quartette, in 
connection with which his 
name is best known to the 
public. Inasmuch as this or- 
ganization Ls universally re- 
garded as one of the three 
best string quartettes in the 
world (by some the best), 
and indubitably the one that 
holds the most exalted place 
in America, a brief summary 
of its career is given. The 
quartette was organized at 
the suggestion of Henry L. 
Higginson, founder of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
soon after Mr. Kneisel's arrival in America, and it 
gave its first concert in the latter part of 1885. Mr. 
Kneisel, of course, has always been the first violin. 
During the first season the other members were: 
Emanuel Fiedler, second violin ; Louis Svecenski, 
viola ; and Fritz Giese, violoncello. For four sea- 
sons thereafter Otto Roth was second violin, the 
other original members remaining, ami then for 
three seasons Anton Hekking was the violoncellist 
without changes in the higher parts. Alwin 
Schroeder became the violoncellist in 1891 and no 
other change occurred for nine seasons, after which 
Karl Ondricek was second violin for one season, and 
Julius Thcodorowicz for five. Since the beginning 
of the season of 1907 Julius Roentgen has been 
second violin, and Willem Willeke violoncellist. Mr. 
Svecenski, therefore, has been interruptedly Mr. 
Kneisel's associate on the viola from the inception 
of the organization. The quartette gives a series of 
concerts every year in the principal cites of Amer- 
ica, and in the course of its existence has played in 
most of the large cities of Great Britain as well. The 
exquisite refinement of the performances, the per- 
fection of ensemble, the delicacy of expression, and 
all the qualities requisite for the proper interpreta- 
tion of chamber music have never been excelled, and 
Mr. Kneisel will be accorded a high place among the 
world's great musicians for the success he has 
achieved in this field. Mr. Kneisel also has a 
reputation as a conductor. He conducted the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra on one of its western 
tours and in a series of concerts at the world's fair 
in Chicago. For eleven years he was concert- 
master and associate conductor at the Worcester 
(Mass.) musical festivals, and in 1897 he was ap- 
pointed conductor of the orchestra of the festivals, a 
position he held until his resignation in 1909. He 
resigned from the Boston Symphony in 1903 in order 
to concentrate his attention on his quartette, and 
for the same reason he declined the conductorship 
of the Philadelphia Orchestra, which was offered to 
him in 1907. The orchestral performances under his 



90 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



direction were marked by much the same exquisite 
finish that characterizes the playing of the quartette, 
a quality that cannot be attained without the most 
exacting demands upon the players. In 1905 Mr. 
Kneisel became head of the stringed instrument 
department of the Institute of Musical Art, New 
York'city, which position he still holds (1910). He 
edited the "Kneisel Collection" (1900) for violin 
and pianoforte, in three volumes, and is the author 
of "Advanced Studies for the Violin'' (1910). He 
is a member of the St. Botolph and Harvard Musical 
clubs of Boston, vice-president of the Bohemia club, 
New York, and honorary member of many of the 
famous musical societies of Europe. In 1907 he was 
appointed a member of the jury of the violin eon- 
cours of the Paris Conservatoire National de Musique 
et de Declamation, an honor rarely conferred upon 
foreigners. Mr. Kneisel's violin is a Stradivarius of 
1714, formerly the property of Prof. Grim, and is 
almost priceless in value. He was married in 
Boston, Mass., in 1885, to Marianne Thoma, and 
has four children, Victoria, Marianne, Franz and 
Fritz Kneisel. 

FOX, John [William], Jr., author, was born 
at Stony Point, Bourbon co., Ky., Dec. 16, 1863, 
son of John W. and Minerva (Carr) Fox. The first 
fourteen years of his life were spent in the fa- 
mous bluegrass region of Kentucky, where he rode 
horseback and received his education exclusively 
at the hands of his father, who was a very 
scholarly man of profound intellect. It is related 
of the latter that in his eight it-th year, he at- 
tended an old-fashioned spelling bee in Virginia, 
composed of a large number of young school teachers 
and modern professors, and at the end of a contest 
lasting three hours, "spelled down" everyone 
present. At fifteen years of age John Fox, Jr., 
entered Kentucky University and went from there 
to Harvard University, where he was graduated in 
1883. He was one of the leading actors in the 
Harvard Dramatic Society and during a tour of the 
New England cities with ihat society, made a 
decided hit in a woman's part that of "Madame 
Perrichon." Lacking the necessary funds to 
take him home he now became general reporter 
on the New York "Sun" in the summer and 
entered Columbia Law School in the fall. Soon 
after he entered the service 
of the "New York Times," 
but the steady grind and 
confinement of his journal- 
istic work and the cage-like 
life of a great city, to one reared 
in the outdoor freedom of cen- 
tral Kentucky, impaired his 
hi'althand he left New York in 
1885 for the Cumberland moun- 
tains in southeast Kentucky. 
While wandering about that 
picturesque and inspiring sec- 
tion, and dabbling in mining 
and timber lands, he began a 
novel, "A Cumberland Ven- 
detta," based upon one of 
the real mountain feuds of 
that section. The book was 
a success and very soon led 
to others, all of which enjoyed a wide circula- 
tion. "Europa" had preceded it as a magazine 
serial and was also a success. When Theodore 
Roosevelt organized the Rough Riders for the 
Spanish-American war, Mr. Fox was on his way to 
join them as a private, but was persuaded to become 
war correspondent for "Harper's Monthly." His 
accounts of the war made interesting reading, and 
he also won laurels as field correspondent for 
"Srribner's Magazine" during the Russo-Japanese 




war. His books include "A Knight of the Cumber- 
land "(1895), "A Mountain Europa" (1897), "The 
Kentuckians" (1897), "Hell for Sartin and Other 
Stones" (1899), "A Cumberland Vendetta" (1900), 
"C'rittenden, A Kentucky Story of Love and War" 
(1900), "Bluegrass and Rhododendron" (1901), 
"The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come" (1903), 
"Christmas Eve on Lonesome and Other Stories" 
(1904), " Following the Sun-flag " (1905), and "The 
Trail of the Lonesome Pine " (1908). Besides these he 
has written many delightful stories of outdoor life for 
various current periodicals. His best work, ac- 
cording to popular judgment, is his " Little Shepherd 
of Kingdom Come," which describes the scenes and 
people of his youthful days. Since 1903 he has fre- 
quently appeared on the lecture platform and as a 
reciter of his own writings. Being a gifted ama- 
teur actor and a splendid reader, these interpre- 
tations of his own characters are very popular and 
entertaining. His home is at Big Stone Gap, in 
Wise co., Va., near the Kentucky border, on the 
Powell river, between the Cumberland mountains 
and the Dividing Ridge ranges, wild and pic- 
turesque, which parallel each other very close 
together. When, with about two dozen other 
college-bred men, he settled at "The Gap" to 
engage in timber and mining speculation, he found 
the locality terrorized by feudists. Law and order 
were unknown. He took part in organizing a vigi- 
lance committee, armed with Winchester rifles, which 
patrolled the town and effectually suppressed the 
disorderly element. These incidents form a part 
of his storv, "The Trail of the Lonesome Pine." 
Although the "Outlook" declares that "The Gap" 
is a place where no sane man would live, it turned 
Mr. Fox to romancing and gave to literature the 
best interpreter of the dialects and character of the 
Kentucky and Cumberland mountaineers that it 
ever had. Mr. Fox was married, Dec. 13, 1908, to 
Madame Fritzi Scheff, a noted grand and comic 
opera singer, a native of Vienna, whose mother, 
Frau Anna Jager, was a prima donna in the Imperial 
Opera House of Vienna, and whose father, Dr. 
Gottfried Scheff, was a noted Austrian physician 
and surgeon. 

LINCOLN, Joseph Crosby, author, was born 
at Brewster, Mass., Feb. 13, 1870, son of Joseph 
and Emily (Crosby) Lincoln. His father was a ship 
captain who died while on a voyage to Charleston, 
S. C., in December of the year the son was born. 
He attended the village schools of Brewster and 
Chrlsea, Mass., until he was twelve years of age, 
when his mother removed to a suburb of Boston 
that he might complete his education in the schools 
of that city. On leaving school he tried eommerical 
life, but after a short experience as a clerk in busi- 
ness and banking houses, he discovered that such 
work was not congenial to his tastes, and abandoned 
it to study art, for which he had some native talent. 
He entered the class of Henry Sandham, the well- 
known illustrator, and then opened a small studio 
with a fellow artist in Pemberton Square, Boston. 
Finding their pictures difficult to sell, Mr. Lincoln 
began to write verse and humorous sketches, in 
order to meet expenses, and these literary effusions 
selling more readily than the pictures, their author 
gradually slipped away from art into literature. 
In is'.lli he became associate edit or of the "Bulletin," 
the official publication of the Leagvie of American 
Wheelmen. To it he contributed a poem and a 
humorous sketch each week. His work was wi.lely 
quoted, and soon attracted the attention of the 
magazine editors, who solicited contributions. To 
supply their demands, he moved to New York, 
where he gave his entire attention to literary work. 
In 1902 he published a collection of his vrrsrs under 
the title of "Cape Cod Ballads." His first novel, 






OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



91 



M'ap'n Eri," appeared in 1904, and the old sea-dog 
wiio was its hiTu, immediately became, to use the 
phrase of the New York "Sun," "everybody's 
friend." The book passed through many editions 
in lliis i-oiinlry, and was widely read and highly 
praised in Great Britain, Canada and Australia. 
The original of the hero, a fisherman-philosopher of 
the New England eoast, has l>een identified as ( 'api 
Mayo, ol ' ( 'ha I ha in, Mass., and the rescue in which he 
18 described as taking ihe leading part is one' of the 
noted deeds of heroism in the life-saving service. 
Mr. Lincoln's next sea -story, " Partners of the Tide" 
(Hit).")), contained more act ion, and less " long-shore" 
philosophy than did "Cap'n Eri." It is a capital 
boy's book, being the narrative of a partnership 
between the captain of a coasting schooner and an 
orphaned lad. 'The youthful hero refuses to wreck 
the old vessel at the orders of the owners, and he and 
the captain then engage in the work of salving 
stranded craft and their cargoes, a hard, laborious 
business at which they greatly prosper. It is a 
refreshing story with the salt breath of the sea 
blowing through it, and it contains that quality of 
realism which makes Mr. Lincoln's seaside romances 
so convincing, following this he wrote "Mr. 
Pratt" (1900), "The Old Home House" (1907), "Cy 
Whittaker's Place" (190S), "Our Village" (1909], 
an.l " Keziah Coffin" (1909). Mr. Lincoln was 
married May 12, IS97, to Florence E., daughter of 
Charles Sargent of Chelsea, Mass. They have one 
son. 

LORIMER, William, manufacturer and U. S. 
senator, was born in Manchester, England, Apr. 27, 
1801, son of William and Sarah (Harley) Loriiner. 
He came to America with his parents at the age of 
five years, the family first settling in Detroit, Mich., 
but after a short stay there going to Port Sanilac 
and Bay City, Mich. From thence, in 1809, they 
settled upon a farm in Holmes county, O., and 
finally, in 1870, made a permanent residence in 
Chicago. In 1872 his father's death left him, a boy 
of tender years, to fight his own way in the world. 
His experiences in the lower social strata, while 
supporting the family as a bootblack and newsboy, 
have the savor of romance. At the age of fifteen he 
became apprenticed to a sign painter, next he en- 
gaged in the packing business, and during his em- 
ployment by the Wilson Co., he familiarized himself 
with every department of the industry. Subse- 
quently, while employed by Armour & Co. his 
health failed, and he became a street railway con- 
ductor. While thus employed his ardent champion- 
ship of James G. Blaine in 1884 marked the beginning 
of his political career, and the latter's defeat stimu- 
lated this activity in local political organization, 
which brought him prominence and political influ- 
ence. His occupation once more changed to that 
of a house-painter, but in 1880 a favorable oppor- 
tunity induced him to engage in the real estate 
business, which subsequently brought him large 
Teturns. Two years later he formed a partnership 
with William J. Murphy, under the name of Murphy 
& Lorimer, which firm is still conducting a building 
anil brick-manufacturing business. Meanwhile Mr. 
Lorimer became one of Chicago's political organ- 
izers of the first magnitude. He had been elected 
a member of the Republican central committee and 
later was appointed superintendent of the main 
water extension under Mayor Roche and superin- 
tendent of Chicago's water department under Mayor 
Washburn. In the election of 1892 Mr. Lorimer 
was the nominee of the Republican party for clerk 
of the supreme court, but was defeated, and during 
the same year was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention. In 1895 he was elected to the 
54th congress and served by reelection in the 55th, 
56th, 58th, 59th and GOth congresses. In 1909 he 



was elected as successor to Albert J. Hopkins, who 
was his opponent, to the U. S. senate, his election 
being effected through a coalition of the Democratic 
members of the legislature and the anti-Hopkins 
Republicans. Both as a business man and a states- 
man, Sen. Lorimer is a forliinale conibinati if 

present day business political needs mental quick- 
ness lo grasp a fact or a situation, and executive 
forcefulness to organize his available forces to make 
such situations business or political factors. He 
is president of the Lorimer & (lallagher Co., the 
Murphy-Lorimer Brick Co., and the Federal Im- 
provement Co. of Chicago. He was married in 
Chicago, in l.xsl, to Susan Mooney, and has eight 
children: William, Leonard, Ethel, Loretta, Lo- 
raine, Margery, Helen and Lenore Lorimer. 

COMER, Braxton Bragg, thirtieth governor of 

Alabama (1907 ), was born at Spring Hill, Bar- 

bour co., Ala., Nov. 7, 184S,. son 
of John Fletcher and Catherine 
(Drewry) Comer, who moved 
to that state from Jones county, 
Georgia. He is of Scotch-Irish 
descent. He received his edu- 
cation at the University of 
Alabama, at the University of 
Georgia, and at Emory and Hen- 
ry College, Va., where he was 
graduated in 1869. In l.s.s/i 
he removed to Anniston, Ala., 
and for five years was a member 
of the firm of Trapp & Comer, *" 
wholesale merchants. Settling \V 
permanently in Birmingham, V 
Ala., he was made president- of 
the City National Bank in 1885, 
but three years later gave up 
banking to accept the presiden- 
cy of the Avondalc Mills and 
Central Cotton Mills, the latter 
located at Sylacauga. Mr. Corner's business career 
has been varied and like his political experience has 
produced results which justify the man. A quick 
thinker, he is decisive in carrying into action the 
opinions he thinks correct, and on this point rests 
his success in the commercial world as well as in 
politics. His political career is as intricate as it is 
interesting. It is the story of the honest business 
man suddenly awakened to the duties of civic 
righteousness, and the herculean struggle against 
political corruption which follows such an awaken- 
ing. Single-handed, Mr. Comer forced his principles 
before the citizens of Alabama until in 1906 he was 
put into a position to make a contest for the 
governorship. The "white man's primary" is the 
real election in the Gulf states, and before this 
went Comer, now known and feared, for his last 
struggle with the machine. With the assurance of 
a real leader, he told the public that what he wanted 
in the ensuing election was everything. " He would 
trouble them, if they pleased, for the governorship, 
the lieutenant-governorship, the rest of the com- 
mission, and both branches of the legislature." 
Then he could get laws for rate-making, against the 
pass and the lobby, and the like. The state machine 
now discovered that Comer was not a dreamer, and 
selected to oppose him a likely man in Dr. R. M. 
Cunningham, who was a, natural orator, jovial and 
a kind-hearted lieutenant-governor. Dr. Cunning- 
ham challenged Mr. Comer to a joint debate, and 
in this he fared as did the first opponent of Tom L. 
Johnson of Cleveland, in the latter's first campaign 
for mayor. In both cases it was a spell-binder 
against a man who was armed with a bludgeon of 
facts. Dr. Cunningham's tributes to the beauty 
of Alabama's women and the chivalry of her sons 




92 



Till-; NATIONAL CVCLUP.EDIA 



were as fine as the heart could wish, but Comer 
stuck to freight rates; Cunningham cried out in 
polished periods for good roads; "everybody is for 
good roads," replied Comer, "how about the pass 
evil and the lobby?" Cunningham drew tears as 
he spoke for the "old veterans"; Comer replied 
that he was one of them, while Cunningham was 
not; but what about reciprocal demurrage? Then 
Cunningham came over to Comer's platform, and 
demanded more reforms than did Comer. Comer, 
clinging to his man like a bulldog, replied that this 
was unconstitutional nonsense. The result of the 
campaign was that Comer carried sixty of the 
sixty-seven counties of the state and won the 
governorship by 20,000 votes. He took office in 
January, 1907, and his term expires in January, 
1911. Gov. Comer was married Oct. 1, 1872, tu 
Eva, daughter of John and Sarah Harris of C'ufh- 
bert, Ga., both members of foremost families in 
Georgia, and has nine children. 

ACHESON, Edward Goodrich, inventor and 
manufacturer, was born at Washington, IV, 
March 9, 1856, son of William ami Sarah Diana 
(Ruple) Acheson, and grandson of David and Mary 
i \Vilson) Acheson. His grandfather came to this 
country from Glassdrummond, County Armagh, 
Ireland, in 1788 and settled at Washington, Pa., 
where he entered into partnership with his brother 
John, who had preceded him to this country, in 
the furnishing of government supplies for Indians 
and the army; he was a successful business man and 
at the age of twenty-five was elected to the Penn- 
sylvania legislature, to which he was three times 
reflected. One of his sons, Marcus W. Acheson, 
was a circuit judge in the third district of the 
United States Court; another, Alexander Acheson, 
was judge of Washington county, Pa., and a 
third, William Acheson (1818-73), the father of 
Edward G., was a merchant and an iron manu- 
facturer, as well as a man of scientific tastes. 
Edward G. Acheson received his education at the 
Bellcfonte (Pa.) Academy. In 1872 he was taken 
from school anil employed at his father's blast fur- 
nace. When but seventeen years of age, his father's 
death marked the beginning of a 
varied experience, lie joined a 
civil engineer corps on railroad 
construction; was ticket clerk on 
a railroad ; later first assistant 
engineer on another railroad sur- 
vey; was employed measuring 
ami computing the capacity of 
oil tanks in the oil country; then 
as a bookkeeper, following which 
he engaged with his brother in 
mining iron ore. During this 
time, however, his chief interest 
was in electricity and chemis- 
try, and all his spare time and 
money were spent in studying 
and experimenting. Before he 
was eighteen years of age he 
had invented a drilling machine 
to be used in coal mining and 
designed an electric dynamo, 
which subsequently proved to be identical with the 
Siemens apparatus, at that time unknown to him. 
In September, 1880, his ambition led him from 
\M--tern Pennsylvania for his first trip to New York 
city. He soon secured employment with. Thomas \. 
Edison at Menlo Park, X. J., as assistant draftsman. 
His application was rewarded with promotion from 
the drafting room to the original experimental 
department and a closer acquaintance with the 
great "wizard." During the winter following. Mr. 
Edison, who was seeking the best material for a 




filament in his incandescent lamp, set nis young 
assistant at work testing graphite for this purpose. 
The result was several thousand filaments l-40th 
of an inch wide and 1-1, 000th of an inch thick 
one-half the thickness specified by Edison as 
the smallest he had hoped for. Graphite disinte- 
grated too rapidly to be continued in practical 
use as a filament, but his success in forming them 
is significant as Acheson 's first experiment \\ith 
the substance which afterwards played such a 
prominent part in his career. After nearly a year 




CARBORUNDUM FORXACE IN OPERATION. 

there, he was sent abroad as first assistant engineer 
for the E<lison interests at the Electrical Exposition 
in Paris (July, 1881). Before going he had pre- 
pared, under Edison's direction, a complete set of 
instruments for measuring the efficiency of incan- 
descent lamps, consisting of a rheostat, condenser, 
galvanometer, standard cell, resistance coils, Wheat- 
son's bridge and Bunsen photometer. At the close 
of the exposition, Acheson remained with the 
Societ4 Ellison Continentale, the company formed 
at Paris to operate the Edison patents in Europe, 
ami then engaged in the construction of machine 
shops and lamp factory at Ivry-sur-Seine. He 
was frequently sent out to install small lighting 
plants in various countries which were used as 
exhibits in the formation of local companies to 
work the Edison patents. Among these experiences 
were the installation of electric lights in the drawing 
room of the great Scala Theatre in Milan, Italy; 
a plant in a museum in Brussels, Belgium; in the 
Hotel de Ville in Antwerp, Belgium; and in the 
Restaurant Kramopolsky, Amsterdam, Holland, 
each the first in their respective countries. Having 
been offered a better salary by the Italian company 
operating the Edison patents, he entered their em- 
ploy and installed a plant at I/dine, near Venice, one 
in Genoa, one in Pisa, within sight of the leaning 
tower, one in Bergamo, and another one upon the 
side of the Alps above Lake Maggiore. Leaving 
the Italian company early in 1883, he went to 
Paris and engaged in experimental work on his 
own account, endeavoring particularly to convert 
heat into electrical energy, but without securing 
practical results. Sickness and other hardships 
followed at Paris and London after his savings 
were exhausted, but through the assistance of his 
former employer he returned to New York in 
January, 1884. There he reentered the E.lison 
laboratory, which had become a part of the EJison 
Electric Light Company; later he became super- 
intendent of the Consolidated Lamp Company of 
Brooklyn; and afterward* was electrician of the 
Standard Underground (.'able Company of Pitts- 
burg (1886-89). With indefatigable persistence, 
he pursued experimental work on his own account, 
but the only practical results so far had been his 



OF AMERICAN HIOC.RAPHY. 



93 



invention in 1885 of an anti-induction telephone 
wire, the patents for which he subsequently sold 
to George Westinghouse of Pittslmrg. This wire 
was made by coating a rubber-covered wire with 
graphite, then passing it through a copper solution, 
thus plating on it a tube of copper, over which was 
In-aided a layer of cotton, and this was soaked with 
asphaltum and then covered with a lead pipe. 
Thus the central wire ami surrounding insulated 
tulic of copper acted as the two conductors for a 
telephone circuit - After three years of comparative 
prosperity with the e.-ilile company, his ambition for 
further experimental work led to the formation of a 
small syndicate for thai purpose, and the operations 
wen- conducted in an abandoned power house in 
Allegheny City, Pa. Conceiving the idea that an 
electric plant necessary for experiments might be 
self-sustaining, if a part of the electricity could be 
used for commercial purposes, he organized a com- 
pany to furnish electric lighting in Monongahela 
City, where a plant was installed in November, IS'.ld. 
The value of an abrasive material now became 
uppermost in his mind. When making some fur- 
nace experiments in ISSO he had passed a quantity 
of hydrocarbon gas over highly heated clay and 
observed that the clay became impregnated" with 
the car In in, increasing its hardness. Working upon 
this basic idea, with an improvised electric furnace, 
his labors were rewarded in March, 1X91, by the dis- 
covery in minute crystals of the substance commer- 
cially named carborundum, although it is a silii-ide 
of carbon. It is made from a mixture of coke, 
sand and salt fused in an electric furnace at a 
temperature slightly below that of the electric arc, 
and the new substance, when cooled, is found in 
the form of crystals i if great brilliancy ami sharpness, 
besides being the hardest substance known, ex- 
cepting the diamond. He organized the Carborun- 
dum Company, capitalized at SI 50, 000, constructed 
a small plant in Monongahela City, and secured 
a patent for the process Feb. 28, 1893. Although 
superior to either as an abrasive, the expense of 
manufacture prohibited competition with emery or 
corundum. Carborundum could only be used for 
such purposes as could pay a fabulous price for it, 
and the only purpose which met this condition 
seemed to be for the polishing of precious stones. 
Diamond powder then used for that purpose was 
70c. per carat, or over $1500 per pound. Carefully 
grading a quantity of carborundum powder, which 
he put into a homeopathic phial, Acheson went 
to New York to find his first market. Having 
satisfied the jewelers that it would do the work of 
the diamond powder, he obtained an order for a 
small quantity of carborundum powder at 40c. a 
carat. The accumulation of these crystals grew 
with improved methods, increasing the stock until 
the market, which was confined to gem polishers, 
failed to absorb the output and the price was 
reduced one-half, after which valve grinders began 
using it at a still lower price. It was soon evident 
that in order to make this new substance a great 
success, methods of manufacture must be devi-ed 
which would enable successful competition v ith 
the cheapest abrasive. The machinery for tue 
subsequent treatment of crude carborundum had 
to be created because it is used in an atmos- 
phere filled with the sharpest cutting substance of 
the world. Other problems confronting the devel- 
opment of the industry were the introduction of 
a new product ; new methods of making it ; the 
use of electricity at the very birth of its new life; 
new machinery ;::.d appliances; the learning of a 
new art to adapt the i\ r \\ material to existing uses, 
and added to this was the vital necessity of securing 
capital willing to venture into a strange field. With 
an unwreckable faith in the commercial possibilities 



of his discovery, Dr. Acheson, as president of the 
company, was the moving spirit in the ultimate 
solution of these problems. The sale was at first 
limited to powders and grains for polishing or 
grinding, as manufacturers of articles for abrasive 
purposes such as wheels, cylinders, sharpening 
stones, knife sharpeners, paper, cloth, etc.. refused 
to utilize the new product, and a larger market 
depended upon the makers of carborundum putting 
it into the finished articles. Among the first 
articles tu be made were dental goods, and the 




CutFumUNUuM FORXACE OPENED AFFER BUHNING. 

sale of these brought in sufficient funds to provide 
for an exhibit at the World's Fair in Chicago in 
1893, which led to the sale of one of the foreign 
patents i Austria-Hungary) for $20,000. In the fol- 
lowing year additional European patents were sold 
by Dr. Acheson for $60,000, and these funds, with 
the proceeds of a bond issue, enabled the company 
in 1X95 to move to an enlarged plant at Niagara 
Falls, in which was installed the largest electrical 
furnace in the world, and make a contract with the 
Niagara Kails Power Company for 1,000 h. p. Con- 
sidering that this provided for twenty times the 
product of the former plant, which of itself was 
nearly double what the existing market absorbed, 
the daring of the venture stands out vividly in the 
annals of American industrial development. In 
ten years the output had grown to 5,000,000 pounds 
yearly, and the plant had become the only complete 
abrasive plant in the world manufacturing carbor- 
undum in all forms for this purpose. After using 
all possible for abrasive purposes, a residue of 
twenty per cent, of the entire production was 
waste until a profitable market for this by-product 
followed the discovery that it could be used for 
steel manufacturing as an economical substitute for 
ferro silicon. The capital of the company (1910) 
is $000,000; it employs 500 hands, and uses 
5,000 h. p. of electrical current in its furnaces. 
The annual output is increased to 0,207,000 pounds. 
The company also manufactures metallic silicon, 
through a process invented by Dr. Acheson, of 
reduction direct from sand. To secure funds for 
this rapid extension of his industry Dr. Acheson had 
parted with stock sufficient to lose control of the 
carborundum company, and with it the presi- 
dency in July, 1901. This was a stunning blow, 
but he was soon devoting his energies . to an- 
other discovery of even greater commercial ail- 
vantage. Tn the early stage of the manufacture 
Dr. Acheson found in his carborundum furnaces 
a form of carbon having all the properties of 
graphite, which was due to the decomposition of 
carborundum, the silicon being vaporized and the 
carbon remaining as graphite. Further experi- 
ments demonstrated that graphite could be obtained 
in the same way from other carbides, and on Sept. 29, 
1X110, he obtained a patent for producing graphite 



94 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA. 



from amorphous carbon in the electric furnace. At 
first he devoted himself to the manufacture of 
graphite electrodes for use in electrolytes where 
amorphous carbon would be rapidly disintegrated, 
and in 1897 over 162,000 pounds of graphite were 
manufactured and marketed in this form. Mean- 
while he continued his experiments in the produc- 
tion of graphite in bulk, and worked out a method 
of using anthracite coal, which proved to be the 
best carbonaceous material for this purpose. Addi- 
tional patents covering the process of making 
graphite were granted to him Jan. 17, 1899, March 
13, 1900, June 17, and Oct. 14, 1902. In January, 
1899, the Acheson Graphite Co. was organized for 
its manufacture, and in the following year this 
company was merged with the International 
Acheson Graphite Co., capitalized at $3,000,000 
(since reduced to 8500,000) and of which Dr. 
Acheson is president. The company's works are 
located at Niagara Falls, N. Y., and in 1908 pro- 
duced 7,385,000 pounds of graphite. This graphite 
is made into the form of electrodes, rods, bars and 
plates used in electrochemical and electro-metal- 
lurgical industries; in powder form for dry battery 
filler, paint pigment, electrotyping, lead pencils, 
graphited greases; also for all purposes of lubri- 
cation, and the manufacture of stove polish. 
( )wing to its greater purity anil uniformity, the 
Acheson graphite is superior to the natural graphite. 
After producing his artificial graphite he began 
experiments to determine the value of graphite as 
a crucible body. In these experiments he found 
that a weak clay, when treated with dilute tannie 
acid, would remain suspended in water, and was 
made so fine that it would pass through a filter 
paper. It was deflocculated. Knowing that clay- 
working was one of the most ancient of arts, he 
made a search of all available literature on the 
subject, but the only reference he could find to the 
use of vegetable matter in clay-working was in the 
Bible, where it records that the children of Israel 
used straw in making bricks for their Egyptian 
task-masters. The fiber of straw being very weak, 
Dr. Acheson concluded that it was not used as a 
mechanical binder, but for some other reason. He 
boiled some oat straw and found that the extract 
acted upon clay just as tannin did. From this he 




concluded that the Egyptians were familiar with 
this principle anil he named clay so treated ami 
dried " Egyptianized Clay." In 190G, while ex- 
perimenting with an electric furnace, and seeking 
for a product entirely foreign to graphite, he found 
in the output of the furnace a small amount of 
soft unctuous graphite a substance he had been 
striving to produce for five years. As a result of 
this discovery large quantities of unctuous graphite 
over 99 per cent, pure was soon being manufactured 
by a process which Dr. Acheson patented Nov. 20, 



1 906, the refuse of anthracite coal mines being utilized 
as raw material. With a graphite eminently suited 
for lubrication purposes, his next effort was' toward 
giving it the widest utility. Applying his principle 
of deflocculation, this graphite in molecular form 
remains suspended in water and when used as a 
substitute for oil is found to be more economical 
as a lubricant, not only hi first cost, but reduction 
in power loss caused by the viscosity of oil lubricants, 
and more satisfactory for pneumatic tools because 
it eliminates the frequent explosions incident to 
the use of oil in air compressors. From defloccu- 
lated Acheson graphite and water was abbreviated 
the name of this colloid "Aquadag." By an 
ingenious method of mixing aquadag with oil 
and evaporating the water a lubricant called "Oil- 
dag" was produced, the defloculated graphite re- 
maining suspended in the oil. These products 
for superiority and ad vantages over any other kind 
of lubricant have attracted world-wide attention 
and general approbation from the entire mechanical 
and scientific world. The importance of this 
discovery can hardly be overestimated ; its possibil- 
ities are more far-reaching even than the production 
of carborundum or Acheson-graphite. Tests have 
demonstrated that an oil carrying so little as 
0.35 per cent, by weight of graphite is very much 
more durable than the oil alone, in some cases lasting 
more than twice as long The Acheson Oildag 
Company, capitalized at $100,000, is now manu- 
facturing these lubricants at Niagara Falls. Dr. 
Acheson has obtained nearly fifty patents in the 
United States and many in E'urope upon his 
various inventions, those in addition to the ones 
previously mentioned being chiefly for electrical 
devices. His discoveries and inventions are revolu- 
tionary in their character and give him rank not 
only among the foremost American inventors, but 
also the most prominent scientists of the age. The 
remarkable results secured by him in synthetic 
electrochemistry in the formation of carbides, as 
typified by carborundum in the electric furnace, 
was a successful beginning which gave a wide stim- 
ulus to electrochemical experiments, and his dis- 
covery of a process for the deflocculation of non- 
fused, non-soluble, non-metallic amorphous inor- 
ganic bodies by the action of organic agents, marked 
the opening of another distinctive line of scientific 
development. The direct reduction from sand of 
metallic silicon ; the transformation of non-graphitic 
carbon into graphite almost perfect in its chemical 
purity; and the invention of processes for the 
unlimited adaptation of this substance as a lubri- 
cant are achievements any one of which would 
have brought world-wide fame to the inventor. 
Altogether his life work has opened up scientific 
possibilities in the industrial world beyond all 
present appreciation. He seemed naturally to 
possess the true scientific spirit and the ability 
to draw logical conclusions. Without academic 
training, his appreciation of the scientific method 
for reaching practical results led him to insist that 
all experiments be conducted so as to stand the 
most rigid tests. Seldom in the world's history 
have such scientific qualities been found in an indi- 
vidual, combined with the practical business ability 
to plan new machinery, devise new methods, 
interest capital anil educate employes in the 
building of the industrial organization necessary 
for an inventor or discoverer to secure the commer- 
cial fruits of his own genius. The mere recording 
of wonderful results achieved leaves in obscurity 
the privations and hardships endured, the almost 
crushing disappointments suffered and overcome 
in his activities Temperamentally disposed to 
cc Mini get M is industry, indomitable tenacity of pur- 
pose and unconquerable patience, his experiences 







JAMES I). LAYXG 






OF AMKHirAX HIOGKAPIIY. 



95 



developed a strength of character which commands 
tie unfailing respect m II with whom his life, public 
or private', brings him into contact. His attitude 
toward the industrial advantages of his operations 
discloses a great altruistic .-pint, notably free from 
any of the sordid characteristics which arc- fre- 
quently attendant upon extraordinary individual 
success. In his laboratory work he, seems inspired 
by the desire and hope that the secrets which might 
fall to his lot to unravel would become of value, 
not so much to himself financial!) as for the higher 
and better purpose of far-reaching benefits to his 




fellow man. His simplicity and personal magnetism 
have won for him a host of friends, and even to 
people not within the circle of intimacy, there 
is something peculiarly attractive in his singular 
mixture of gentleness and dignity. Outside of his 
scientific and business activities, an ideal home life 
with a large family completely absorbs him. This 
disposition as a splendid complement to his life of 
usefulness, makes him altogether an exemplary 
representative of the best type in contemporaneous 
American citizenship. The honorary degree of 
Sc. D. was conferred upon him by the University 
of Pittsburg, Pa., Feb. 12, 1909. He was twice 
awarded the John Scott medal by the Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia, in 1894 for the invention 
of carborundum and in 1901 forthe process of manu- 
facturing artificial graphite; he received grand 
prizes at the Paris Exposition in 1909 and at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. The 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1!K)7 
awarded him the Rumford medals for his applica- 
tions of heat in the electric furnace for industrial 
purposes, ami the New York section of the Society of 
Chemical Industry awarded him the Perkin Medal. 
Dec. 13, 1909. Chemists throughout the country 
contribute to a fund, the income from which is used 
to provide for the distribution of a gold medal to 
"that chemist residing in the United States who 
has accomplished the most valuable work in ap- 
plied chemistry during his career." Dr. Acheson 
was the third to receive this annual recogni- 
tion. He is a fellow in the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science; a member 
of the Society of Chemical Industries, the American 
Institute of Chemical Engineers, the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, the American 
Chemical Society, the American Electrochemical 
Society, of which he is past president, the Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia, the American Ceramic 
Society, the National Geographic Society, the 
American Mining Congress, and the Royai Society 
of Arts, London, England; also of the Niagara 
Club of Niagara Falls, the Buffalo and Park Clubs, 
of Buffalo, the Chemists' Club of New York city, 
the University Club of Washington, D. C., the Ne'w 
York State Chamber of Commerce and the Chamber 
of Commerce of Buffalo. He was married Dec. 15, 
1884, to Margaret, daughter of Thomas Ma her 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., and has nine children: 
Mrs. Veronica B. Bodine, Edward G., Jr., Ray- 
mond M., Mrs. Sarah R. Bleakley, George W., 
John H., Margaret I., Jean E., and Howard A. 
Acheson. 



LAYNG, James Dawson, railroad official, was 
born at Columbia, Pa., Aug. li, ]X'.W. son of George 
\V. and Kli/.abeth N. Layng. His father, born in 
I In 1 north of Ireland of Scotch-Irish ancestry, 
emigrated to the United States in 1X21, and practiced 
law at Pittsburg, Pa. The son received his early 
education at Harrisburg, Pa., and in 1S44 entered 
the Western University of Pennsylvania, I'ittsburg, 
where he was graduated in 1849. In August of that 
year he became a rodman in the employ of the 
Ohio & Pennsylvania railroad; in the following 
March he was advanced to the position of levelman, 
and on May 1st was appointed assistant engineer 
of construction. He became resident engineer of 
the Steubenville & Indiana railroad on Nov. 25, 
1851. and served in the same capacity on the 
construction of the Cleveland it Mahoning railroad 
during 1X54-50. He was then appointed chief 
engineer of maintenance of way of the Steubenville 
& Indiana railway and two years later became 
superintendent of that road. His next position 
was superintendent of th" eastern division of the 
Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne it Chicago railroad, which 
he held during 1S(15-71, and he was then advanced 
to be assistant manager of the same road, and in 
August, 1874, to be general manager of all the 
Pennsylvania company's lines, including the road 
on which he began his career. In July, 1S81, he 
assumed the office of general superintendent of 
the Chicago & Northwestern road, and on Jan. 1, 
1884, he was made general manager of the West 
Shore railroad. He was president of the Cleveland, 
Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis railroad, 
from April, 1887, to July, 1890, was vice-president 
of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
road, from July 1, 1890; general manager of the 
Beech Creek railroad, from Dec. 1, 1890, until his 
death. He was vice-president of the West Shore; 
the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati it St. Louis; 
and director in the New York it Harlem railroad, 
the New Jersey Junction railroad, the Wallkill 
Valley road, the Ontario Terminal Company, the 
Lincoln National Bank of New York, the Iron ''ity 
National Bank of Pittsburg, and the City Trust 
Company of New York. He was a member of the 
Union League, the Metropolitan, and the Trans- 
portation clubs; and of the Ohio Society of New 
York. Mr. Layng was married Feb. 13, 18G2, to 
Agnes Means, of Steubenville, O., and had two 
sons and three daughters. He was a capable and 
efficient executive officer and excellent controller 
of subordinates; a prompt and energetic worker, and 
a strict and just disciplinarian whose career in the 
railroad world was noted for consistent honesty of 
purpose and fair dealing. His intelligence, good judg- 
ment, and thoroughness served to enrich every posi- 
tion in which he was placed. He died in 1908. 

DOUGHTY, Thomas, artist, was born in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., July 19. L793. He spent his early life as 
a leather manufacturer, adopting art asa profession 
about 1820, painting in London, Paris and in the 
United States. Heconfined himself mostly to land- 
scapes, two examples of which, "On the Hudson Riv- 
er" and "A River Glimpse," hang in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum, New York. Doughty's paintings are 
amateurish in manner, and the color is without vibra- 
tion; they are typical of the " Hudson River School," 
but they are pictorial and pleasing in subject. Isham 
in his "History of American Painting" wrote: 
" Doughty's pictures are transcripts of the nature he 
saw, small and unassuming, with no trace of foreign 
models, but their luminous, milky skies and violet dis- 
tances have a peculiar personal charm. One would 
think that he must have enjoyed painting them, but 
we know that his life was unhappy, and that his 
lack of pecuniary success rendered him morbidly de- 
spondent." He died in New York city, July 'J4, J856. 



96 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP-E I > I V 




CHARPIOT, Mary Russell, temperance re- 
former, was born in the north of Ireland, Aug. 15, 
1830, daughter of Patrick and Catherine (Logan) 
Lunney. Near her home was a large hospital and 
through its influence she early developed a love 
for hospital work. At the suggestion of some 
Americans whom she met at the hospital, she de- 
cided to go to the United States, and did so in 1850. 
The voyage was a most eventful one. During a 
very heavy storm she was washed overboard, but 
grasped a rope, and a returning wave carried her 
back to the deck in safety. Fever had been brought 
on board the ship, and soon 
the passengers were for the 
most part either dead or 
dying. She neither feared 
the sickness nor took it; 
but, nerving herself to the 
situation, gave all her ener- 
gies, day and night, to re- 
lieving the suffering around 
her. Among the passengers 
was a very wealthy man, the 
members of whose family 
had all succumbed to the 
sickness, and noting her 
courage and efficiency, he 
offered her anything she 
might ask out of his pos- 
sessions if she would devote 
herself wholly to his family. 
But the brave girl, without a 
moment's hesitation, refused the tempting offer, say- 
ing that in the sight of God and man all suffering was 
equal, and so far as lay in her power, she would give of 
her services equally to all. Throughout life she ad- 
hered to this principle, and this devotion to suffer- 
ing humanity resulted in splendid achievement that 
ranks her high among the great benefactors of the 
world. Upon arriving in America Miss Lunney 
went to live in New Bedford, Mass. It was there 
she met and married Capt. Benjamin Ricketson 
Russell, in 1858. They resided in Boston from 
1862 to 1869, when Capt. Russell died, and in 1878 
she became the wife of the Rev. Louis E. Charpiot, 
a Congregational minister, who died in 1882. In 
1875 Mrs. Charpiot assisted in organizing the Boston 
Industrial Temporary Home for Working Men. 
After working among men two years she became 
impressed with the need of a like place for women, 
and assisted by friends, she opened the Temporary 
Home for Working Women. The object of both 
of these homes was to feed and lodge unemployed 
persons, not gratuitously, but to exact enough work 
from them to pay fur their bed and lodging. In 
founding these institutions she gave up in each 
instance her own home. She was not a believer in 
direct charity, so far at least as her own institutions 
were concerned, but made each one who came to 
her earn what he received to the best of his ability. 
In the course of her life she trained thousands of 
people to earn an honest living. Although these 
institutions grew from the start and are now among 
the best known in Boston, it is more in other fields 
of labor that the name of Mrs. Charpiot will go 
down to posterity. She was always interested in 
the cause of temperance, and when she found so 
much being done to reclaim men and comparatively 
nothing for women, she resolved to make her life- 
work the rescue and restoration of these unfortunate 
women who had become degraded through the use 
of alcohol and opium. Everywhere she met with 
the same feeling that nothing could be done for a 
woman who had fallen into the habits of intem- 
perance. Finally, in 1879, she started the work in 
a very small way in her own home, which she called 
the New England Home for intemperate Women, 



now the Massachusetts Home for Intemperate 
Women. The home is intended to be self-support- 
ing, in part at least. Various kinds of industry, 
such as laundry work, sewing, etc., are carried on, 
the work being done by the inmates as an equiva- 
lent for their board and medical attendance. The 
inmates are treated as invalids rather than crimi- 
nals. After the physical system has become 
strengthened sufficiently, the mental, moral, and 
spiritual development is looked after and a 
healthy condition secured by thorough industrial 
training, making the woman capable of self-support 
after leaving the home. Since its foundation the 
home has grown rapidly, and has come to be looked 
upon as one of the leading charities of Boston. It 
has sheltered and cared for over 10,000 women, 
who, without this aid, would in all probability 
have fallen into unspeakable degradation. After 
twenty-nine years as superintendent of the home, 
Mrs. Charpiot died there suddenly, Sept. 2, 1908, 
survived by a son by her first marriage, William L. 
Russell, of Roxbury. 

PEELLE, Stanton Judkins, chief justice of 
the court of claims, was born in Wayne county, 
Ind., Feb. 11, 1843, son of John Cox and Ruth 
.Smith) Peelle. His education, begun in the 
public schools and seminary at Winchester, Ind., 
was interrupted by the outbreak of the civil \v:ir. 
and he enlisted and \\as made a corporal of Com- 
pany G, 8th Indiana volunteers, at Indianapolis. 
In December, 1802, soon after the 57th Indiana 
volunteer regiment was formed, he was promoted 
to be second lieutenant of Company K and trans- 
ferred to that regiment, where he served until the 
company was mustered out. On his return home 
he studied law first with his uncle Judge William 
A. 1'eolle, at Centrevillc. Ind., and afterward at 
Winchester, Ind., where he was admitted to the 
bar in 1867. In 1869 he removed to Indianapolis 
to engage in general practice. In 1876 he was 
elected u the lower house of the general assembly 
of Indiana and served two years. In 1880 he 
was elected to congress as a Republican, and 
was appointed to the committees on claims and 
post-offices and post-roads. Here began that 
varied experience which developed an aptitude 
for discriminating and patient investigation that 
led to his appointment on the court of claims. 
He participated in the debate on the Bowman 
act, which materially changed the scope of that 
court, favoring propositions which gave elasticity 
to the law and relieved congress from the burden 
of considering private claims. I luring his first 
term he made twenty-seven reports from the 
committee on claims and several from the com- 
mittee on post-offices and post-roads one espe- 
cially attracting attention, that of making extra 
payment to the C. B. it. (,> railroad, on an expired 
but not abrogated contract for carrying the mails 
on Sunday between Chicago and Omaha. During 
the session he delivered an address on the Chinese 
exclusion bill, in which he held that the 1'nitcd 
States, affecting a superior civilization and higher 
moral code, must at all hazards live up to the 
stipulations of its treaty obligations. In for- 
mulating the law to control the investigations of 
the national board of health he successfully 
favored expanding the scope of its jurisdiction 
ami efficiency. He was quite active in pension 
and military legislation, his experience in the 
army having attracted his attention particularly 
to that sort of work. In the fall of 1X82 he was 
renominated by the Republicans and, on the 
face of returns, was re-elected over William E. 
English by a vote of I7.4ol to 17,364. Mr. English 
contested tin' election, ami the house on May I I. 
1884, having a Democratic majority, declared 



< il A 



l-.li 



: \\>\i\ . 



97 



Mr. Peclle's scat, .is well as those held l>y William 
MrKinley and liy .lames U'ilson, afterward-; 
secretary of agriculture, vacant. The content. 
for Mr. Peelle's seal attracted wide allenliiin 
because the father of Mr. English had been a 
candidate' for \ice-presidenl on the Deinocnilic 
ticket with Hancock in 1SXO, and. having been a 
ineinlx'r of congress himself, was aclive o i the floor 
of the house in the interest of his son. Though 
Mr. Peelle received many Democratic votes he 
was unseated by a majority of three. In his 
speech reviewing the evidence taken ill the case, 
which was a model of temperate statement and 
judicial fairness, he advocated the establishment 
of a special tribunal before which all contested 
election cases might be tried upon their merits 
;icconling to the fixed and accepted rules of evi- 
dence. After being unseated Mr. Peelle returned 
to his practice in Indianapolis, taking a more or 
less aclive part in local and state politics. In 
isss he was alternate delegate at large to the 
li'cpiihlican national convention, and in 1892 
was a delegate from the state at large. He served 
on the board of control of the Indiana Reform 
School for Boys in 1891-92. In the latter year he 
wa- appointed by Pres. Harrison to be a judge of the 
t'nited States court of claims to succeed Glcnni 
W. Seofield. On Jan. 1, 1006, on the retirement of 
Chief Justice N'ott, he was appointed to succeed 
him by Pres. Roosevelt. He is professor of the law 
of partnership, bailment and carriers in the George 
Washington University, a trustee of Howard 
University, president of the board of trustees of 
the Washington College of Law, a member of the 
board of managers of the Y. M. C. A., an elder ill 
the Church of the Covenant (Presbyterian), and 
a member of the Cosmos Club, all of Washington, 
D. C. The Valparaiso College (now university) con- 
ferred ubon him the degree of LL.D. in 1896. He 
was married first, July 16, 18G7,to Lou R., daughter 
of Anna M. Perkins, of South Bend, Ind. She died 
in November, 1873; and he was again married, Oct. 
16, 1878, to Arabella, daughter of Judge Milton C. 
Canfield, of Painesville, O. 

DYAR, Harrison Gray, scientist, was torn in 
New York city, Feb. 14, I860, son of Harrison 
Gray and Eleanora Hosella (Hannum) Dyar. His 
mother was a daughter of Aaron Cushman Han- 
num, and a descendant of William Hannum, who 
emigrated from England to America prior to 1077. 
The father (1805-75), a native of Harvard, Mass., 
was a successful inventor, who devised an electric 
telegraph on which that of Morse is believed to 
have been founded, but he did not complete the 
work because of public misunderstandings. For a 
time he lived in Paris, France, where he accumu- 
lated a small fortune by the sale of a patented dye- 
stuff; and after his return to America settled in New 
York city. The paternal ance;t>r was Thomas 
Dyer, a cloth worker, who emigrated from near 
Gh.stonbury, Somerset, England, to America about 
1632. Thomas was married to Agnes Reed and their 
son John was married ( 1) to Mary Bicknell, (2) Eliza- 
beth . The next in the line was Joseph, 
son of the latter, who was married to Lydia Haugh ; 
their son, Joseph, was the first to spell the name 
Dyar. Joseph Dyar was married (1) to Abiel 
Marston, (2) Amey Bumstead, and had a son, 
by his second wife, Jeremiah Dyar, who was mar- 
ried to Susanna Wild, and was the grandfather 
of Dr. Dyar. Harrison G. Dyar was graduated at 
the Roxbury Latin school of Boston, Mass., in 1885, 
and in the chemical department of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology in 1889. During 1892 
he studied biology at the latter institution and 
later at Columbia University, taking the degrees 



of \.M. and Ph.D. in l.s'.i | and 1895. The first 
decree was .-eceived for a thesis on classification of 
lepldopterous larva', and the second for a thesis 
on the bacteria of the air. The study of lepidop- 
lera was commenced at the early agi> of nineteen, 
and his first paper on the subject was published 
three years later. Since that time he has con 
trilmted many papers to all the American entomo- 
logical journals, ami has sent several t.> the English 
periodicals. He studied bacteriology for two years 
after his graduation at Columbia, and published a 
few short arl ides on that science. In 1S!)7 he went, 
to Washington, D. ('., to take a position as custo- 
dian of lepidoptcra in the V . S. National Museum, 
where hi' rendered important service in arranging 
ami increasing the national collection. Since 1'.NI7 
he has been assistant curator of the same depart- 
ment, and he is a well recognized authority on his 
special branch of entomology, the larvae of insects, 
especially of lepidoptera and mosquitoes. He is 
a member of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
New York Academy of Sciences, Washington Acad- 
emy of Sciences, American Academy of Political 
and Social Science, fellow of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, and belongs 
to several entomological societies. Dr. Dyar wan 
married in Los Angeles, Cal., Oct. 15, 1889, to 
Zella, daughter of Philo and Harriet M. (Holland) 
Peabody, and has one son and one daughter. 

BROWN, Alexander Timothy, inventor and 
manufacturer, was born at Scott, X. Y., Nov. 21. 
1854, son of Stephen Smith and Nancy M. (Alexan- 
der) Brown. His first American ancestor, as far 
as can be ascertained, was Thomas Brown, who is 
on record in Lynn, Mass., in 162S. His wife was 
Mary Newhall, and the line of descent is traced 
through their son Eleazer, who married Ann 
Pendleton; their son Eleazer, who married Tem- 
perance Holnes; their son Peleg, who married 
Experience Morgan, and their son Timothy, who 
married Sally Smith, and who was the grandfather 
of Alexander Timothy Brown, the subject of this 
sketch. Mr. Brown was edu- 
cated in the public schools of 
Scott and at Homer Academy. 
He was employed with various 
houses, and having his attention 
drawn to the operations of the 
typewriter, he invented a num- 
ber of improvements which were 
applied to a new machine after- 
wards called the "Smith Pre- 
mier." So valuable were these 
improvements regarded that in 
1886 a number of capitalists, 
including Lyman C. Smith of 
Syracuse, secured control of the 
patents and organized the Smith 
Premier Typewriter Co. to manu- 
facture the new machine. Mr. 
Brown was first vice-president of 
this company and later became 
president. He was also presi- 
dent and director of the Brown- 
Lipe Gear Co., founder and president of the H. H. 
Franklin Manufacturing Co., a direector of the 
Syracuse Aluminum and Bronze Co., the Globe 
Malleable Iron works, and director of the Third 
National Bank and the Journal Printing and 
Publishing Co., of Syracuse. He is a life member 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
a member of the National Geographic Society, 
the Citizens and Automobile clubs of Syracuse, and 
the Century and Transportation chilis of New York. 
Mr. Brown was married Apr. 2, lsx:i. to Mary L., 
daughter of Julian C. Seamans of Syracuse, N. Y., 




' 



98 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




c/ 



and has two sons, Charles Seamans and Julian 
Stephen Brown. 

PATTERSON, James Albert, clergyman, was 
born at Dayton, O., Oct. 19, 1864, son of William 
John and Anna (Ford) Patterson, both natives of 
Ireland. His father came to the United States in 
1851. settling at Dayton, O., where he taught school. 
The son inherited from his father a thirst for knowl- 
edge, but the lack of means was an obstacle to a 
classical education. After passing through the 
public schools, he taught in a country school for 
two years and his sa vings, sup- 
plemented by vacation earn- 
ings in the county recorder's 
office at Dayton, secured for 
him a college education. He 
was graduated at Heidelberg 
University in 1891, at the head 
' of the largest classin the history 
of that institution-. Having 
determined to follow the minis- 
try he took the regular course 
at Mct'ormick Theological 
Seminary in Chicago, and was 
graduated there in 1894. His 
first pastorate of four years was 
the First Presbyterian Church 
of Fostoria, O. During the 
following four years he was 
pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church at Sidney, O., 
and in May. 1902, he became 
minister of the Central Presbyterian Church at 
Columbus, O. At the conclusion of a pastorate 
of seven years here he was elected superinten- 
dent of the New York Anti-Saloon League, 
a movement with which his name has been con- 
nected since its inception. He had been president 
of the Ohio state league for two years previously, 
and his efforts in this connection had been so success- 
ful that he was induced to give up his church work 
and devote his entire time and attention to the 
Anti-Saloon League w r ork in New York. To the 
advancing tide of temperance reform in the United 
States, the Empire state offered the most serious 
opposition. The work of redeeming New York 
from rum tyranny and domination is a colossal 
task and the Anti-Saloon League has not met 
with the same degree of success here as elsewhere. 
From the platform, in the legislative hall, and in 
the printed page he has appealed to law makers to 
give a measure of home rule to the people on this 
serious question, and his efforts are expected to 
bear fruit in the near future. Dr. Patterson is an 
eloquent and forceful speaker. He was for a 
number of years connected with the Redpath 
Lyceum Bureau, during which he delivered lectures 
in the leading cities of the United States, the most 
popular of which were entitled: "Doubts and 
Doubters," "Ideals: Their Place and Power in 
Life," and "The Modern Oracle." treating of the 
philosophy of the higher life. They were received 
with universal applause and favor, and have gained 
for Dr. Patterson a reputation as one of America's 
leading orators. The degree of D.D. was conferred 
upon him by Miami University in 1900. He was 
married at Tiffin, O., July L8, 1904, to Mildred T., 
daughter of Collis B. Allen, and has two children, 
Allen De Witt and Edith Patterson. 

BINGHAM, Hiram, missionary and lexico- 
grapher, was born in Honolulu, H. I.. Aug. lii, 
lv;|, M>II of Rev. Hiram and Sybil i.Moseleyi 
Bingham, and a descendant of Thomas Bingham. 
who came from Sheffield, England, about lii.'il). 
and was one of the first proprietor* of Norwich, 



Conn. His wife was Mary Rudd, and from them 
the line of descent is traced through their son 
Thomas, who married Hannah Backus; their son 
Joseph, who married Ruth Post; their son Calvin, 
who married Lydia Denton, and who was Dr. 
Bingham's grandfather. His father was a native 
of Bennington, Vt., and engaged in the missionary 
work of the American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions in the Hawaiian Islands dur- 
ing 181910. The son was prepared for college 
at Williston Seminary, Easthampton, Mass., and 
entering Yale College was graduated with the 
"famous" class of 1853. After serving one year 
as principal of the Northampton high school', he 
studied for the ministry at Andover Theological 
Seminary and was ordained in 1855. Immediately 
after his marriage, in 1856, he entered the service 
of the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, and with his wife sailed from 
Boston for the Gilbert islands, arriving there in 
November. 1857. This island group, situated 
in the Pacific ocean, north and south of the equator, 
between 172 and 174 50' east of Greenwich, was 
inhabited by a tribe of fierce and naked savages 
among whom Dr. Bingham and his wife settled 
as the only white inhabitants of the region. At 
his ordination his father had charged him to make 
himself master of their language and to translate 
and publish the Scriptures, and the difficulties 
besetting his path in carrying out this injunction 
made of his subsequent romantic career an exam- 
ple of perseverance and devotion to duty rarely 
if ever surpassed. The couple lived in a tiny hut 
built by the natives, and their meagre food con- 
sisted of fish, nuts, and pandanus fruit. The 
tropical climate was almost unendurable, and 
during nine years of suffering and privation they 
sowed the seed of Christianity among the savages 
and applied themselves to the task of learning the 
native language and reducing it to writing, an 
achievement which had not been paralleled since 
John Eliot's translation of the Bible for the Indians. 
Dr. Bingham translated the New Testament books 
of Luke and John, and his wife some school books. 
In 1*65 they were forced by ill health to remove 
to Honolulu, where the missionary completed 
his translation of the New Testament. During 
iMiii us he was in command of the missionary 
brigantine Morning Star. Returning to the 
Gilbert Islands in the summer of 1869 to continue 
his work of civilizing the islands, he found the 
natives relapsed into their former savage state, 
but far from being discouraged he began his work 
all over again. He and his wife remained there 
until 1875. when failing health compelled him to 
abandon all attempts to work in the Gilbert Islands. 
While residing at Honolulu, they spent the greater 
part of each year among the islanders. On his 
fifty-second birthday Dr. Bingham began the 
translation of the Old Testament, a task that was 
made more dirficlut by his poor eyesight, and in 
the spring of 1S93, after an absence of nearly 
thirty years from the L'nited States, he saw the 
last portion of the manuscript of the entire Bible 
set in type at the Bible House, New York city. 
lle-ide.- the Gilbertese Bible, he is also the author 
of "A Gilliertese Grammar in English" ilMil'; 
"Story of the Morning Star" llsiili : " ( iilbcrte-e 
Hymn and Tune Book" ilsum; "Gilbertese 
Bible Dictionary" llS'.Oi; "Gilberlese Commentary 
on Matthew" ijiMlti; " ( iilbertese Commentary on 
the Four Gospels" (1905); "( iilbertese Commentary 
on Acts" iKIOiii; "Gill>erte-e-Knglish Dictionary" 
il'.l.lSi. and "Commentary of the New Testament 
in the Gilbertese Language" (HHIM. \\\~ Gil- 
bertese-Knglish dictionary, partially finished and 
almost ready for publication, was lo.st through 



<>l AMKKICAX BIOGRAPHY. 



99 



the carelessness of an English philologist, and the 
monumental task of rcplaci g the manuscript 
rci|iiireil tin' better part of ten years. The work 
accomplished l>y Dr. Bingham, besides the crea- 
tion of a new written language, includes the civiliza- 
tion of a people and their conversion to the Christian 
faith, and so successful was he in in this that visitors 
to the Gilbert islands now listen skeptically 
to the stories of the former condition of their in- 
habitants. The degree of D.D. was conferred 
upon him by Yale and Western Reserve universities 
in 1893 and Oahu CoUge, Honolulu, in 1S97. 
He was married at Northampton, Mass., Nov. 18, 
is.'iti, to Minerva Clarissa, daughter of ('apt. 
Jonathan Brewster, a lineal descendant of Elder 
William Brewster, by whom he had two sons, 
William Brewster ami Dr. Hiram Bingham, 3d. 
Mrs. Bingham died in 1903. He died at Baltimore, 
Md., Oct. 25, HIOS. 

BANKS, Charles Eugene, author, was born 
in Clinton county, la., April 3, 1852, son of Seth 
Lee and Sarah Maria (Hubbell) Banks, grandson 
of Nehemiah and Isabella (Lee) Banks; great- 
grandson of Nathaniel Banks, and great-great- 
grandson of George Banks, whose grave is one of 
the earliest in Trinity Churchyard, New York. 
All of his ancestors were New England pioneers 
and home guard soldiers, his father having been 
one of the York state minute men. Charles E. 
Banks spent his boyhood on his father's farm, 
with the most meager opportunities for education, 
his mother being for a time his only teacher. In 
1871 he engaged in the grocery bsuiness at Wyo- 
ming, la., under the name of Grace & Banks, and 
afterward became a travelling salesman for mer- 
cantile concerns of Davenport, la., and Chicago, 
111. He began newspaper work by publishing a 
small weekly paper in Wheatland, la. He pub- 
lished the "American Commercial Traveler" in 
Chicago, during 1885-87, and the "Weekly Out- 
look" in Davenport, la., during 1896-97. After 
spending two years as a reporter on the Chicago 
Herald, " he published, during 1892-94, in con- 
junction with a Col. Nat Reed, the " Banner of 
Gold," a weekly. In 1893 he delivered a series 
of lectures in several western states, the principle 
one of which was called the " Sunny Side of Life." 
In 1896 he became city editor of the Davenport 
(la.) "Daily Republican," and the following year 
went to Cuba as war correspondent for the Chicago 
"Inter-Ocean." Returning in 1899, he became 
city editor of the Rockford (111.) " Register Gazette," 
and in 1901 literary editor of the Chicago " Amer- 
ican," changing to a similar position with the 
Chicago "Examiner" in 1904. Meanwhile, for 
four seasons beginning with 1901, he made a tour 
with Opie Read, giving literary readings under 
the management of the Central Lyceum Bureau. 
His first published work was a volume of poems 
entitled "Quiet Music" (1893), which was fol- 
lowed by a similar volume, " Where Brooks Go 
Softly" (1895). These efforts aroused much 
favorable comment, their genuine poetic spirit 
and depth of feeling making a wide appeal. The 
"Chicago Evening Journal" said, "these poems 
are musical to a rare degree; from first to last 
they are redolent of the woods and musical bird 
notes and the lowing of herds. They display a 
knowledge of human nature no less than of inan- 
imate nature." His first novel was entitled "In 
Hampton Roads" (1898), which was followed by 
"A Child of the Sun" (1900). In the same year 
another volume of poems, "Sword and Cross," 
was published. In 1902 appeared his "Theodore 
Roosevelt A Typical American," and a life of 
De Witt Talmage; and in 1907, "San Francisco, 
History and Catastrophe," and "John Dorn, 



Promoter," the latter constituting a persuasive 
document in the encouragement of the preserva- 
tion of American forests. His other writings are 
"By Two and Two" and "The Spider" (illustrated 
poems, 1907), a dramatization of his earlier novel, 
"In Hampton Roads" (1907), "An American 
Woman," a drama (1907), "Idols" and "Vibra- 
tions" (1909), a drama dealing with metaphysical 
subjects. He is also a constant contributor to 
the "Century Magazine," "Youths' Companion," 
and the "Saturday Evening Post." Mr. Banks, 
while primarily a poet, has a clear understanding 
of the conditions of modern commercialism, and 
his prose style is at once picturesque and convinc- 
ing. Having been without the advantages of a 
college education, his success is entirely due to 
a native genius combined with individual effort. 
He is fond of outdoor life, and an amateur hunter, 
fisherman, and gardener. He is a member of the 
Western Authors' Association, of which he was 
twice president; the Wheatland (la.) Mental Cul- 
ture Society, which he organized, and served as 
president; the Chicago Bohemia, and The Owls, 
He is also a member of the Chicago Press Club, 
of which he was recording secretary and vice- 
president and director. He was married in Chicago, 
Apr. 3, 1892, to Carrie Wyatt Lounsbury, daughter 
of Wyatt Birdsall of San Francisco, Cal. 

STONE, Isaac Frank, manufacturer, was born in 
Chicago, 111., Mar. 2, 1867, son of Theodore and 
Mary S. (Owen) Stone. His first American ancestor 
was John Stone, one of the original settlers of 
Guilford, Conn., who came from Hereford, Eng- 
land, in 1639 with William Leete (q.v.). Theodore 
Stone, his father, was a native of Lockport, N. Y., 
and a merchant, who married the daughter of Hib- 
bard Owen of Wyoming, N. Y. Isaac W. Stone, a 
captain of the war, afterward was one of the first 
settlers of Rochester, N. Y. I. Frank Stone was 
educated in the public schools of Chicago. He 
began his business career in 1884, in the office of 
Rollins, Shaw & Co., commission merchants. 
Four years later (1888) he 
organized the firm of I. F. 
Stone, to engage in handling 
chemicals, anil in 1890 the 
style of which was changed 
to" Stone & Ware. In 1906 
he established the National 
Aniline and Chemical Co., of 
which he is president. This 
company, capitalized at 
$500,000, is recognized as 
the largest in the country 
dealing in American aniline 
colors and by-products, their 
factories being at Buffalo, 
N. Y., under the name of the 
Schoellkopf, Hartford & 
Hanna Co., of which he has 
been vice-president since 
1900. He is also a director 
of the Contact Process Co., 
of Buffalo. Mr. Stone is a Republican in politics, and 
a member of the Society of Chemical Industry, the 
College of Pharmacy, the Chamber of Commerce! New- 
York), the advisory committee of the Metropolitan 
Bank, Palestine Commandery of Knights Templar, 
and of the New York Athletic, Chemists, City and 
Lotos clubs and the Drug and Chemical Club. 
He was married in Chicago, 111., June 5, 1889, to 
Mary L., daughter of James W. Peck, and they have 
twochildren: Grace II., and Truman Stone. He has 
a summer residence in Greenwich, Conn., where he 
is a member of the Yacht Club, Casino and Golf 
Club, and a trustee of the Brunswick school. 




486155 



100 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 




HACKETT, James Keteltas, actor, was born 
at Wolfe Island, Ontario, Canada, Sept. 6, 1869, 
son of James H., and Clara Cynthia (Morgan) 
Hackett. His father (q.v.) was an American actor 
of note, especially celebrated for his portrayal of 
Falstaff and Rip van Winkle, and his mother was 
an actress of some celebrity whose grandfather, 
Rev. Abraham Keteltas, was chaplain of the con- 
tinental congress. Young Hackett early developed 
a taste for dramatic performances, setting up a 
play theatre in his home at the age of twelve years. 
After attending the New York public schools he 
entered the College of the City 
of New York, and was gradu- 
ated in- 1891. While at col- 
lege he engaged actively in 
amateur theatricals, found- 
ing the Amateur Dramatic 
Club there, and winning his 
first successes in its produc- 
tions. He also took part in poli- 
tical campaigns, being interest- 
ed in the propaganda of Henry 
George, in whose campaign 
for the mayoralty of New York 
he laid the foundations for an 
: intelligent interest in civic 
affairs, which remained charac- 
teristic of him. After study- 
ing law for a year at the New 
York law school, he yielded 
to his inclination for the 
stage, and joining the A. M. 
Palmer's stock company, made 
his first professional appear- 
ance as Francois in "The 
Broken Seal" at the Park theatre, in Philadel- 
phia, Mar. 28, 1892. Through the withdrawal 
of a leading member of the company he was pro- 
moted to the latter's place, a heavy character part, 
and at once scored a success. Shortly after this 
he was engaged as leading man by Lotta, and then 
joined Augustin Daly's company. He went on 
the road during the season of 1893-94, appearing 
in "The Private Secretary," "Madame Sans Gene," 
in which he made a hit as Count de Neipperg, with 
Katherine Kidder, and "The Queen's Necklace," 
with Mrs. Brown Potter and Kyrle Bellew. His 
work as Dangerfield in Carton's " Home Secretary" 
an anarchist role, attracted the attention of Daniel 
Frohman, and he was invited to enter upon a star 
engagement at the Lyceum theatre, New York. 
His appearance here in the "Prisoner of Zenda." 
in February, 1896, established him as a metropolitan 
favorite. Two years later he made a highly suc- 
cessful starring tour in this same play, and in its 
sequel, "Rupert of Hentzau," and Alfred Sutro's 
"The Pride of Jennico." He starred with his own 
company in 1898 in "The Tree of Knowledge," 
and the same year added to his laurels in the part of 
Mercutio with Maude Adams in " Romeo and Juliet." 
In 1901 he became his own manager and associating 
himself with Harrison Grey Fiske and Maurice 
Campbell, formed the Independent Booking Agency, 
in opposition to the theatrical syndicate. The 
agency was dissolved in 1904. Among other plays 
produced by Mr. Hackett were "Don Caesar's 
Return," "The Chance Ambassador," "John 
Ermine of the Yellowstone," after a story by 
Frederic Remington; "The Secret of Polichinelle," 
an adaption from the French of Pierre Wolff, 
"The Crown Prince," a satirical romantic fantasy, 
revealing his powers of light comedy. In r.Mi.'i 
he starred with his wife, Mary Mannering, in Alfred 
Sutro's "The Walls of Jericho," a cnmi'dy that 
Strongly satirized the foibles of "society" and 
gave him a vehicle fo the expression of moral 



earnestness in working for the betterment of social 
ideals. Another Sutro play "John Glayde's 
Honor," produced by him in November 1907, was 
also notable as an effort in the same direction. The 
season of 1908-09 saw a revival of several of his 
earlier successful plays with undiminished power 
of attraction. Mr. Hackett was married, May 2, 
ls',17. to Mary Mannering, a well-known English 
actress. Mrs. Hackett brought suit for divorce 
in 1908. Mr. Hackett has the reputation of being 
one of the most active producing managers of the 
day. Under his management is the Hackett 
theatre in New York, and he directs his own tours. 
Mr. Hackett is an enthusiastic hunter. His clubs 
include The Players, The Strollers, Lambs, Alpha 
Delta Phi, and New York Athletic. 

McLANE, John, fifty-seventh governor of New 
Hampshire (1905-06), was born in Lennoxtown, 
Scotland, Feb. 27, 1852, son of Alexander and 
Mary (Hay) McLane. His father, who was a 
wood-engraver, brought his family to Manchester, 
N. H., in 1853. The son was educated at the public 
schools of that city, and early in life turned his 
attention to mechanical pursuits, for which he 
had a special aptitude. He became an expert 
wood-worker, and for several years was engaged 
as a journeyman in the manufacture of furniture. 
Not satisfied to remain an employee, in 1876, he es- 
tablished himself as a manufacturer of furniture and 
office fittings at Milford, N. H. Not long afterward 
he began the manufacture of post-office boxes, 
locks and other post-office equipments to which 
he has added various improvements, some of his 
own design. Each year his business grew to be 
more prosperous until he became recognized as the 
foremost manufacturer in his special line in the 
United States. The McLane Manufacturing Com- 
pany's factory in Milford occupies 40,000 square 
feet, employs 100 workmen, and supplies furnishings 
to 10,000 post offices throughou tthe country. 
Gov. McLane is known as the friend of labor, and 
at the same time possesses the confidence of capi- 
talists and manufacturers. In the fullest sense he 
is progressive, public-spirited and philanthropic. 
He first entered politics in 1885, when he was 
elected to the New Hampshire state legislature. 
He was reelected in 1887, and in 1891 he represented 
his district in the state senate, becoming president 
of that body, and being reelected in 1893. In 
1900 he was a delegate to the Republican national 
convention. He was elected governor of New 
Hampshire in the fall of 1904, and took the oath 
of office in January, 1905. During his administra- 
tion occurred the peace conference between Japan 
and Russia, held at the navy yard in Portsmouth, 
N. H., August, 1905. This meeting was the direct 
result of Pres. Roosevelt's (q.v.) suggestion to the 
belligerents in the hope that peace might result, 
rpipn their arrival in New Hampshire the Russian 
and Japanese plenipotentiaries were the guests of 
(i<>v McLane, and when the conference was opened 
on August 9th, he gave them an official welcome 
on behalf of the United Sttaes. Since his first term 
in the legislature he has been greatly in demand as 
a platform speaker, especially as chief orator on 
public occasions. He is a 33d degree Mason, was 
grand-master of the grand lodge of New Hampshire, 
1898, and in 1905 became illustrious commander- 
in-chief of the Nashua Scottish Rite consistory. 
He has been a director of the Souhegan National 
Bank of Milford since 1885, and its president since 
1891. Gov. McLane was married March 10, 1880, 
to Ellen, daughter of Eben Tuck of Milford, and lias 
four childr.'n: Clinton A., Hazel E., wife John 
Alexander Clark of Evanston, 111., John R., and 
Charles M. McLane. 



OF AMKUICAN Bh )( IH A I'HV. 



101 



LINCOLN, Waldo, manufacturer, was born at 
Worcester, Mass., Dec. 31, 1849, son of Daniel 
Waldo ami Frances Fiskc iMerrick) Lincoln. His 
first American ancestor was Samuel Lincoln, who 
came from Hingham, England, in 1637. From 
him and his wife Martha the line of descent is 
traced through his son Samuel, who married 
Deborah Mersey; their son Jedediah, who married 
Hethiah Whiton ; their son Enoch, who married 
Rachel Fearing; their son Levi, who married 
Martha Waldo, and their son Levi Lincoln, who 
married Penelope Winslow Sever and was the 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch. Levi 
Lincoln, Sr., was attorney-general of the United 
Si -itcs under 1 "res. Jefferson, and lieutenant-governor 
n( Massachusetts; and his son, Levi, was governor 
of Massachusetts during 1825-34. Mr. Lincoln 
was educated at private and public schools at 
Worcester and at Harvard University. After 
graduating at the latter in 1870 he studied 
chemistry at the Lawrence Scientific School for a 
year. In 1S72 he entered into partnership with 
iiis cousin Joseph Parker Mason, under the firm 
name of Mason & Lincoln, for the purpose of 
dealing in iron, steel and heavy hardware but 
the business proved uncongenial to Mr. Lincoln 
and in 1S74 the partnership was dissolved. In the 
previous year he had become associated with 
William Everett Cutter, under the firm name of 
W. E. Cutter & Co., for the manufacture of 
copperas, for which purpose they had acquired an 
established plant in Worcester, Mass. In 1876 
the firm entered into the manufacture of Venetian 
red, a dry paint made from the impure copperas 
that comes from the bottoms of the crystallizing 
vats. It was the second firm in the United States 
to engage in such business, all Venetian red having 
been imported previously from England. In 1889 
the firm of W. E. Cutter & Co. was dissolved and 
Mr. Lincoln continued the business alone under 
the name of Ferric Chemical and Color Co., until 
1NSI3, when he sold the plant to the Washburn 
& Moen Manufacturing Co., and retired from active 
business. In May, 1894, he and his family sailed 
to Europe for a two years' visit. Since his return 
to Worcester he has devoted his time to historical 
and genealogical studies. He published in 1902 a 
genealogy of the Waldo family of which the Boston 
"Evening Transcript" said, "Not only has Mr. 
Lincoln earned the warmest thanks of all those 
who bear the name of Waldo, and of those whose 
grandparents bore this name, for he followed the 
female lines to the third generation, but he has 
added to the bibliography of American genealogies 
one of the most complete and well gotten-up books 
that come under this heading." In 1901 he con- 
tributed an article on "The Province Snow, Prince 
of Orange,' 1 to the proceedings of the American 
Antiquarian Society. In October, 1906, he con- 
tributed a memoir of Stephen Salisbury of Worcester 
to the New England historical and genealogical 
register. He was for several years director of 
the Worcester C!as Light Co., the Merchants & 
Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Co. and the Central 
National Bank of Worcester ; a member of the board 
of investment of the Worcester County Institution 
for Savings and, for ten years, trustee and treasurer 
of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. He is at 
present a director of the Providence & Worcester 
Railroad Co., and a trustee of the Worcester 
Memorial Hospital, of the Home for Aged Men, 
and of the Rural Cemetery. During 1889-95 he 
as a director of the Worcester Public Library. 
In politics he was a Democrat, until the silver 
question arose, but has had no strong party 
affiliations since. In 1896 he was a delegate to 
the gold Democratic convention at Indianapolis, 



and was a candidate for secretary of state of 
Massachusetts on the gold Democratic ticket of 
that year. He is a member of the American 
Antiquarian Society of which he has been president 
since October, |!H)7, when the Rev. Dr. Edward 
Everett Male retired the New England Ilistorie- 
< lenealogical Society, the Colonial Society of 
Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
ami of several minor historical associations. He 
was married June 24, 1S73, at Worcester to Fanny, 
daughter of George, and Josephine (Rose) Chandler 
of Worcester, and has had five children: Merrick, 
Josephine Rose, Daniel Waldo, George Chandler 
and Dorothy Lincoln. 

EWING, Thomas, Jr., lawyer, was born at 
Leavenworth, Kan., May 21, 18b'2, son of Thomas 
and Ellen iCox) Ewing. His father (q.v.) (1829- 
96 1 was a prominent statesman identified with the 
early history of Kansas and a brigadier-general in 
the civil war; he married a daughter of Rev. Wil- 
liam Cox of Piqua, O.. and his grandfather, also 
Thomas Ewing, was U. S. senator and member 
of the cabinet of Presidents Harrison and Taylor. 
His first American ancestor was Thomas Ewing, 
whi> settled in Greenwich, N. J., in 1718, a son of 
Findley Ewing of Lower Loch Lomond, Scotland. 
He married Mary Maskell and the line of descent 
is traced through their son Thomas, who married 
Sarah Yiekars; their son George, who married 
Rachel Harris; their son Thomas, who married 
Maria Wills Boyle, and their son Thomas, who was 
the father of the subject of this sketch. Thomas 
Ewing, Jr., began his education in the public schools 
at Lancaster, O. ; he spent two years at \V ouster 
University (1879-81), and entering Columbia 
University was graduated in 1885, receiving the 
degree of A. M., in 1880. He then attended the 
Columbia Law School in 1887-88 and the George- 
town University Law School, being graduated 
LI..H. at the latter in 1890. At Columbia he was 
a prize fellow in science during 1885-88, and also 
tutored in the school of mines. During his law 
studies in Washington he served as an assistant 
examiner at the patent office. After bein; admitted 
to the bar of New York state he began his practice 
alone. Later, in 1893, the firm of Ewing, Whit- 
man & Ewing was formed, his father, Henry H. 
Whitman, and his brother Hamp- 
ton Denman Ewing being the 
other members. Mr. Whitman 
withdrew in 1906, and the firm 
the became Ewing <t Ewing. Mr. 
Ewing has made a specialty of 
patent law, and lias been engaged 
in some notable cases. He has 
solicited some very important 
patents, notably the fundamental 
patent of Frank J. Sprague on 
his multiple unit system of elec- 
tric train operation and Prof. M. I. 
Pupin's patents on long-distance 
telephony. Mr. Ewing is also pres- 
ident of the Current Literature 
Publishing Co., of New York, and 
a director of the Crocker-Wheeler 
Co. He was twice Democratic 
nominee for mayor of Yonkers, his home city, but 
w :i s , lefeated both times. He is a trustee of the New 
York Juvenile Asylum, and in Yonkers he is vice- 
president of the St. John's Hospital and of the 
Sprainridge Hospital, on the advisory board of the 
Yonkers Homeopathic Hospital and Maternity, and 
a director of the Holywood Inn, a workingmen's 
club of Yonkers. He was a member of the school 
board of Yonkers during 1897-1903, and a member 
of the police board, 1905-07. Mr. Ewing is the 




102 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




author of a play, "Jonathan" (1900) in verse. 
He is a member of the New York University Club, 
the Columbia University Club, the Engineers' Club, 
and member of the American Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers and the Ohio Society, of which 
he has been a vice-president. He is also a member 
of the Kansas Societv. He was married in Yon- 
kers, N. Y., Oct. 24, 1894, to Anna Phillips, daughter 
of William Francis Cochran, and has six children: 
Alexandra, Thomas, William Francis Cochran, 
Sherman, Gifford Cochran, and Ellen Cox. 

BUSH, Rufus Ter, merchant, was born in 
Tompkinscounty.N.Y., Feb. 22, 1840, son of PeterT. 
and Phebe (Sutherland) Bush. 
His first American ancestor was 
Jan Bosch, a native of Holland, 
who emigrated from Teellust 
in 1662 and landed at New 
Amsterdam. His wife was 
Rachel Vermilye, and the line 
of descent is traced through 
their son Johannes, who was 
an officer in the mib'tia for 
Dutchess and Ulster counties 
and also was a member of the 
colonial legislature during 1716- 
28, and who married Lysbeth 
Hendcrixsen ; their son, Hen- 
drick Ter, who married Rachel 
Freer; their son, Peter Ter, 
who married Sarah Griffin ; their 
son, Richard Ter, who married 
Susanna Waters, and their son, 
Peter Ter Bush, our subject's father. During the 
early childhood of Rufus T. Bush the family re- 
moved to Holly, Orleans co., N. Y., where he was 
brought up on his father's farm and attended the 
district schools. In lx.51 another move was made, 
this time to Michigan, and he continued his studies 
at the Lansing (Mich.) High School, the Michigan 
Agricultural School, and the Michigan State Normal 
School at Ypsilanti, being graduated at the last 
with honor in 1801. After teaching school for a 
while, he began his business career as a salesman 
of sewing machines for a Chicago firm. His 
success in this and other enterprises brought him 
sufficient capital to invest in the petroleum oil 
business in partnership with Walter P. Denslnw, 
who for some time had been carrying on a business 
in petroleum witli inadequate capital. The new 
firm put out brands of refined oil under the trade- 
mark of "Peerless" and "Premium Safety," and 
despite the destruction of their works by fire the 
firm of Bush & Denslow enjoyed great prosperity, 
and their oils won fame throughout the entire 
country and abroad. Subsequently the business 
was taken over by the Standard Oil Co., and Mr. 
Bush retired from active business, devoting the 
remainder of his life to the management of his 
estateand to travel. Hewasa life-long student and 
a man of much literary and artistic taste. He 
established the " Illustrated American Magazine," 
in 1887. He established the Hall Memorial li- 
brary, presenting it to the town of Ridgeway, 
Mich., in memory of his wife. He traveled through- 
out Europe, and made a journey around the world 
in his private yacht, the Coronet, stopping at the 
Hawaiian islands, Japan, and India. His yacht, 
the Coronet, became famous as the winner of a 
race across the Atlantic ocean in 1887, defeating the 
I >:i nut less, owned by Caldwell Colt. Mr. Bush 
was married at Hidgeway. Mich.. Apr 9, 1862, to 
Sarah M., daughter of Jonathan Hall, and had two 
sons, Irving T. and Wendell T. Bush. Immediately 
after his death his large estate was incorporated 
by his widow and sons under the title of The Bush 



Co., Ltd., which was instrumental in establishing 
the Bush Docks at South Brooklyn, N. Y. (For 
particulars see Bush, Irving T.) Mr. Bush died 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., Sept. 1.5, 1890. 

BUSH, Irving Ter, transportation expert and 
capitalist, was born at Lewanee, Mich., July 12, 
1869, son of Rufus T. and Sarah M. (Hall) Bush. 
He received a good private education . Immediately 
upon the death of his father, in 1890, he was called 
upon to assume important business responsibilities. 
Early in his experience as a merchant he realized 
that one of the most serious economic problems 
confronting New York city, was the proper hand- 
ling of its enormous amount of freight. Owing to 
the phenomenon of almost magical growth as a 
commercial metropolis of world-wide significance 
and the home of busy millions, New York has been 
subject to many perplexing questions of accommoda- 
tion and adjustment, but none more difficult than 
that of adequate freight handling. So, in 1895, 
he began his struggle with the vital problem by 
organising six warehouses in conjunction with a 
pier on his waterfront at South Brooklyn. Hej-e 
he planned to handle freight cheaply and quickly 
for the harassed wholesaler of Manhattan who 
was being compelled to cart his incoming shipments 
from various local piers to his stockroom, thence 
reshipping to out-of-town customers, and all the 
time having to bear not only the several costs 
for carriage, but also to pay the highest known 
rates for labor employed. Therefore, to create a 
center of greatest utility and advantage, a terminal 
was built by Mr. Bush, though the railroads had 
regularly ignored Brooklyn, even when he placed 
before transportation authorities convincing argu- 
ments in favor of the future development of the 
locality. Persuasive logic failing to change the fixed 
opinions of railroad officials, Mr. Bush resorted to a 
simple ruse whereby to attain his end. Sending 
an agent to Michigan, he instructed him to pur- 
chase a hundred carloads of baled hay, which was 
to be offered for shipment in various lots at dif- 
ferent railroad stations, always with the provision 
that it must be delivered in the original car at the 
Bush plant. This led the Western railroads to 
query their Eastern representatives about the deliv- 
ery of the hay, and at length the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad accepted the contract. Once the way was 
opened, other roads followed the example set an.l 
entered negotiations with the new terminal in 
South Brooklyn. From this unpretentious origin 
has grown one of the principal freight-handling 
sections of Greater New York. First organized as 
The Bush Co., Ltd., the business became the Bush 
Terminal Co., in 1902. A dozen years of continuous 
operation have brought about extraordinary ex- 
pansion despite a peculiar prejudice of New Yorkers 
against any possible business facilities in Brooklyn. 
But the following figures are irrefutable. There 
are now seven piers, each a quarter of a mile long, 
1.50 feet wide, with intervening spaces of 270 feet; 
thirty-three steamships have been unloaded at 
them at one time, and it has been computed that 
the Bush Terminal handles 10 per cent of the total 
number of steamships coming to New York, a 
percentage that equals 15 per cent of the total 
tonnage received at this port. There is a system 
of approximately 120 modern wan 'houses, and three 
huge model loft buildings of 300,000 square feet 
rapacity each erected, at, a cost of $1100,000, and 
twenty more of these structures are projected for 
the future needs of the cramped wholesaler and 
jobber. Under the title of the Bush Terminal 
Railroad Co., the company owns and operates a 
two-mile track system through Brooklyn which 
connects with the Pennsylvania lines; terminal 
yards with a capacity of 1,500 freight cars; twenty- 



in \\IKHir\\ BIOGRAPHY. 



103 



five miles of track and numerous locomotives, 
car-Moats, towlioats, barges, etc. Tlie details of 
the everyday working of this terminal have been 
admirably arranged. Freight cars are lined up 
at shipping platforms extending tiOO feet in length, 
and they are approached from either .side by the 
terminal force and by carts and trucks. A shipper 
upon any Hoor of a building need only load his 
merchandise upon shipping trucks, allach a tag 
indicating its destination, and push it, on one ot the 
three-ton freight, elevators of the building, when 
the rest of the work is done by the Hush Terminal 
Co. Double loading is also done at the pins, 
where a vessel is worked at from the dock on one 
side, and from barges on the other. The plant at 
present (1910) cover? 200 acres with a total value 
of $20,000,000, and this vast accumulation of 
property is entirely to tne credit of its projector, 
whose keen foresight sensed the value of the site 
of his great experiment, when others thought such 
a venture nothing less than quixotic. In contra- 
distinction to the earlier general attitude of in- 
credulity as to the feasibility of the South Brooklyn 
terminal, it is noteworthy to observe that the 
municipal authorities have followed the lead of 
Mr. Hush, for the New York dock department 
secured an appropriation with which to build a 
series of city piers, adjoining his terminal. He was 
married, first at Kidgway, Mich., to Miss Belle 
Barlow, by whom he had two children, Beatrice 
Barlow and Eleanor T. Bush. He was divorced in 
I'.MIti, and on April '11, 11107 was married again to 
Mrs. Maud Howard Heard, by whom he has one son 
Rufus T. Bush. 

POTTER, Eliphalet Nott, banker and broker, 
was born at Schenectady, N. Y., Aug. 9, 1878, son 
of Eliphalet Nott and Helen (Fuller) Potter, and 
a descendant of John Potter w-ho settled in the 
New Haven colony inlG39. His father (1836-1901) 
was a son of Bishop Alonzo Potter of Pennsylvania, 
who married a daughter of Eliphalet Nott, fourth 
president of Union College, and a brother of Henry 
C. Potter, P. E. bishop of New York, and wa's 
president of Union College for twelve years and 
of Hobart College for sixteen years. The subject 
of this sketch received his education at Groton 
School, Massachusetts. He began his business 
career in 1897 with the firm of Spencer Trask & Co., 
New York, for the purpose of learning banking, 
and was made a member of Spencer Trask & Co. 
in 190:i. Soon after (in May, 1904) he left that 
firm and formed a partnership with Hermann 
Kinnicutt, under the name of Kinnicutt & Potter, 
bankers, and upon the dissolution of the firm in 
1900 the firm of Potter, Choate & Prentice was 
formed, his associates being Arthur O. Choate, 
John H. Prentice, Frederick B. Adams and Fuller 
Potter. The firm is recognized as one of the most 
rominent of the newer financial institutions of 
w York. Mr. Potter is a director of the Moody 
Manual Co. and of the Colima Lumber Co. of 
Mexico. He is literary in his tastes, and has made 
a specialty of the study of American history. He 
has a country home at Mt. Kisco, and is interested 
in all outdoor sports. He is a member of the 
Racquet and Tennis, Union, and City clubs of New 
York, besides a number of out-of-town clubs. Mr. 
Potter was married May 20, 1903, to Josephine, 
daughter of John T. Atterbury, of the firm of 
Van Amburgh & Atterbury, bankers, and has 
three children: Ann Atterbury, Eliphalet Nott, Jr., 
and John Turner Atterbury Potter. 

PRENTICE, John Hill, financier, was born in 
Baybrook, Conn., July 11, 1874, son of John and 
Caroline (Bill) Prentice. His first American 



pr 
N 



ancestor on the paternal side was Francis Cook, 
who came over on the Mayflower and on the 
maternal side Robert Hicks, who arrived at Ply- 
mouth on the Fortune in 1021. His maternal 
great-grandmother was Elizabeth Hicks, and his 
great-grandfather was Com. Benjamin Cooper. 
John 11. Prentice was educated at St. Mark's School 
at Southboro, Mass., during 1889-94, and at 
Columbia College, where he was graduated A.B. in 
1897, and received the degree of A.M. in I.X'.is. 
During his college career he was captain of iho 
Columbia boat crew for two years, being the first 
captain of a Columbia crew to win an eight-oar 
race at the Poughkeepsie intercollegiate races. 
He was a member of the Delta Psi fraternity. 
After traveling for a year or more, he entered the 
banking house of Strong, Sturges & Co., where he 
remained four years. He then associated himself 
with the firm of Kinnicut & Potter, bankers, and 
in 1900 the firm of Potter, Choate & Prentice was 
formed. Mr. Prentice is a director of the Alabama 
& Great Southern, and of the Virginia & South- 
western railroad companies. He is interested in 
all out-door sports, especially shooting and fishing. 
He is a member of the Knickerbocker, Union, 
Racquet and Tennis, University, Metropolitan, 
Midday and St. Anthony clubs of New York, anil 
of the Tuxedo and the Boone and Crockett clubs. 
He was married in June, 1900, to Kate Sheldon, 
daughter of Alfred C. Harrison of Philadelphia, 
and has two daughters, Caroline Cooper and Kate 
de Forest Prentice. 

EARL, Edward, banker, was born at Elizabeth, 
N. J., July 22, 1870, son of William Alexander 
Crane and Phoebe Ogden (Magie) Earl, and a de- 
scendant of Edward Earl, a native of York, England, 
who came to America in 1030, settling first at 
Barbadoes, afterward in Maryland and finally at 
Secaucus, N. J., in 1070. His wife was Hannah 
Baylis of Maryland, and their son was Edward 
Earl, who married Elsie Alice (Vreeland), daughter 
of Enoch Vreeland of Communipaw, N. J., and was a 
member of the New Jersey Colonial house of repre- 
sentatives and at one time 
was chosen its speaker. Mr. 
Earl was educated in the 
public schools of Elizabeth, 
N. J., and began his busi- 
ness career in New York city 
in 1886. He was identified 
with various mercantile en- 
terprises until, in 1887, he 
entered the service of the 
Naussau Bank of New York 
as clerk. He rose to vari- 
ous higher positions in the 
bank until in 1898 he was 
made assistant cashier, and 
in 1907 cashier. In Novem- 
ber of the following year 
became its president, a 
position Ive still holds. He 
is also vice-president of 
Knos Richardson & Co. and 
the Richardson Manufacturing Co. Mr. Earl is 
essentially a self-made man. By sheer force of his 
energy, good judgment and executive ability he has 
steadily forged to the front, until to-day, although 
still a young man, he stands among the leaders of 
the banking world. He is a painstaking and labori- 
ous student, not only of the affairs of the count- 
ing room, but of everything related to life; he is 
an accurate judge of character, a single glance, it 
is said, being sufficient to lay bare the motives of 
men with whom he deals. Ahvays genial, simple, 
unaffected and approachable, he wins his way into 




104 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




the esteem of the public, commanding the respect 
of all with whom he comes in contact. He is a 
member of the New York Chamber of Commerce, 
the Montclair (N. J.) Club and the Montclair Golf 
Club. Mr. Earl was married Jan. 25, 1894, to 
Carolyn, daughter of John K. Felter of Elizabeth, 
N. J., and has one son, Kenneth Alexander, and 
one daughter. Margery Earl. 

SANDERS, Jared Young, twenty-eighth gov- 
ernor of Louisiana. ( 190S i was born in the Parish of 
St. Mary, near Morgan City, La., Jan. 29, 1869, son 
of Jared Young and Bessie 
(Wofford) Sanders. His 
father, a sugar planter, died 
when the son was twelve 
years of age, and the flood 
of 1SS2. caused by a cre- 
vasse in the levees of the 
Mississippi river, swept 
away the plantation and 
left young Sanders with 
his mother and six little 
brothers and sisters wholly 
dependent upon him. He 
obtained employment in a 
country store in his neigh- 
borhood and continued at 
this and similar occupa- 
tions for several years. 
Then he entered a printing 
office and learned the trade, 
so that to-day he is a 
thorough practical printer 
of the old school. From being an employee of the St . 
Mary "Banner," he became its editor in 1X91, and 
some years later secured a controlling interest of that 
periodical. While editor of the St. Mary " Banner," 
he began reading law; was able to matriculate at 
the law department of Tulane University in 1891, 
and after being graduated in 1893, wa.s admitted 
to the bar in May of that year. He formed a 
partnership with Placide P. Sigur, under the 
firm name of Sigur & Sanders, with offices in 
Franklin, La. This firm was changed to Sigur. 
Milling & Sanders, in 1S!I(>, and in February, 1901, 
Emile Godchaux was admitted to the partner- 
ship. Under the name of Foster. Milling, God- 
chaux A Sanders, it continued until Jan. 1, 1907, 
when he severed his connection with the copartner- 
ship and engaged in practice by himself. Mr. 
Sanders' political career began in 1S92 with his 
election to the legislature as a Democrat. By 
reelection he served twelve years in that body, 
and in 1900 was unanimously elected speaker nf 
the house, figuring in what was said to be one of 
the most unusual elections that ever occurred in 
the house. The speaker of the house, which had 
adjourned in 1898, was a member of the legislature 
of 1900, but despite this fact Mr Sanders was 
given every vote on the floor, the representatives 
thus paying tribute to the young man who had 
so distinguished himself in law and politics. He 
continued to be speaker until 1904, when he was 
nominated and elected lieutenant-governor of 
Louisiana. The vote given to Mr. Sanders was 
the largest given to any of the candidates both in 
the Democratic primary and in the general elec- 
tion that followed. In April, 1908, he was elected 
governor, and assumed office in the following 
month. In his inaugural address the policies 
he outlined and the reforms he recommended 
attracted wide attention. A.. long the important 
measures enacted upon his suggestion were laws 
regulating the traffic in intoxicating liquors; 
abolishing race-track gambling; creating a game 
commission to conserve the birds, animals, and 
fish of the state; repealing the tax upon mort- 



gages, for the purpose of encouraging the invest- 
ment of outside capital in the development of the 
state; creating commissions to codify the civil 
and criminal laws of the state; amending the 
primary election law with a view to minimizing 
the opportunity and providing a punishment for 
fraud in the elections and a number of other 
important measures. Perhaps no governor of 
Louisiana has enjoyed a wider personal acquaint- 
ance with the people of the state. His power as an 
orator, and his firm grasp upon the problems that 
interest the masses made him one of the foremost 
of the younger generation of public men in the 
southwest. Gov. Sanders was married May 31, 
1MU. to Ada, daughter of J. F. Shaw of Arkansas, 
and has one son, Jared Young Sanders, Jr. 

WALDO, Samuel Lovett, artist, was born 
in Windham, Conn., Apr. 6, 1783. He received 
his art instruction in Connecticut, but painted 
his early pictures in Charleston, S. C. In 1806 he 
went to London and for three years was engaged 
in painting portraits, after which he opened a studio 
in New York, where he spent the rest of his life. 
For eighteen consecutive years he painted por- 
traits in conjunction with his pupil William Jewett, 
(17951873), also a native of Connecticut, who 
was Waldo's assistant for a number of years in New 
York. A portrait of "Reverend Gardener Spring" 
by Waldo and Jewett hangs hi the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. Waldo's color was not so fresh 
as Gilbert Stuart's, and his "brush-work" not quite 
so free, but he constructed a head with a great deal 
of knowledge of the planes of the human face, and 
his work was in most respects superior to his con- 
temporaries. He died in New York Feb. 16, 1861. 

SWANSON, Claude Augustus, forty-second 
governor of Virginia 1 190li-10), was born at Swanson 
ville, Pittsylvania co . Ya .. Mar 31, 1862, son of John 
M. and Catherine (Pritchett) Swanson. His father 
was a prosperous manufacturer and merchant until 
the year 1ST."), when by losses in tobacco speculation 
his entire property was -wept away. Up to this time 
the son had devoted himself to his education in the 
public schools of his native county, but now, being 
thrown upon his own resources, he worked for two 
years at farming. After teaching school for one 
year, he attended one session at the Virginia Agri- 
cultural and Medical College, and then served as clerk 
in a store in Danville, Va., for two years, devoting 
his nights to study. Meanwhile he became a mem- 
ber of a debating society and displayed considerable 
oratorical talent. Being impressed with an address 
delivered by him before all the union Sunday schools, 
four prominent citizens of Danville became interested 
in the young man and offered to furnish the means 
to complete his education. This offer accepted, the 
following three years were spent at Randolph-Macon 
College, where he was graduated A.B. in 1885, and 
was awarded the Sutherlin me.lal for oratory, the 
highest honor conferred by the institution. He then 
took a law course at the University of Virginia, 
where he was graduated H L. in l.xs.Y Heat once 
engaged in the practice of liis profession at Chatham, 
Va., ami was successful from the start, and also 
obtained considerable prominence politically. He 
wa- a delegate at large to the Democratic national 
convention in Chicago, 1896. In 1S93 he was 
elected on the Democratic ticket to present the .~>th 
Virginia district in congress and continued to serve 
by reelection until 1906, when he resigned to take 
up his duties as governor of his state. He was re- 
elected to this office on Nov. 7, 1905, by a majority 
of more than 37,000, for the term ending Feb. 1. 
1910. Gov. Swanson was married Dec. 11, 1S!'4, to 
Lizzie Deane Lynn. 

MANN, William Hodges, forty-third governor of 
Virginia, i 1910 ) was born in Williamsburg, Va., 



OF AMKU1CAN HKXiKAPHY. 



July 30, 1S43, son of John and Mary Hunter (Bow- 
ers) Mann. His father died when he was an infant, 
and his mother remarried in 1852 and moved to 
Brownsburg, Vu. There lie attended the Brmvns- 
burg Academy until ls.">7, when, al fourteen year- of 
age, he went to Petersburg, Va., and began to earn his 
living. In 1859 he was deputy clerk of the county 
of Nottoway and studied law during spare moments. 
When the civil war began he volunteered in the 
confederate army and was enlisted in company E 
of the 12th Virginia infantry. At the battle of 
Srven I'ines lie was too severely injured for further 
physical exertion and after a short service under the 
confederate states government at Richmond he 
went to Uinwiddie Courthouse as deputy clerk and 
associated himself with C'apt. \V. A. Adams. He 
and Adams rendered most dangerous and difficult 
service to the confederacy as scouts and spies in the 
operations around Petersburg, rendering themselves 
so obnoxious to the enemy that order., were given 
to execute them at once if captured. Once Mr. 
Mann was caught, but succeeded in making his 
escape. After the war, he returned to Nottoway. 
and in 1S67 stood his examination and was admitted 
to the practice of the law. In 1870, although but 
twenty-seven years of age, he was elected as the first 
county judge of Nottoway, which position he con- 
tinued to occupy for twenty-two years, when he 
voluntarily retired from the bench. During his 
whole service on the bench but two of his decisions 
were reversed. Judge Mann has always taken an 
active interest in politics and has frequently been 
mentioned for high office. Upon the death of Sen. 
Harbour he was seriously considered by Gov. 
McKinney for appointment as U. S. senator. In 
1900 his name was presented to the joint Demo- 
cratic caucus of the general assembly for election as 
judge of the supreme court to succeed the late Judge 
Riley. His endorsements were of the strongest, and 
only after many ballots was he defeated by Judge 
Stafford G. Whittle. For many years Judge Mann 
served as a member of the Democratic state execu- 
tive committee, and in that capacity his advice has 
been often sought by those high in Democratic 
authority. At the presidential election in 1900 he 
was one of the Democratic electors at large, and was 
the unanimous choice for chairman of the electors. 
Upon the election to the state senate in 1899, Judge 
Mann was unanimously elected chairman of the 
Democratic senate caucus and later he was elected 
chairman of the committee on privileges and elec- 
tions, which carried with it the Democratic leader- 
ship on the floor of the senate in all matters involving 
party politics. In 1903 he was made chairman of a 
committee of nine of the ablest members of the 
general assembly, chosen to revise Virginia's laws 
to conform to the new constitution. His course 
in the senate has been characterized by his fearl<-->- 
ness of personal consequences, and the success with 
which he has prosecuted important measures for 
which he contended. While he has taken an active 
part in all of the important legislation passed in 
Virginia during the past ten years, his crowning 
legislative achievements perhaps have been the 
Mann liquor law and the High School law. The 
former was aimed at and destroyed the cross-roads 
grorrgery. When the Mann bill was first introduced 
it met with a storm of opposition and ridicule. But 
soon petitions began to pour in from every section of 
the state, and the bill was endorsed by three of the 
great Christian denominations, and finally after an 
aggressive and most ably conducted fight, the bill 
was passed. The High School law provides a 
method by which the state will aid any school dis- 
trict in securing a high school, and since its passage 
in 1906 over 215 high schools have been established 
in Virginia. He resigned from the senate in June, 



I (Mis, and in November, 1909 was elected to the 
gubcTnatural chair. Gov. Mann is known for his 
ability, energy and uncompromising integrity; he 
is broad, progressive, but conservative in hi- views, 
and combines the best ideals of the old school with 
the progressive methods of to-day. He has served 
as president of the Citizens' Bank at Blackstone, 
Va., and since 1889 has been president of the Bank 
of Crewe. He was married to Sallie, daughter of 
C. W. Fitzgerald, of Nottoway county, in 1869. 
She died in 1882, and he was remarried in 1885, 
to Etta, daughter of Alexander Donnan of Peters- 
burg, Va., and had two sons, of whom one is living, 
William Hodges Mann, Jr. 

VERMEULE, Cornelius Clarkson, engineer, 
was born at New Brunswick. N. J., Sept. 5, 1858, 
son of Adrian and Maria (Veghte) Vermeule, and a 
descendant of Adrian Vermeule, the founder of the 
family in America, who emigrated from Holland in 
1699. This ancestor had no intention of settling 
here, having come to visit friends who were among 
the residents of the town of Harlem, but it happened 
that at that time the Reformed Church of Harlem 
had fallen into difficulties principally through 
disagreements among its members, and Adrian 
Vermeule, who was an educated man, was engaged 
temporarily to fill the position of town clerk and 
" voorleser," or lecturer, that had just been vacated 
by John Tiebout. This opening decided him to 
remain permanently in the colony, and after 
serving the Reformed Church of Harlem for eight 

gjars, he was invited to fill a similar position in 
ergen, N. J. Here he married Christina Cadmus, 
and the line of descent is traced through their son 
Cornelius, a large landholder and several times a 
member of the provincial congress of New Jersey, 
his son Cornelius, his son Isaac Davis, who was the 
grandfather of the subject of this biography. Mr. 
Vermeule received his early education at Rutgers 
School in New Brunswick, and was graduated at 
Rutgers College with the degree of C.E. in 1878. 
He began his professional career in charge of the 
topographical survey of New Jersey, and after its 
completion opened an office in 
New York city for the practice 
of his profession as consulting 
civil engineer. He was con- 
nected with the United States 
geological survey during 1884- 
88, being engaged upon special 
work in New Jersey, and dur- 
ing 1889-91 he made survey- 
for additional reservoirs for the / 
Croton watersheds which furn- / 
ish water for Greater New York. / 
Most of his engineering work /,. 
has been along the lines of 
water supplies and water power, 
and in this specialty he has won 
recognition as a leading autho- 
rity. In 1903 he built a new 
water system for Ithaca, N. Y., 
which put an end to a serious 
epidemic of typhoid fever which 
was attributed to the old water 
supply. He has also planned or built water works 
for the cities of East Orange, N. J. ; Hudson, N. Y. ; 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Jersey City, N. J.; and Norfolk 
and Suffolk Va., and during 1902-03 he developed 
a plan for large water power on the Susquehanna 
river. Mr. Vermeule is the author of a number 
of papers on scientific subjects, the most important 
of which is a "Report on the Water Supply of the 
State of New Jersey," a voluminous treatise on the 
entire subject of the water supply of that state. 
His other papers of note are "The Effect of the 
Forests on the Evaporation of Water on Land 




106 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.ED1A 




, 



Bodies" and "Report on the Drainage of the 
Hackensack Meadows." He was founder and man- 
aging director of York Cliffs, a summer resort in 
the state of Maine. He is a member of the Cen- 
tury Club, the Holland Society, the New England 
Society of the Oranges, the New Jersey HistorieEl 
Society, the Newark Board of Trade, the New Jer- 
sey Sanitary Association, and the American Water- 
works Association. Mr. Vernieule was married 
June 7, 1888, to Caroline, daughter of Col. Horatio 
Reed, and granddaughter of Benjamin Carpenter of 
New York city, and has two sons, Cornelius C., Jr., 
and Warren C. Vermeule. 

STONE, John Stone, inventor, and electrical 
engineer, was born in Dover, Goochland co., Va., 
Sept. 26, 18(39, son of Charles 
Pomeroy and Annie Jeannie 
(Stone) Stone. His father 
(q.v.) fought in in the war 
with Mexico and the civil 
war, being twice promoted 
for gallant conduct on the 
field of battle ; was lieutenant- 
general in the Egyptian army ; 
and had charge of the depart- 
ment of public works of the 
kingdom of Egypt, as well as 
other high positions in that 
country. His American an- 
cestry dates back to Deacon 
Gregory Stone and his wife 
Margaret Garrard, who came 
from Much Bromley, Essex, 
England, in 1634, and settled 
in Cambridge, Mass. Gregory 
Stone became one of the original proprietors 
of Watertown, and the line of descent is traced 
through John, Nathaniel, John, John and Alpheus 
Stone. John Stone Stone early displayed a fond- 
ness for the study of phvsics and chemistry. 
His childhood was passed largely in Egypt and 
Europe, and upon the return of his parents 
to the United States in 1883 he attended Colum- 
bia grammar school, New York, the school of 
mines of Columbia University and Johns Hopkins 
University. His studies were mathematics, physics, 
chemistry and electrical engineering, and his course 
at Johns Hopkins was practically a post-graduate 
course, though no actual degree was required for 
admission. He entered the laboratory of the 
American Bell Telephone Co. in Boston, in 1890, 
as an experimentalist, and afterward was retained 
as the company's expert. He was a professional 
consulting electrical engineer on his own account, 
during 18991902, after which he became vice-presi- 
dent and chief engineer of the Stone Telegraph and 
Telephone Co. and in 1908 became its president. He 
was also special lecturer on electrical oscillations and 
their applications at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology for a number of years. He has secured 
over 100 United States patents and a corresponding 
number in foreign countries, covering various inven- 
tions of telegraph and telephone devices and wire- 
less telegraphy. These include an invention for 
centralizing the energy in telephone systems (1893) 
which came into very general use in the United 
States and abroad. In 1897 he received a patent 
for a method of increasing the efficiency of tele- 
phone lines by the increase of the inductance of 
the line. This method was superseded by one 
patented by Prof. Pupin. In 1902-03 he obtained 
a group of patents covering a system of selective 
wireless telegraphy free from interference and in 
1903 lie received a patent covering the first ^-.plica- 
tion of the principles of electrical resonance to use- 
ful arts. The most important feature of the Stone 
system of wireless telegraphy is its selectivity and 



immunity from interference. The one great draw- 
back to wireless telegraphy in the past was its 
uncertainty due to the interference by atmospheric 
electricity, as well as by the signals of nearby sta- 
tions. Like the telephone in its early days, wireless 
telegraphy was operative only when outside con- 
ditions were favorable, and for that reason its use 
was restricted almost entirely to ships at sea and 
between ships at sea and the shore. The only 
efficient means of preventing such interference in 
the wireless telegraph is Mr. Stone's selective trans- 
mitter and receiver, which has been perfected to such 
a point that interference due to atmospheric elec- 
trical disturbances is almost wholly eliminated. 
With it 1.000 stations may be located within a 
radius of fifty miles from any city and intercom- 
municate with one another without mutual inter- 
ference. Other important inventions of his in 
wireless telegraphy are the "direction finder," 
an apparatus by means of which the wireless tele- 
graph equipment of any vessel may be used to enable 
the navigator to determine the direction from which 
wireless telegraph signals are coming, thus locating 
the bearing or direction from his vessel of any wire- 
less telegraph station on another ship or on shore 
and enabling him to determine his bearings in the 
thickest weather at a far greater distance than he 
could hear a fog signal or even see a light in clear 
weather, it will indicate the direction or bearing of a 
wireless station twenty to seventy-five miles away, 
to within two-thirds of a point a system by which 
the messages are automatically rendered secret or 
illegible except at the station at which they are 
intended to be received ; and methods and apparatus 
for simultaneously transmitting and receiving wire- 
less telegraph signals; relaying wireless telegraph 
messages; directing signals so tha.t they shall not 
go out in all directions as they do at present, 
and for multiplex wireless telegraphy. These 
wireless telegraphy inventions are all owned and 
controlled by the Stone Telegraph and Telephone 
Co. He is also the inventor of a system-of wire- 
less telephony now used by the Radio Tele- 
phone Co. Mr. Stone was a member of the Inter- 
national Electrical Congress which met at St. Louis 
in 1904, at which he read a paper on "The Theory 
of Wireless Telegraphy." He is a fellow of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of 
the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science; past president and present vice-president 
of the Society of Wireless Telegraph Engineers; 
vice-president of the Wireless Telegraph Associa- 
tion of America ; member of the American Electro- 
chemical Society; Associate of the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers; member of the Society 
of Arts of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ; 
member of the Mathematical and Physical Club; 
the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity, the Johns Hopkins 
Alumni Association of New England and of the 
Aztec Club of 1847; the St. Botolph, Technology 
and Papyrus clubs of Boston, the National Arts 
Club of New York, and the Army and Navy, and 
Cosmos clubs of Washington, D. C. 

KERENS, Richard C., capitalist and diplomat, 
was born in the county of Killberry, Ireland, in is !'_'. 
son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Gugerty) Kerens. 
His parents came to the United States when he 
was an infant and settled in Jackson county, la.,' 
where, a few years later, his father died. As soon 
as he was old enough he did his share in helping to 
support his mother and sisters. At the beginning 
of the civil war he entered the federal army, being 
assigned to the transportation department, and 
spent two years in Virginia with the army of the 
Potomac. In 1863 he was transferred ' to the 
West and tnok part as a soldier in the campaigns in 



OK AMKRICA.N HIoCKAl'HY. 



107 



southwestern Missouri and northwestern Arkansas. 
The war ended, he settled in Arkansas. In 1872 
Mr. Kerens began the work of transporting mails, 
express matter and passengers to points on the 
frontier not reached by railroads, and ran great 
risks in carrying on the business, as the route lay 
through territory inhabited by hostile Indians. In 
I s7 I he began the operation of an overland mail 
sci \ ice, covering 1400 miles. The difficulty and 
danger attending this was great, but Mr. Kerens 
allowed no circumstance to daunt him, and so 
satisfactorily were his duties performed that he 
was kept in service through three administrations 
and was commended by three postmasters-general. 
The introduction of railroads into the states where 
he had operated brought his work to a close, and 
he removed to St. Louis, Mo., in 1876. There he 
did not engage actively in business, having large 
interests in mines in New Mexico, Colorado and 
Arizona, as well as in railroads in which he had 
acquired interests. He became identified with 
the construction of the Cotton Belt system, West, 
Virginia Central it 1'ittsburg Railway system, 
St. Louis & North Arkansas railroad, San Pedro. 
Los Angeles and Salt Lake railway system, and 
Coal it Coke railroad of West Virginia. He is also 
interested in the Atchison, Topeka & Santa F6 
system. Pres. Harrison appointed him com- 
missioner at large to the World's Columbian 
Exposition during 1892-83; but he resigned in the 
latter year to accept the appointment of one of 
three United States commissioners for the inter- 
national-continental railway committee, which 
had for its object the construction of a railway 
through the South American republics. Upon 
becoming a resident of St. Louis, Mr. Kerens 
entered the field of politics, giving efficient aid to 
the Republican party. He was a member of the 
national executive committee during 1884-1900, 
and has been candidate at large to the national 
convention at Minneapolis since 1892, when he was 
elected to represent his state in the national 
committee; and later he was selected as one of 
nine members of the executive committee. In 
1896 he was again chosen to represent Missouri on 
the national committee, while in 1897 and 1899 
lie received the votes of the Republican members 
of the legislature as a candidate of the I'. S. senator- 
ship. In December, 1909, he was appointed by 
Pres. Taft to succeed Charles S. Francis as ambas- 
sador to Austria-Hungary, which post he now occu- 
pies. In 1904 he received the Laetare medal from 
thi> University of Notre Dame (Ind.) for philan- 
thropy and dist inguished services to church and state. 
Mr. Kerens is a member of the St. Louis, Union 
League (N. Y.), and Young Men's Republican 
(Philadelphia) clubs. He was married at Fort 
Smith, Ark., June 2, 1867, to Frances Jane Jones. 

DIXON, Joseph Moore, U. S. senator, was 
born at Snow Camp. Alamance co., X. C., July 31, 
1807, son of Hugh W. and Flora A. (Murchison) 
Dixon. His first American ancestor, Thomas Dixon, 
was an English Quaker, who emigrated to Pennsyl- 
vania with a party headed by William Penn, and 
his great-great-grandfather, Simon Dixon, was the 
brother-in-law of Herman Husbands (q.v.), who 
led the colonists of central North Carolina in the 
re\nlt against Gov. Tryon in 1771. His father 
Hugh W. Dixon, was a manufacturer of cotton 
machinery. The son was educated at Sylvan 
Academy and at (iuilford College, North Carolina. 
Upon attaining his majority he determined to go 
West, and in 1891 settled at Missoula, Mont., which 
became his permanent residence. In the following 
year he was admitted to the bar of that state, and at 
once entered upon an active and lucrative practice. 



He served as assistant prosecuting attorney of Mis- 
soula county during 1893-95, and as prosecuting 
attorney during 1895-97 and a member of the Mon- 
tana legislature in 1900. He was a congressman-at- 
large from Montana during 1902-06. Meanwhile, in 
1904, he was a delegate to the Republican national 
convention held in Chicago. At the expiration of his 
second term in congress lie declined a reelection, and 
announced his candidacy for the national senate, 
He was elected in January, 1907, to succeed Sen. 
William A. Clark, for the term expiring Mar. 3, 
1913. Sen. Dixon was married Mar. 12, 1896, to 
Carrie M., daughter of Frank L. Worden of MLssoula, 
and has four daughters, Virginia, Florence, Dorothy 
and Mary Dixon. 

THACHEB, Thomas, lawyer, was born in New 
Haven ,Conn., May 3, 1850, son of Thomas Anthony 
and Elizabeth (Day) Thacher. His father was 
graduated at Yale College in 1835, and as pro- 
fessor of Latin there from 1842 until his death in 
1886. His mother was the daughter of Jeremiah 
Day, president of Yale during 1817-46. The founder 
of the family in this country was Thomas Thacher, 
son of Peter Thacher, rector of the Parish of St. Ed- 
monds, in Salisbury, England, who came to America 
in 1635 and was the first minister of the Old South 
Church in Boston. He married Eliza Partridge, 
and from them the lime of descent is traced through 
Rev. Ralph Thacher, and his wife, Ruth Partridge; 
Peter Thacher, and his wife, Abigail Hibbard; John 
Thacher, and his wife, Abigail Swift, and Peter 
Thacher and his wife, Ann Parks, who were the 
grandparents of the subject of this sketch. Young 
Thacher attended the Webster public school and 
the Hopkins grammar school in New Haven, and 
was graduated in the academic department of Yale 
College on 1871. After teaching in the Hopkins 
grammar school for a year, he took a post-graduate 
course, and during 1873-75 studied law at the 
Columbia Law School under Prof. Dwight. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1875. That summer 
he aided Hon. Ashbel Green in preparing for publi- 
cation Green's Brice's Ultra Vires, a work on cor- 
poration law ; and in the fall became a clerk in the 
office of Alexander & Green. Soon afterward he 
began a general law practice in 
New York, giving special attention 
to matters relating to corporations 
and becoming attorney of the 
Equitable Trust Company. In 
1884 he became one of the firm 
of Simpson, Thacher & Barnum, 
whose name has been variously 
Reed, Simpson, Thacher & Barn- 
um; Simpson, Thacher, Barnum & 
Bartlett ; and Simpson, Thacher & 
Bartlett. Mr. Thacher is a promi- 
nent authority on law matters. He 
has contributed occasional articles 
to law publications and for many 
years has lectured on corporations 
in the law school of Y'ale Universi- 
ty. Always actively interested in 
matters relating to Y'ale, he was 
president of the Yale Allumni Association of New 
York city, during 1895-97, haying previously been 
its secretary and on its executive committes ; and 
upon the organization of the Yale Club in 1897 he 
was its president until 1902. At the Yale Bi- 
Centennial in 1901 he delivered an address on 
"Yale in Relation to the Law," and in 1903 the 
Yale corporation gave him the degree of LL.D. 
Mr. Thacher has been an occasional contributor 
to legal publications. He was married Dec. 1, 
1880, to Sarah MeCulloh, daughter of his preceptor, 
Ashbel Green, and has one son, Thomas D. 




108 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 




Thacher, and three daughters, Louise Green, wife 
of Theodore I. Driggs, Sarah, wife of Lewis Martin 
Richmond, and Elizabeth Thacher. He is a mem- 
ber of the University, Century, Yale, City Midday 
and Railroad clubs, and the Association of the Bar 
of the City of New York, the New York State Bar 
Association, the Law Institute, and the American 
Bar Association. 

WELLMAN, Joshua Wymau, clergyman and 
author, was born at Cornish. N. 11., Nov. 28, 1821, 
son of James Ripley and Phebe (Wyman) Wellman. 
His first American ancestor was 
Thomas Wellman, a native of 
England, who came to the colo- 
nies and settled at Lynn (now 
Lynnfield), Mass., about 1025. 
The line of descent is traced 
through his son Abraham, who 
married Elizabeth Cogswell ; their 
son Abraham, who married 
Elizabeth Taylor; their son, 
Rev. James, who married Sarah 
Barnard; their son James, who 
married Alethea Ripley, and 
their son James Ripley, who 
was Mr. Wellman 's father. 
Joshua W. \\Yllman attended 
the public schools of Cornish, 
and the Kimbal' Union Acad- 
emy, Meriden, N. H. He taught 
sometime :;t Hart lord, Yt., and 
at Kimball Union Academy, 
and for two terms was princi- 
pal of the academy at Rochester, Mass. He 
was graduated at Dartmouth College in 1840, 
whereupon he continued teaching for three years. 
Entering Andover Theological Seminary in 1M7, 
he was graduated in 18.50, and remained a 
resident licentiate at the seminary for one year. 
After being ordained to the ministry he was 
installed as pastor of the First Church, Derry. 
N. H. in 18.51, and his other charges were the 
Eliot Church, Xewton, Mass. ]s:,i, 7:1) and the 
I irM Church at Maiden, Mass. (1874-83). After 
that date he preached in various localities, while 
using much of his time for literary work. Dur- 
ing the civil war he visited the South and saw 
something of the horrors of that conflict. He was 
strongly opposed to slavery, and the plain state- 
ments of his views in his sermons in Newton pro- 
duced considerable excitement at the time when 
many believed that the pulpit should be silent on 
such subjects. Mr. Wellman was a member of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, the New England Historic-Genealogical 
Society, ami the General Theological Library of 
Boston. He was for many years one of the mana- 
gers of the Congregational Sunday-School and 
Publishing Society, a trustee of Phillips Academy, 
and a director of the American College and Educa- 
tional Society. lie was the author of "The Church 
Polity of the Pilgrims" (1857); "Review of the 
Sabbath Hymn and Tune Book"; "Our Nation 
under the Government of God," a war sermon 
preached in 1802; "Christianity and our Civil In- 
stitutions," "A Review of Dr. A. V. G. Allen's 
Biography of Jonathan Edwards" flNKh. : ,nd 
Origin and Early History of the Eliot Church, 
Newton, (1904), besides numerous sermons, ad- 
dresses and magazine articles. He received the 
degree of D.D. from Olivet College in 1808 and from 
Dartmouth College in 1870. Mr. Wellman was 
married Oct. 24, 1854, to Ellen M., daughter of 
Caleb Strong Holbrook of Holbrook, Mass., and 
had two sons, Arthur Holbrook and Edward Wy- 
man (deceased), and two daughters, Ellen Hol- 



brook, wife of Robert Cushman King, and Annie 
Durfee Wellman (deceased). 

WELLMAN, Arthur Holbrook, lawyer, was 
was born at East Randolph (now Holbrook), Mass., 
Oct. 30, 1855, son of Rev. Joshua Wyman and 
Ellen Maria (Holbrook) Wellman. His first Ameri- 
can ancestor was Thomas Wellman, who emigtated 
to the colonies and settled at Lynn ( now Lynn- 
field), Mass., about 1025. From him and his 'wife 
Elizabeth the line of descent is traced through 
their son Abraham, who married Elizabeth Cogswell ; 
their son Abraham, who married Elizabeth Taylor 
and perished at the siege of Louisburg under Gen. 
Pepperell in 1795 ; their son, Rev. James, who 
married Sarah Barnard; their son James, who 
married Alethea Ripley, and their son James Rip- 
ley, who married Phebe Wyman, and who was 
Mr. Wellman 's grandfather. He is also descended 
on his father's side from William Bradford and 
William Brewster, Pilgrim fathers. He was 'ed- 
ucated in the public schools of Newton, Mass., 
and at Amherst College, being graduated at the 
latter in 1878 as valedictorian. He took up the 
study of law at the Harvard law school and at 
the Boston University law school, graduating at 
the latter in 1882 with the degree of LL.B. 
.-,1111111111 rum lin/i/e. His practical experience was 
acquired in the office of the late Lyman Mason, 
and he was admitted to the Suffolk" bar in Isxj. 
Among the cases with which Mr. Wellman has been 
connected are Chapman vs. Kimball, before the 
supreme court of Maine, in which was involved 
the question of "presumption of death;" the 
famous Andover case which was in the Massachu- 
setts courts for many years; Stanwood vs. City of 
Maiden, a Massachusetts case involving questions 
relating to the discontinuance of public ways; 
Kanz vs. Page, a Massachusetts case in regard to 
"assumption of risk" in accident cases; Bibber- 
White Co. vs. White River Valley Electric Railroad 
Co., in which the U. S. court of appeals made an 
important decision in regard to receiver's certi- 
ficates. He has paid much attention to equity, 
real estate, and probate law. He 
has served upon many important 
commissions and as master and 
referee. Mr. Wellman wasa mem- 
ber of >he common council of 
Maiden, his residence, in 1885, and 
served as citv solicitor during 
1889-91. In i sxi i he became an 
instructor in the Boston Univer- 
sity law school, and in 1891 was 
made professor in that institu- 
tion. He succeeded the late Elias 
Merwin as lecturer on equity 
jurisprudence and equity plead- 
ing, and held the position until 
190'J. In politics Mr. Wellman is 
a Republican, and served in the 
lowe- hour" of the state legislature 
in 1S92, when he wasa member of 
the <-ommitteeon the judiciary ; in 
189o becoming house chairman 
of the committee on cities, house chairman of a 
special committee on the unemployed, and a mem- 
ber of the committee on taxation. For the two 
following years lie wasa member of the state senate, 
and while in the upper house was chairman of the 
committee on railroads, a member of the committee 
on bills in the third reading, and on roads and 
bridges. In addition to his educational positions, 
Mr. \Vellmaii is president of the Maiden Hospital, 
trustee of the Maiden Public Library and of the 
Maiden Historical Society, vice-president of the 
Massachusetts Society of Sons of the American 




(IF AMKlili \\ I'.K i<;|; \|>|1V. 



100 



[{evolution. He is a member of the Converse 
Lodge of Masons, the Boston Congregational Club, 
of which he was president in IS'.di, the Boston Bar 
Association, the American Bar Association, and 
the Middlesex Bar Association. lie has been 
chairman of the board of trustees of the National 
Council of 'lie Congregational Church of the' United 
Stales, and he is a member of the Slate Hoard of 
Prison Commission, and of the Prudential Com 
mil tee of 1 he American Board of Commissions fin- 
Foreign Missions. Mr. Wellman was married < let . 
1 1, 1S87, to Jennie L., daughter of George' Faulkner, 
and has one son, Sargent Holbrook, and one daugh- 
ter, Katherine Faulkner Wellman. 

BABCOCK, Maltbie Davenport, clergyman, 
was born at Syracuse, N. Y., Aug. '.'>. IN.Vs, eldest 
son of Henry and Emily Maria t Maltbie) Babcock. 
His first American ancestor was James Babcock, 
a native of England, who came to this country 
in lt',12, settling at Portsmouth, H. I. From him 
the line of decent is traced hrough his son John, 
who married Mary I.awtot ; their son George, 
who married Elizabeth Hall, their son David, 
who married Dorcas Brown; their son Gideon, 
who married Mary Chesebrough; their son Asa, 
who married Elizabeth Stanton Noyes, and their 
son Henry, who was Mr. Babcock's father. His 
ancestors for a number of generations in- 
cluded the most refined and cultivated men and 
women. His great-grandfather was Henry Davis, 
second president of Hamilton College, and his 
grandfather, Rev. Ebenezer Davenport Maltbie, 
was also a Presbyterian minister of note. Mr. 
Babcock was educated in the public schools of 
Syracuse and was graduated at Syracuse University, 
in 1879 with highest honors. He studied theology 
at the Auburn Theological Seminary, receiving 
his degree there in 1882, and immediately became 
pastor of a church at Lockport, N. Y. He soon 
disclosed an unusually brilliant intellect and stirring 
oratorical powers that commanded admiration, 
and won for him a foremost place among^ the 
favorites of his demonination. From Lockport 
he went to Baltimore, Md., and after remaining 
there for ten years, during which he wrought a 
marvelous influence over those who heard him 
preach, he was called to the Brick Church, New 
York city, in 1900, but his promising career was 
shortly thereafter terminated by an untimely 
death. Dr. Babcock was preeminently a preacher. 
He was a clear thinker and a fluent speaker, with 
a marvelous personal mag- 
netism which appealed to 
all classes of people, and 
the influence of which be- 
came in a sense national. 
His theology wasbroad and 
deep, yet without a touch 

-*-. __T\f of present-dayuncertainty. 

^'1 Added to the genius of 

spirituality he had the 
genius of work, and it was 
owing to his unselfish de- 
votion to the great work 
'\ of uplifting mankind that 
he literally wore himself 
out and died at the early 
age of forty-two. Noted 
for his impartial charity, 
he reached people in count- 
ways and exerted everywhere a remarkable 
personal magnetism. While he published no books 
he maybe said to have "lived, or sung his thoughts." 
Nothing better gauges the tenor and spirit of the 
man than a sentence found on the fly-leaf of his 
pocket Bible after his death: "Committed myself 




again \\ iih ( hnstian brothers to unreserved docility 
and devotion before my Master." He wrOfc 
number of 1'ughive poems, said to resemble , 
Of Emerson, uhich were published in connection 
with a memorial volume ol extracts from serni 
addresses, letters and newspaper articles, entitled 
Thoughts for Kvery-l >ay Living" I'.MTJi. Dr 
Babcock was a musician of rare talent and wrote 

some hymns of unusual beauty. Thede.rn.coi' h.l>. 
was conferred upon him bySyracu e i mversity in 
isiiii. Dr. Ba brock was married Oct. I, isvj". to 
Kalherine Kliol, daughter of Hon. John P II 

Tallman of Poughkeepsie, X. Y.. anil had child, 

who died in infancv. He died at .Yiple-. Italy, 
May IS, I'.Mll. 

DAVIDSON, James Ole, twenty-first gover- 
nor of Wisconsin (lilOU ), was born on a farm near 
Aardal, at the east end of Sogen 
Fjord, Norway, Feb. 10, l,s:>l, 
son of Ole and Ingabor (Jensen) 
Davidson. The educational fa- 
cilities of ' the district being 
very limited, his only schooling 
was received from itinerant 
religious instructors. His 1 <y 
hood was spent on his father's 
farm, and at the age of eighteen 
the rumored possibilities in the 
United States led him to emi- 
grate to this country. After 
a long, tedious trip, friendless, 
penniless, and unable to speak 
or understand the English lan- 
guage, he settled at Madison, 
Wis., where he soon obtained 
work on a farm, and at the same 
time with the aid of a spelling 
book taught himself the lan- 
guage of his newly adopted 
country. He served as a tailor's 
apprentice for a time and then obtained a clerkship 
in a general merchandise store at Boscobel. Wis 
Here he saved enough money to go into business for 
himself, and in 1877 he established a general store 
at Soldiers Grove, Crawford county, which became 
his permanent home. His business increased 
from year to year, until it became one of the largest 
of its kind in that part of the state, notwithstand- 
ing a serious loss by fire in 1885. In 1892, when fix- 
cause of the Republican party in Wisconsin appeared 
hopeless, the county leaders in casting aroUnd for 
an especially strong candidate for the legislature: 
selected Mr. Davidson as a likely candidate, ami 
in spite of his protests nominated him for the 
assembly, to which he was elected, the only Repub- 
lican on the ticket. His election was contested 
unsuccessfully, and he was twice reelerted. In 
the legislature he was the author of bills for the 
taxation of express companies and to mcnuM- 
the taxes to be paid by telegraph, teleph ne, 
sleeping-car, insurance and other corporations. 
He was the author of the law creating the ollire of 
state bank examiner, which led up to the present 
efficient and highly satisfactory system of bank 
supervision, and which was used as a model by many 
of the other states. Mr. Davidson was elected 
state treasurer in 1S9S, and reflected in l!Mi. 
The interest on public funds turned into the state 
treasury during his tenure of office amounted to 
$101,000, or three-fold more than under previous 
administrations, and of the 83,000,000 public 
funds invested by him as state treasurer, there 
was not a dollar's loss to the state. He was elected 
lieutenant-governor of the state in ]:MU, an 1 upon 
the resignation of Gov. La Follette to accept the 
office of U. S. senator he took the governor's chair 
Jan. 1, 1906. In the primary preceding the next 




110 



Till) NATIONAL CYCLOP.ED1A 



election he was chosen by an overwhelming major- 
ity to succeed himself, and he was elected by more 
than 80,000 majority, the largest majority ever 
received by a governor in a non-presidential year. 
Gov. Davidson was renominated without opposi- 
tion in 1908, and elected by a majority approximat- 
ing that of two years previous. The legislature 
of 1907, with which Gov. Davidson was in full 
accord, placed upon the statute books of Wisconsin, 
legislation that is far-reaching and important. 
Among these enactments is the uniform two-cent 
passenger rate law, the public utility act, and 
many other corrective and beneficial laws. He 
is a man of vigorous intellect and inherent integrity. 
He is entirely in sympathy with the Republican 
policy as outlined by Presidents Rosevelt and 
Taft. While a man of strong convictions, he at 
all times displays a coolness of judgment, a breadth 
of vision, a keenness of insight and a fairness, which 
peculiarly fit him for the office he was called upon 
to fill. Gov. Davidson is a member of the Masonic 
order, the Odd Fellows, Woodmen and Elks. He 
was married at Readstown, Wis., Feb. 21, 1883, 
to Helen M., daughter of Parker F. Bliss of Reads- 
town, and has two daughters, Mabel, wife of F. ( '. 
Inbiisch, and ( Jrace Davidson. 

BARTON, Enos Melancthon, president of the 
Western Electric Co., was born at Lorraine, N. Y., 
Dec. 2, 1842, son of Sidney William and Fanny 
(Bliss) Barton. He comes from a family of school 
teachers, his father being a school superintendent, 
and his mother the daughter of Rev. Enos Bliss, a 
graduate of Yale and an early missionary of Jeffer- 
son county. Enos M. Barton was educated in the 
public and private schools of Lorraine. He early 
developed remarkable mental aptitude for mathe- 
matics, having mastered all the propositions in the 
school arithmetic as well as those in Davies's 
"Elementary Algebra" by the time he was nine 
years of age. Owing to his father's poor health and 
limited means, he was early thrown upon his own 
resources. After working in a country store he 
became telegraph messenger in 
the Watertown telegraph office, 
where he soon became suffi- 
ciently expert as an operator, 
and was occasionally left in 
temporary charge of the office. 
Subsequently (in 1856) he se- 
cured a position in the post- 
office at Watertown, his fellow 
clerk being Roswell P Flower 
(q.v.). His next position was 
in the editorial office of the 
"Jefferson County News," con- 
ducted by Messrs. Eddy and 
Schram, but while he performed 
his duties faithfully and satis- 
factorily to his employer, such 
work did not appeal to him so 
well as the telegraph business, 
and finally after spending an- 
other term at school he went 
to Syracuse and entered the 

service of a telegraph company as operator. Shortly 
afterwards he was transferred to Rochester to be 
night operator there, a position that pleased him 
better because it gave him an opportunity to study. 
He attended a preparatory school in the afternoons 
while in Rochester, taking advantage of every 
opportunity to better his education. He even 
attended the University of Rochester for one year, 
while continuing his night work in the tele- 
graph office, but this close application to both work 
and >!iidy Ix'iran to tell upon him, and he was 
forced to give up his university course. He did 




//I. 



this just at the outbreak of the civil war, and was 
sent to New York by the Western Union Telegraph 
Co. to handle the press reports. He remained there 
two years, during which he perfected himself in the 
details of the telegraph business and at the same 
time completed the sophomore year at the Uni- 
versity of New York. Upon reaching his majority 
the company transferred him back to Rochester, 
where he was placed in charge of the day telegraph 
service. He continued in this office for five years, 
and it is much to his credit to record that "while 
supporting himself and adding to his education at 
every opportunity, he was regularly contributing 
to the support of his aged mother. In the fall of 
1868 the company served notice that the salaries of 
its employes would be reduced ten per cent., and 
young Barton thought it time to apply his energies 
and abilities in another direction. Recognizing the 
enormous possibilities in the field of electricity, he 
formed a partnership with George Shawk, of Cleve- 
land, O., to engage in the manufacture of elec- 
trical supplies. In the following year, Mr. Shawk 
sold his interest to Elisha Gray, the inventor, and 
the firm of Gray & Barton, which was successful 
from the start, soon became recognized as an im- 
portant factor in the electrical business. In the fall 
of 1869 Gen. Anson Stager (q.v.) became a general 
partner, and in the following year the firm removed 
to Chicago, where Gray & Barton became still better 
known. The company very fortunately escaped 
loss during the conflagration of 1871. Immediately 
after that event the Western Electric Co. was or- 
ganized with a capital of $150,000, and among its 
original stockholders were Gen. Anson Stuger, 
Elisha Gray, Milo G. Kellogg, and Enos M. Barton, 
Gen. Stager becoming the first president of the 
new company, and Mr. Barton, secretary. He was 
vice-president during 1S82-S6, and in the latter year 
became president of the company, a position he 
still holds. The Western Electric Co. is engaged in 
manufacturing electrical machinery and appliances 
of all kinds as well as electrical instruments made 
under the Bell telephone patents. Under the able 
direction and management of Mr. Barton, the busi- 
ness increased by leaps and bounds, additional 
plants were secured in New York, London, Paris, 
Berlin, and Antwerp, and the capital stock enlarged 
until at the present time (1909) the capital stock 
(issued) is $15,000,000, the gross annual business 
amounts to $45,000,000. The company maintains 
large supply houses in Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Cin- 
cinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis, Kansas City, 
Omaha, St. Paul, Denver, Salt Lake City, Seattle, 
San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Atlanta, and 
Vienna, Austria, St. Petersburg, Russia, and Tokio, 
Japan. The Hawthorne Works in Chicago alone 
cover 110 acres, and the employes number over 
15,000 hands. In addition to serving as the head 
of the Western Electric Co., Mr. Barton is a director 
of the Merchants Loan and Trust Co. of Chicago, 
and other corporations. He is a trustee of the 
University of Chicago, an associate member of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and 
member of the Chicago, Union League, Commercial, 
and Quadrangle clubs of Chicago, and the Hinsdale 
Club of Hinsdale, 111. Mr. Barton was twice mar- 
ried : first, in 1869, to Katherine S., daughter of 
Prof. John F. Richardson, of Rochester. NY., who 
died in 1898, leaving three children, Alvin L ., Clara 
M., and Mrs. Katherine Barton Childs. He was 
icnn married, Oct. 6, 1899, to Mary C., daughter of 
Henry A. Rust, by whom he had three sons, 
MalcolmS., Evan M., and GillxTt H. Barton. Mr. 
Barton has a beautiful summer residence at Hins- 
dale, Du Page co., 111., named "Sedgeley Farm," 
comprising over 1,000 acres. Personally,' Mr. Bar- 
ont is characterized as a plain, candid, unostenta- 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



Ill 



tious man, who loves best the simple life and the 
many attractions of his fine farm. Kind and gener- 
ous, no person could be held in higher esteem by 
business associates, friends, and people generally. 

STEPHENSON, Benjamin Franklin, founder 
of the Grand Army of the Republic, was born in 
Wayne county, 111 . Oct. .'i, 1X23, son of Jamrs and 
Margaret (Clinton) Stephenson. The latter was a 
relative of Charles Carroll of Carrollton. In 1NL'5 
his parents removed to Sangamon county, 111., 
where lir grew to manhood. His opportunities for 
education were meager, but he early displayed a 
natural inclination for the study of medicine, which 
however, he was not able to satisfy until after 
reaching his majority. He then took up the study 
of the subject with his brother, Dr. William Stephen- 
son of Mt. Pleasant, la., subsequently attending 
lectures at Columbus, O., and finishing at Hush 
Mc.lieal College in Chicago, where he was graduated 
M.I), in 1850. He was engaged in practice at 
Jacksonville, 111., when the civil war broke out. 
He was elected surgeon of the 14th Illinois infantry 
and served with his regiment through an active 
campaign. Returning to Springfield, he secured 
an interest in the drug firm of D. K. Gold & Co., 
and one year later formed a partnership with 1 >r. 
G. T. Allen and Dr. James Hamilton in the practice 
of medicine. In January, I860, he conceived the 
idea of a national society composed of honorably- 
discharged union soldiers and sailors, whose motto 
should be fraternity, charity and loyalty. Early 
in February of that year he completed the manu- 
script of the ritual, rules and regulations (taken 
partially from that of the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
League) and cm Apr. G, 1806, the anniversary of the 
battle of Shiloh, in which he and nearly all the 
charter members had participated, he mustered 
Post No. 1, of Decatur, department of Illinois, 
Grand Army of the Republic. Dr. Stephenson, 
from the first, pushed the new organization with 
great energy, and at the expense of much time and 
money fostered it to the point of standing alone. 
He was ably aided in the work of organization by 
Maj. Robert Mann Woods, Col. Daniel Grass and 
others. At the permanent organization of the 
department of Illinois, the first to be organized, Dr. 
Stephenson was made provisional commander-in- 
chief of the national order. Upon the permanent 
organization of the order, at the first national 
encampment held at Indianapolis, Ind., Nov. 20, 
1866, he was elected adjutant general. Gen. S. A. 
Hurlbut of Illinois, Dr. Stephenson's old com- 
mander, was put in nomination for commander- 
in-chief by Dr. Stephenson, and was elected. At that 
encampment the following resolution was adopted: 
"Whereas, we, the members of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, recognize in Maj. B. F. Stephenson 
of Springfield, 111., the head and front of the organi- 
zation ; be it therefore resolved that for the energy, 
loyalty and perseverance manifested in organizing 
the Grand Army of the Republic, he is entitled to 
the gratitude of all loyal men, and that we, as 
soldiers, tender him our thanks, and pledge him 
our friendship at all times, and under all circum- 
stances." But it was lon^; before the organization 
prospered anywhere but in the West, and Maj. 
btephenson's dream of a great veteran army form- 
ing a potent influence in moulding and fostering 
public sentiment in favor of the defenders of the 
Union was not realized until after his death. Some 
time before this occurred, Maj. Stephenson removed 
his family to Rock C'reek, near his old home at 
Petersburg, where he spent the remainder of his 
life. He was married at Springfield, 111.. Mar. :\. 
1855, to Barbara B., daughter of Benjamin Moore, 
and had one son and two daughters. He died ai 




fcs& 



Returning to the 



Rock Creek, Menard co., 111., Aug. 30, 1871. His 

remains were later removed to Petersburg, with due 
ceremonies, and on July 1, 1(1(1'.), a monument. 
commemorating the founding of the Grand Army 
of the Republic was unveiled in Washington, I> (' , 
which bears a bas-relief bust of Maj. Stephenson. 

TARBELL, Ida Minerva, author and editor, 
was born in F.rie county, near Union City, Pa., 
Nov. 5, 1857, daughter of Franklin S. and Esther 
Ann (Mel'ullough) Tarbell. She received a public 
school education, and attended Allegheny College, 
where she was graduated in 1XXIJ. After a ' 
period of teaching in a semi- 
nary at Poland, O. (1881-82), 
she became associate editor of 
"The Chautauquan." She was 
identified with this periodical 
for eight years, and during 
that time acquired a thorough 
mastery of all the details of 
journalistic and editorial work. 
In 1891 Miss Tarbell went to 
France, and for three years at- 
tended lectures at the Sorbonne 
and the College de France, 
making a specialty of French 
revolutionary history and kin- 
dred subjects. While in Paris 
she contributed articles to the 
Boston "Transcript," "Scrib- 
ner's" and "McClure's" maga- 
zines and to the McClure Syndi- 
cate. She also wrote a " Life of 
Madame Roland " ( lx(i;">i. which 
treated of the French revolution. 
L'nited States in 1X94, she became associate editor 
and staff writer for "McClure's Magazine." Inaddi- 
tion to her magazine articles on historical and 
biographical subjects, which have attracted national 
attention, she is the author of a " Life of Napoleon" 
(1895); "Life of Lincoln" (1897); a "History 
of the Standard Oil Company" (1903), which first 
appeared serially in "McClure's Magazine," and 
aroused widespread attention; "He knew Lincoln" 
(1907), and " Father Abraham " (1909). Her " Life 
of Napoleon" established her as one of the foremost 
historical and biographical writers of the day. M i-s 
Tarbell's success in the most difficult literary field 
that a woman can enter illustrates the value of stead- 
fast purpose and unlimited courage. She gave up 
her position with the "Chautauquan" to pursue her 
historical researches in Paris. She went there 
alone, and while there supported herself by her 
contributions to the press. Her " History of the 
Standard Oil Company" is an account of the origin, 
growth and influence of what is called the first 
and greatest of American trusts. The methods 
by which the company gained control of the petro- 
leum output are disclosed; railroad and other 
interests bearing upon its development are carefully 
investigated; the oil regions themselves and the 
chief characters in this industrial drama are put 
vividly before the reader. She made public a 
mass of incriminating facts which were fearlessly 
set forth as she found them, and resulted in the 
strongest and most thoroughly convincing indict- 
ment against the Standard Oil Co. ever produced. 
The "Critic" characterized it as "the most re- 
markable book of its kind ever written in this 
country." The "New York Independent" said: 
"Miss 'Tarbell's success, for she has achieved a 
very distinct success, is in having made her story 
in its logical simplicity and direct ne-s as l.i-emat- 
ingly interesting as it is disagreeable. She has 
preserved her position as historian, and has not 
abandoned it even temporarily for that of the 
prosecuting advocate." She is also the author 



112 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



of numerous magazine articles and short stories. 
In 1906 Miss Tarbell, with Lincoln Steffens, Ray 
Stannerd Baker, and John S. Phillips, with- 
drew from the staff of ''McClure's Magazine," and 
with Finley Peter Dunne, and William Allan 
White, purchased "The American Magazine," 
which now ranks among the substantial literary 
periodicals of the present day. She is enthusiastic in 
her work, and her home, with its walls lined 
with well-filled bookcases, suggests the ardent 
literary student. She is thoroughly feminine in 
her tastes, is deeply interested in charities, a woman 
with a charming personality, quiet, gentle, yet 
gracious and cordial in manner. She is a member 
of the American Historical Association, the Amer- 
ican Economic Association, the Barnard Club 
the National Arts and the Colony clubs of New 
York, and the English Society of Women Jour- 
nalists. 

SADLER, Lewis Lament, merchant, was born 
near Oxford, O., Aug. 1, 1843, son of Elijah and 
Cordelia (King) Sadler, natives of Massachusetts. 
He was brought up on his father's farm and at- 
tended the district school, finishing his education 
at Farmer's College. After teaching school for two 
years he enlisted in the civil war, and was appointed 
fourth sergeant in Co. C of the 93rd Ohio volunteer 
infantry. He received a wound in the shoulder at 
the battle of Stone River ; and took part in the 
battle of Chickamauga, being one of the five men 
of his company who survived the onslaughts of the 
confederates. He was again wounded at the battle 
of Missionary Ridge, which prevented further active 
service. In 1865 he began his business career as a 
clerk in a live stock commission firm of Cincinnati 
named Fort, Havens & Co. When Mr. Havens 
retired from the business in 18(39, young Sadler 
succeeded him as a partner in the firm, the name 
being changed to Fort, Sadler & Co. Ten years 
later the senior partner withdrew, and Mr, Sadler 
became associated with his brother J. F. Sadler of 
New York, under the name of J. F. Sadler & Co., 
and the business has continued under this name 
ever since. A branch office 
was opened in 1871 in Pitts- 
burg, Pa., under the manage- 
ment of J. F. Sadler, and in 
1878 another branch was 
opened in Jersey City. In 
1888 a live stock commission 
house was established at 
Last Buffalo, N. Y., con- 
ducted under the firm name 
of J. F. Sadler & Co. until 
; the death of J. F. Sadler in 
1898, at which time a re- 
. organization was made, and 
a Mr. Huddleston became 
identified with the business 
under the name of Sadler, 
Huddleston & Co. Mr. Sad- 
ler was for seven years a 
member of the board of educa- 
tion of Cincinnati ; was trustee 
of the public library for thir- 
teen years; was vice-president of the chamber of 
commerce and the merchant's exchange, and was for 
over a quarter of a century treasurer of the Live 
Stock Commission Men's Association of Cincinnati. 
He has been president of the Stock Yards Bank and 
Trust Co. since 1905. He is a devoted friend of 
education, and has spent a great deal of his spare 
time in caring fur the welfare of the public schools. 
He is a life member of the Lincoln Club of Cincin- 
nati, and a member of Eagle Lodge, I. O. O. F. He 
was married June 28. 1871, to Rebecca, (laughter of 
Henry Beckrnan of Cincinnati. His wife died in 




1884, leaving one son, Alvin, and two daughters, 
Cordelia A. and Edna L. 

GORE, John Kinsey, actuary and inventor, 
was born in Newark, N. J., Feb. 3, 1864, son of 
George Witherden and Mary Lewis (Kinsey) Gore, 
and grandson of Israel Gore, a physician, who came 
from Margate, England, in 182(3, and settled in 
Newark, N. J. He attended the Newark high 
school and Columbia College, being graduated in 
the first honor class at the latter in 1883. Three 
years later he received the degree of A.M. from 
Columbia. After leaving college he taught in the 
W r oodbridge school, a scientific preparatory institute 
in New York, of which he subsequently became 
vice-principal and manager. In 1892 he gave up 
teaching and entered the actuarial department of 
the Prudential Insurance Co. of America, in Newark, 
X. J. Two years later he was appointed mathe- 
matician of the company, in the following year 
assistant actuary, and in 1897 actuary. In 1907 
he was elected a member of the board of directors. 
In 1894 Mr. Gore invented a system of tabulating 
machines that is used in the actuarial department 
of the Prudential Insurance Co., and was also used 
in 1902 by the Actuarial Society of America in con- 
nection with a mortality investigation involving two 
and a half million lives. It comprises three distinct 
machines: first, a printing and numbering machine 
that automatically prints, numbers and perforates 
the statistical cards according to their number, 
and cuts them off and throws them face downward 
into a box in numerical order; second, a perforating 
device that punches the cards by hand, and third, a 
separating machine that sorts the cards accon ling 
to the policy holders' ages or ; n any other order. 
In an ordinary working day a clerk can punch 
over 6,000 data cards with the Gore perforating 
device, and sort many millions a year with his 
separator. Although calculating machines for 
statistical work have been used for some time, 
this latest invention is considered a great achieve- 
ment among time and labor-saving systems. Mr. 
Gore is a member of the Phi Gamma Delta Club, 
New York, and the American Mathematical Society. 
He became a Fellow of the Actuarial Society of 
America in 189(3, and was elected president for 
the years 1908-10. He is the author of scientific 
papers appearing in the transactions of the society, 
and in the proceedings of the Fourth International 
Congress of Actuaries. He was married in 1898, 
to Jeannette A., daughter of John M. Littell of 
Newark. 

HOLMES, Gideon Francis, manufacturer, was 
born in Plymouth, Mass., Dec. 21, 1843, son of 
David C. and Louisa (Savery) Holmes, of Puritan 
ancestry. He is seventh in descent from John 
Holmes who was living in Plymouth in 1032, and 
who was messenger to the general court in Ki.'i4. 
His paternal grandfather was a sea captain fishing on 
the Grand Banks in summer and trading to the 
southern parts of the United States and West 
Indies in winter. As a young man David C. Holmes 
accompanied his father 'on these expeditions, and it 
is by rightful inheritance that Gideon F. Holmes has 
demonstrated his aptitude for trade, as well as his 
love for the sea. Aftera public-school education he 
began his business career at the age of fifteen by 
entering the employ of the Plymouth Cordage Co., 
Mar. 23, 1859, where his father was previously ('in- 
ployed hackling hemp. Beginning as office boy he 
gradually passed through the different departments, 
was appointed treasurer pro tern, in Is7">. and upon 
the treasurer's death in 1882 succeeded to that 
office. From that dayhis biography is largely the his- 
tory of the company, so completely has he devoted 
himself to its work. The Plymouth Cordage Co. was 



OF AMKUICAN UK M IK API I V 



organized in 1824 by Bourne Spooner, William 
Levering, Jr., John Dodd and John Russell. Its 
original capital stock of $20,000 was increased at 
intervals until by 1SS3 it had become $500.000, 
most of the additions being provided by special 
dividends of profits, so that in a period of fifty 
years each single share of stock, without any new 
outside capital, had grown into eleven and four- 
elevenths shares. In IS',14 the capital stock was 
increased to 81,000,000, and it is now (1910) 
82,500,000. The original ropewalk built in the 
northern part of the town had a capacity of 500 
tons of cordage per annum, and employed eighty 
workmen. Rope is those days was made entirely 
by hand. Its length depended upon the length of 
the " ropewalk" as the long, low building was called. 
Here a workman with a great wad of hemp wound 
around his waist, and walking backward, paid out 
the hemp as it was twisted into rope by a boy 
turning a wheel. There are many cordage com- 
panies in the United States, but the business of the 
Plymouth Cordage Co., is estimated to be more than 
one-seventh of the whole output. In 1827 it pro- 
duced 600,000 pounds and in 1909, 90,700,000 
pounds of cordage, consisting of all kinds of twines, 
cords and ropes, varying in size from the mighty 
hawser fifteen inches in circumference to corset 
twine. Dining its existence of over eighty years 
the company has been managed in an independent 
yet conservative manner. It has enjoyed its great- 
est prosperity during the administration of Mr. 
Holmes as treasurer and general manager, under 
whom the buildings have all been rebuilt, and the 
output increased fourfold. His policy from the 
first has been aggressive. Under his influence the 
company expanded rapidly, and it was steered 
triumphantly through various trade vicissitudes 
incident to the successive "pools" in the industry 
and the panic of 1893, when the cordage trust, 
which Mr. Holmes had refused to enter, was finally 
dissolved. At the first meeting of the directors in 
1824 Bourne, Spooner was appointed agent, and was 
authorized to construct, besides a ropewalk, wharf, 
storehouse and other buildings, a residence for his 
own occupation, and ever since it has been the 
policy of the company to devote part of its earnings 
in improving the physical and mental welfare of its 
employees. The operatives have long been noted 
for intelligence, honesty, sobriety, industry and 
thrift, and for faithfulness to the interests of the 
company. Under the management of Mr. Holmes 
there have been erected model tenement houses and 
cottages, garden plots and grounds for athletic 
games, a library and reading room with a children's 
department, a thoroughly equipped Sloyd school 
and kindergarten, and a combination dining room 
and recreation hall in charge of a professional 
instructor, who lectures on food values and domestic 
economy, and conducts cooking classes, and the 
company employs two trained nurses available at 
all hours for emergency work or for illness in the 
homes of the employees. Every step in this social 
betterment work, for which the company has ac- 
quired such an enviable reputation, has been car- 
ried out under the immediate direction of Mr. 
Holmes. In all things which go to promote the 
social welfare of the community he is fruitful of 
suggestion and thoughtful of detail. The com- 
pany has been very free from labor troubles, owing 
largely to the tact of the general manager, his will- 
ingness to see the other man's point of view, and 
his extreme fairness in all business dealings. He 
clearly understands the position of the laboring man ; 
his kindly nature and broad mind are freely and 
sympathetically enlisted for his welf; re and the 
workers reciprocate in a spirit of personal loyally 
and affection which effectually prevents friction'. 




Mr. Holmes was married Aug. 14, 1866, to Helen A., 

daughter of Abbot Drew, and has two children. 

BURTON, Marion LeRoy, second president of 
Smii h < 'olli-ge 1 1909- ), was born in Brooklyn, la., 
Aug. 30, 1874, son of Ira and Jane Adeli/.a (Sim- 
mons) Burton. His father was a fanner, who had 
removed to Iowa from Michigan and died during \}\<- 
son's boyhood. The latter was educated at the 
public and high schools of Minneapoli-, whither the 
family had removed after his father's death, at Carle 
ton Academy, .\orthtu-ld. Minn., and at Carli 
College, where he was graduated 
in 1900, the saliitatorian of his 
class. Immediately upon gradu- 
ation, he became principal of 
Windom Institute, a position he 
held three years, during which 
the attendance rapidly in- 
creased, the financial situation 
was much improved and its 
educational standard so ad- 
vanced that it was recognized 
by the university of the state. 
Meanwhile Mr. Burton was de- 
veloping as a public speaker. 
While nominally retaining his 
post at the urgent request of the 
trustees, he went East for further 
study, and taking the course at 
the Yale Divinity School during 
1903 -06, was graduated B.D., 
KUmnin cu/n lainlc. He was a 
post-graduate student at Vale University in 1905-07, 
when he received thedegree of Ph.D., his thesis being 
selected by the university for publication. Early in 
his university career he represented Yale in a success- 
ful debate against Harvard, and throughout his 
course was awarded the Fogg scholarship. During 
1904-07, while pursuing his studies, he acted as 
pastor of the First Congregational Church at Brook- 
field, Conn., where he achieved a phenomenal suc- 
cess, both in regard to the attendance and spiritual 
life of the church, and its financial conditions and 
improvements. During his last year of study, he 1 was 
appointed assistant professor of systematic theology 
at Vale, and his work was highly commended by t he- 
university authorities, who strongly urged him to 
continue a professional career. In 190S, howe-ve-r, 
he accepted a call to the Church of Pilgrims in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., maele famous by the Rev. Dr. 
Richard Suiter Storrs, where he evinced remarkable 
qualities as a preacher and thoroughly endeared 
himself to his congregation and the entire com- 
munity. At this time he became a colle-ge pre-acher 
at Yale. When in 1911s he w as unexpee-te-.lly e-lee-ted 
president of Smith College, petitions from his own 
church as well as from others in the neighborhood, 
were presented, asking him to remain, but afte-r a 
long period of deliberation he accepted the petition, 
his actual connection with the college beginning in 
September, 1909, with a year of trave-l and study 
abroad and the active assumption of the responsi- 
bilities in 1910. His election to he-ad the largest, 
woman's college in the worlel came- as a well-meriteel 
recognition e>f his brilliant abilities. As a teacher, 
writer and public speaker, he has attaine- I high eiis- 
tinction at an unusually early :igev lie i; the 
author of "Problem of Evil" (1909), which is a 
rather eletail<-d anel technical eii.-e-us.-ion of the- 
philosophical ba-i- of the Augustinian treatment of 
evil. It eli-a!.- with all the great hi.-lorii- llie-ories of 
the problem ami shows the- nece-.-ity of a ree 
struction along the line of evolutionary thought. 
The book is keen in its analysis and grapples with 
the fundamental issues involved. Dr. Burton is a 
member of the National Exeeutu e i lommitteeof the 



.-vK 



lit 



I'lll-: NATIONAL CYCLOP. EDIA 




i/ 



Congregational Home Missionary Society; vice- 
president of the Congregational Church Building 
Society and the American Tract Society; he is also 
a member of the Adelphic Society of Carleton Col- 
lege and the fraternity of Book and Bond of Vale 
University. He was married at Northfield, Minn., 
June 14, 1900, to Nina Leona, daughter of Rev. 
Leonard Hathaway Moses of Xorthh'eld, Minn., and 
has two children, Theodosia and Paul Leonard. 

FITZPATRICK, Thomas Bernard, merchant 
and manufacturer, born at (irafton. Mass., Dee. 17, 
1844, son of Patrick anil Mary 
(Gannivain Fitzpatrick, both 
natives of Ireland, who came 
to this country in 1833 and 
later settled upon a farm at 
Grafton, Mass. By diligent 
study, pursued under many 
disadvantages, he was able, 
at the age of fourteen years, 
to enter the high school at 
Hopkinton. Ma. ., and was 
graduated with distinction 
four years later. His first 
business experience was with 
the dry goods firm of E. D. Bell 
A- Co. and Schofield, Barron & 
Co. of Boston. Subsequently 
lie traveled for Mason, Tucker 
it Co.. and Brown, Dutton & 
Co, The great Boston fire of 
IN71.' caused the dissolution 
of the latter firm, and upon its reorganization as 
Brown, Durrell it Co. he became the junior partner, 
and is now the president and treasurer of its cor- 
porate successor the Brown- Uurrell Company. He 
is also a director of the Puritan Trust Company, the 
United States Tru.-t Co.npany, and trustee of the 
I'.ii.) i Institution for Savings, and treasurer of the 
I Hitc'd Irish League of America. He has served for 
ireral years as a member of the state board of 
education, having been originally appointed by 
!ov. Douglas and reappointed lor another term 
by Gov. Draper. lie is a l-o a member of the school 
committee of Brookline, Mass. Mr. Fitzpatrick has 
been prominently identified with many eharitable. 
philanthropic and educational movements in Boston 
and elsewhere. The Working Girls' Home, con- 
ducted by the Gray Nuns, the Working Boys' Home 
and St. Mary's Infant Asylum are amongst those 
which he has served and aided. On the occasion of 
the late Archbishop Williams' golden jubilee' lie was 
chosen to deliver the address of the Catholic laity, 
and in 1905 the University of Notre Dame honored 
him with the Laetare medal, which is annually given 
by that institution to some eminent layman in 
recognition of services rendered in the cause of 
religion, education and morality. He was married 
at Fitchburg, Mass., Jan. 13, 1874, to Sara M . 
daughter of Martin and Bridget Gleason, and has 
four sons and two daughters, 

McDONALD, Jesse Fuller, twenty-third gov- 
ernor of Colorado. (190,3-07), was bom at Ashta- 
bili, I >., June 30, 1858, son of Lyman Mixer 
ami Carolyne (Bond) McDonald. His first Ameri- 
can ancestor was .lames McDonald, who came 
fro .1 S. 'inland early in the eighteenth century and 
settled in Maine. The line of descent is traced 
through his son James, who married Sarah Ballard. 
and their son Jesse F. McDonald, who married 
Anna Mixer and was the grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch, \\hen Mr. McDonald was seven 
years old his parents moved to Springfield, Pa., 
and there he lived until twenty-one, attending the 
public schools in winter and fanning in summer. 



In 1879 he went to Leadville, Col., and secured a. 
position with George M. Robinson, civil and 
mining engineer. A business he followed until 
1890, when certain mining territory he had secured 
developed into valuable property and he became 
a mine owner and operator. Among the mines in 
his control are the Penrose, El Dorado, Rock Hill 
Consolidated, Harvard, Argus Gold and Silver 
Mining Co., and Gold Placer. During 1899-1905 
he served three full terms as mayor of Leadville. 
In 1902 he was elected by a large plurality to the 
state senate from Lake county, but on account of 
the majority of the senate being of different 
political faith he was temporarily unseated. In 
1904 he was elected lieut. -governor of the state. 
The following year Alva Adams, the Democratic 
candidate, was elected governor of Colorado, but 
in sixty-seven days was unseated bv the general 
assembly because of his party's wholesale election 
frauds, such as substitution of ballots, miscounting, 
impersonation of voters, browbeating, etc. Accord- 
ing to previous arrangements James H. Peabody 
became governor for only a few hours on March 
17, 1905, and then resigned the office to Mr. 
McDonald. Consequently Colorado has had three 
chief executives in the space of twenty-four hours. 
Gov. McDonald's administration was marked for 
its quiet and businesslike attention to the state 
welfare, its curtailing of extravagant expenditures 
and its increased efficiency in every department. 
He was vice-president of the American National 
Bank of Leadville. On May 20, 1905, he received 
the honorary degree of "Engineer of Mines" from 
the Colorado School of Mines. He was married 
at Leadville, Apr 2(1, 1900, to Flora, daughter of 
John Collins. 

FOX, Williams Carlton, diplomat, was born 
in St. Louis, Mo., May 20, 1855, son of Elias 
Williams Fox. His father (q.v.) was a prominent 
business man and politician of St. Louis, and for 
a time the publisher of the Washington (D. C.) 
"National Republican." His great-grandfather 
was ('apt. Samuel Pratt, a solider of the revolution 
and one of the founders of the city of Buffalo, N. Y. 
He was educated at the Washington University, 
St. Louis. Mo., the Pennsylvania Military College 
at Chester, Pa., and hail begun the study of law, 
but at the age of twenty-one, was offered the 
position of consul to Brunswick, Germany, by 
1'res, ( irant, who was a personal friend of hisfather. 
He held this post for thirteen years, leaving a 
record which brought him prominence in the U. S. 
diplomatic service. In 1.X91 he went to Persia 
as vice-consul general. He was in charge of the 
American legation during the cholera epidemic 
of 1892, which spread over almost all Asia and 
Europe, and organized and financed the American 
missionary hospital in Teheran, which was the 
means of saving many lives. His energy through- 
out this crisis considerably increased American 
piestige in the orient. Mr. Fox resigned his 
position in Persia, but on his way to the United 
Slates, was entreated by the American minister 
to Greece, Hon. Truxtun Beale, to remain in 
Athens as legation secretary, which he did. Return- 
ing finally in 1S94 he established in New York the 
"Diplomatic and Consular Review." the only 
strictly diplomatic journal ever published in the 
United States. This venture attracted attention 
to Mr. Fox's knowledge of international affairs and 
resulted in his being called to the chief clerkship of 
the international bureau of American republics, 
Washington, D. C., in 1898. In 1905 he was 
appointed director of this bureau. Under his 
direction the plan was perfected to build the 
present headquarters of the bureau of American 
republics as well as the Columbus Memorial Library, 



OK AMI.K1CAN 

the latter being creeled as a memorial to the InM 
international conference of \nierican stales ever 
held in Washington, known as the Pan-American 
congress, d.xxiM. When, in 1S91, Elihu Roof 
became secretary of state-, he gave earnest support 
to Mr. Fox's idea thai the bun-ail of American 
republics was capable of vast possibilities in the 
furtherance of closer relations between La I in 
America and the 1'nited Stale's. Mr. Fox developed 
much of the del ail in (lie preparation for the second 
and third conferences of American state's, ami he 
represented his bureau at both of these conferences. 
At the second congress in Mexico City in 1901-02, 
he' won (he recognition of the bureau as an inter- 
national American institution, establishing its 
status as such; securing the franking privilege for 
its correspondence and publications in all of the 
American republics, and making it obligatory upon 
the director of the bureau to attend other inter- 
national American conferences, with all the 
privileges of a delegate, except that of voting. 
One of the results of the third conference held at 
Rio de Janeiro in 190(1, was the plan to erect in 
Washington a building for the bureau, and at the 
suggestion of Secretary of State Root, Mi. Carnegie 
contributed *7.">0,000 to supplement the subscrip- 
tions Mr. Fox had secured from the South American 
republics. During his term as director he also 
perfected the arrangements for f he two international 
sanitary conferences held in Washington in 190H 
and 190o. He was a member of the U. S. govern- 
ment board of management of the Pan-American 
exposition, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
and the Lewis and Clark Exposition. In 1907 Mr. 
Fox was appointed by Pres. Roosevelt envoy 
extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to 
Kcuador, a position he still occupies. Later in 
that year he' was designated by the president to 
represent him upon the board of arbitration in the 
controversy between the government of Ecuador, 
and the Guayaquil it ljuito Railway Co. Mr. 
F'ox is the author of numerous articles upon 
international affairs both for American and Euro- 
pe'an publications. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, the Cosmos Club of Washington, D. ('., 
the American Society of International Law and the 
Military Society of the War of 1812. 

MOSES, George Higgins, editor and diplomat, 
was born at Lube-c. Washington CO., Me., Feb. 9, 
lxr>9, son of Thomas Gannett and Ruth (Smith) 
Mose-s. His first American ancestor was John 
Moses, who came from Scotland in 1639 and settled 
at Portsmouth, N. H. From him the line of deseenl 
is traced through his son Aaron, who married Ruth 
Sherburne; their son Josiah, who married Abigail 
Arlson ; (heir son George; his son George, who was 
a soldier in the revoluiionary war ami married Anna 
Harmon; their son William, who niarried Anne 
Milliken, and their son Cyrus, who married Eunice 
Underwood and was the grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch. Mr. Moses attended the public 
schools, the Phillips Exeter Academy (class 1887) 
and was graduated at Dartmouth College in 1890, 
three years later receiving the degree of A.M. In 
1XX9 he was appointed prhate secretary to Gov. 
David H. Goodell and served during the term of 
the legislature. After graduating he became man- 
ager of the "New Hampshire Republican," and also 
served as private secretary to the chairman of the 
Republican state committee during the campaign 
Of 1890. That same- year he joined the staff of the 
"Concord Evening Monitor and Independent 
Statesman," and was soon promoted to news editor. 
He became managing editor in 1892 and held that 
position until he was appointed minister to Greece 
and Montenegro in 1909, an office that came as a 



L15 

surprise- to Mr. Moses and his friends, because |,e 

had I n one of the staunches! adh'Teni ot Si n 

Gallinger, a vigorous opponent of I're-- Taii'- 
nominatiein. lie became pn Melent of the Monitor 
and Stale-small Co. upon its organization in Ivi.s, 
and (he same- \e-ar helpe.l to organize the Rum 
Printing Co., being elected treasurer. During 1x9:; 
1906 he was secretary of the New Hampshire forestry 

commission, and during the R usso-.lapane-se peace 

conference ai Portsmouth in I9ii.",, he acted as 

secretary lo the governor, who was tin- ollicia! host ,,f 
the plenipotentiaries. Since 1902 hi' has been a. 
member of the! board of education of (In- I nion 
school district. Besidi's his journalistic work Mr 
Moses is author of 'John Stark" I IX'lth. and "New 
Hampshire Men" (a collection of biographies, 
IX9H). lie was married on Oct. :!, ],S9H, at Frank- 
lin, N. H., to Florence Abby, daughter of Hiram S. 
Gordon, and has one se,n, Gordon Moses. 

ODELL, George Washington, organ builder, 
was born in New York city, May :), l.s.",7, son of 
John Henry and Frances Julia (Youngs) Odell. 
The first of his family in America was William 
Odell, who emigrated from Bedfordshire', Kngland, 
in II ;:{.">, and si -II led in ( 'oncord, N. H. lie and his 
descendants became largely interested in land near 
Youkers, N. Y. From him the line is traced 
through his son William, through his se>n Michael, 
his son Ileny. who married Sarah Devcaux; (heir 
son Jonathan, who married Eleanor t'lidi-rhill : 
their son John, who married Eliza Sherwood, and 
their son John Henry, who was Mr. Odell's fa I her 
The latter was also engaged in the oivan business 
with a brother, Caleb S. Odell. His knowledge of 
organ construction was profound, and among I he 
many improvements made by him we're' a reversible- 
coupler, acted upon by one piston knob (patented 
May 8th, 18.'W) and the tubular pneumatic action 
for which he obtained patents Jan. 1(1. 1X72. Tin- 
son was educated in the public schools of New York 
city and Russell Institute, and then e-nlered his 
father's organ business. He served as an appren- 
tice in the various depart- 
ments until he acquired a 
thorough mastery of the in- 
tricacies of organ construc- 
tion. When his uncle died, 
in 1882, the firm name be- 
came J. H. & C. S. Odell, and 
upon thedeathof John Henry 



Odell, the name was changed 
to J. H. & C S. Odell A- Co., 




anil the subject of this sketch 
became the president. The 
factory is on West 42nd st reel . 
New York city, where about 
forty men a re em ploy ed I lie 
market supplied includes the 
I'nited States, Canada, and 
China. Amongthcinorerceent 
improvements on the Odell or- 
gan, in addition to those in- 
vented by Mr. Odell's father, 
are a self-act ing crescendo and 

diminuendo pedal which commences with the 
softest stop in the organ, and brings on rapidly or 
slowly as required all the stops to the full organ; 
a sforzando pedal which puts on or takes off the 
full power of the instrument, is an instant ; an 
exhaust system which was patented by John Henry 
Odell in 1898 The Odells have succeeded in 
rendering the touch of the organ as easy, even, and 
noiseless as that of a piano, have made the draw- 
stops, or registers, much more convenient and 
under command of the player; have discovered 
the art of so arranging the wind channels and valves 



116 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 




that one pipe can not draw wind from another and 
have reduced the voicing to mathematical principles, 
producing'an equally balanced instrument. Among 
the leading churches that are using the Oclell 
organ are the Collegiate Reformed, St. Agnes' 
Chapel, Cavalry Baptist, Fifth Avenue Presby- 
terian, the Jewish Temple Beth El, St. Paul's M. E. 
and St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York city; 
the Jenkins Memorial Church, Baltimore, and the 
Second Baptist Church, St. Louis. Mr. Odell is a 
member of the New York Athletic Club and 
Larchmont Yacht Club. 

WHITMAN, William, manufacturer, was born 
at Round Hill, Annapolis co., Nova Scotia, May 9, 
1S42, son of John and Re- 
becca (Cutler) Whitman, 
and a descendant in the 
eighth generation of John 
\\liitinan. who came from 
England prior to 1638 and 
settled in Weymouth, Mass. 
His great-great-grandf ather, 
John Whitman, owing to his 
loyalty to King George, re- 
moved to NovaScotia before 
the revolution, where Whit- 
man's father was born, and 
married a daughter of Eben 
Cutler, adescendantof Eben- 
ezer Cutler, one of the most 
conspicuous of the loyalists 
who migrated from Boston 
in 177H. William Whitman 
had five years' schooling at 
the Annapolis academy. At 
the age of fourteen he went 
to Boston, Mass., and entered the employ of the 
wholesale dry-goods house of James M. Beebe & Co., 
as entry clerk, with whom he remained until 1867. 
In that year he became associated with the firm of 
Robert M. Bailey & Co., woolen manufacturers and 
dry-goods commission merchants. This firm was 
interested in the rebuilding of the Arlington Mills, 
which had I iron destroyed by fire the year before 
anil he was made treasurer of the mills, but in ISO! > he 
resigned this post, and purchasing a woolen mill 
in Ashland, N. H., engaged in the manufacture of 
flannels. In the meantime there was a reorganiza- 
tion of the Arlington Mills, and he resumed the 
trcasurership at the urgent solicitation of the di- 
rectors, acting also as the managing director of the 
mills. Under his administration the Arlington Mills 
have developed steadily until they have become one 
of the largest establishments manufacturing wool 
and cotton goods in the United States. The 
products of the Arlington Mills are fine worsted anil 
cotton yarns and ladies' dress goods in great 
variety. The buildings contain over sixty-two 
:nTi's of floor space, and are among the finest 
specimens of mill architecture in the world. There 
are about 8,250 hands, and they have a capacity to 
consume annually 65,000.000 pounds of wool and 
12,000 bales of cotton. Beginning with a capitaliza- 
tion of S150,000 in 1867, the capitalization is now 
$8,000,000. During his administration also the 
property has been increased by the Whitman Mills, 
in 1895, and the Manomet Mills, in 1905, the Non- 
quitt Mills in 1906, and the Nashawena Mills in 
1909, all at New Bedford. Mass., and all for the 
manufacture of cotton goods. In 1887 he became 
a member of the firm of Harding, Colby & Co., 
selling agents, of Boston and New York, whose 
name was changed to Harding, Whitman A: 
Co., after Mr. Colby's death. Mr. Whitman's 
activities, however, have by no means been lim- 
ited to the immediate management of the business 



interests with which he is identified. He has 
taken an alert interest in the business and 
industrial development of the country, in its larger 
aspects, and in questions of public policy so far as 
they have a bearing upon this development. For 
many years he has been a prominent member of the 
National Association of Wool Manufacturers, the 
oldest organization of its kind in the country, of 
which he was president during 1884-94 and from 
1904 to date. He is also a member of the National 
Association of Cotton Manufacturers and the 
American Cotton Manufacturers Association. 
Upon the reorganization of the directorate of the 
Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United 
States, in June, 1905, he was elected a director as 
a representative of policy-holders of the society. 
While he has never held public office. Mr. Whitman 
has always been identified with the Republican 
party and has exerted a large influence upon public 
affairs, especially as related to industrial economics 
and tli<> trade- aiid tariff of this country. He is an 
acknowledged authority in tariff matters, par- 
ticularly in connection with the manufacture of 
cottons and woolens, and his advice has frequently 
been sought upon the wisdom and effect of proposed 
tariff legislation. Wide anil thorough study as well 
as large personal experience have given weight to 
his views, and have enabled him, on many occasions, 
by speech and brief, to render valuable service to the 
textile manufacturers of this country. He has 
labored indefatigably for the building up of the 
commerce and industries of Massachusetts and the 
country at large. He has prepared and published 
papers on economic subjects which have attracted 
marked attention and have been widely circulated. 
Among them are: " Free Raw Materials as Related 
to New England Industries," " Free Coal Would 
it give New England Manufacturers Cheaper Fuel?" 
"Some Hca-ons \\liy Commercial Reciprocity is 
Impracticable," " Objections to Reciprocity on Con- 
stitutional and Practical Grounds," "The Tariff 
Revisionist, an Example of the Nature of his 
Demand" (1906), "What are the Protected 
Industries?" (1908). Mr. Whitman's style is clear, 
compact and forcible. It is the more effective 
because it is not marked by any effort at rhetorical or 
literary effect. He is a member of the Arkwright 
Club, American Academy of Political and Social 
Science (life member), Boston Young Men's 
Christum Union (life member), Bpstonian Society, 
Bunker Hill Monument Association, Chamber of 
Commerce, Commercial Club, Country Club, 
Eastern Yacht Club, Home Market Club, Middlesex 
Club, Massachusetts Club, Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society (life member), Manufacturers Club, 
I'hiladrlpliia. N'ew England Historic-Genealogical 
Society, Republican Club of Massachusetts, Society 
oi' \i-ts. National Geographic Society (life member), 
Union Club, and the Brookline Histoircal Society, 
but his tastes are domestic and he finds his chief 
happiness in his home. Mr. Whitman was married 
Jan. 1!. Is05. to Jane Dole, daughter of James 
llrndrirks llallett of Boston, and a descendant of 
distinguished loyalist families which left New York 
in 1783 at the close of the revolutionary war and 
settled at St. John, New Brunswick. They have 
had eight children, of whom four sons and three 
daughters are living. Beloved in his home, 
respected among his business associates, and 
honored and influential in the community at large, 
he stands for those principles of higli personal and 
business integrity upon which the wi-lfarr of state 
and nation so largely depends. His can-i-r illus- 
trates the possibilities open to a man who adds 
to the old requirements of a sound mind and a 
sound body, a sound morality and high business 
ideals. 



OF AM1.K1C\\ HKKiKAPIIY. 



117 




WOODRUFF, Timothy Lester, merchant and 
political leader, was born at New Haven, Conn., 
Aug. 4, 1858, son of John and Harriet Jane (LeMeri 
Woodruff. His father (182G-C8) served in the 
Connecticut legislature in 1854, was a member of 
the thirty-fourth and thirty-sixth congresses, and 
subsequently was internal revenue collector for New 
Haven. Mr. Woodruff attended Phillips Academy 
at Exeter, X. II., and was graduated at Yale College 
in 1879, after which he took a course at Eastman's 
National Business College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Few men in American commerce and finance ever 
won success so quickly as he. 
Going to New York without 
means or influence, he se- 
cured a position as clerk in 
the wholesale salt firm of 
Nash, Whiton & Co. It was 
characteristic of his energy 
and determination that with- 
in ton minutes after being 
told by his employer that he 
" might try," this college-bred 
youth had his gloves and 
coat off and was hard at 
work moving heavy cases 
of salt. So quickly did he 
grasp the details of the busi- 
ness that in a little more 
than one year he was made 
a member of the firm, and 
later the name was changed 
to the Worcester Salt Co., 
of which he is now treasurer. 
Through this business he became largely in- 
terested in the wharfage and warehouse busi- 
ness, and acquired control of the Franklin. Com- 
mercial, Nye and Waverly stores in Brooklyn on 
the New York harbor front, and also of two large 
grain elevators. He became a prominent factor 
in the amalgamation of the warehouse interests in 
January, 18N8, which at that time became the Em- 
pire Warehouse Co., and in the following May the 
Brooklyn Clrain Warehouse Co., of which Sir. Wood- 
ruff was made secretary. The Maltine Manufactu- 
ing Co., of which he is now president and principal 
proprietor, attracted his attention in 1S88. It is the 
largest concern devoted to a single proprietary 
article in the United States, having a capital of 
$1,000,000 and an extensive plant in the heart of 
Brooklyn, lie is also interested in the manufacture 
of paper at Mechanicville, and is president of the 
Smith Premier Typewriter Co., said to possess the 
largest typewriter manufacturing plant in the world. 
He was an incorporator of the Hamilton Trust Co., 
the Kings ( Jounty Trust Co., and the Manufacturers' 
Trust Co. ; a director of the Merchants' Exchange 
National Bank, and is a member of the New York 
Chamber of Commerce. In 1906, when insurance 
investigation disclosed corruption anil fraud in the 
affairs of the Provident Life Assurance Co., Mr. 
Woodruff bought control of its stock, accepted its 
presidency, and compelled those who had done 
wrong to make full restitution, all without financial 
profit to himself. Ever since attaining his majority 
Mr. Woodruff has been active in politics, having 
been a delegate to every state, city and county 
convention since that time. In 1881 and 1883, as a 
member of the Young Republican Club, Brooklyn, 
he entered into the successful campaigns of Seth Low 
for mayor of Brooklyn. He was also active in the 
club's work to purify municipal government, and 
led the tight for James G. Blaine in!884 when some 
of its membership endeavored to swing it into the 
Democratic line. He was a delegate to the national 
convention which nominated Benjamin Harrison in 
1888, and the two following years served on the 



Republican state committee. During 1896 he was 

park commissioner of Brooklyn, and in that capacity 
constructed miles of good roads and established the 
two foremost bicycle paths in the world, leading 
from Prospect park to Coney island. In the same 
year he was elected lieutenant-governor of New 
York state, with Frank S. Black as governor. He 
was reeleeted in 1898, with Theodore Roosevcli as 
governor, and was once again elected in I'.KMI, when 
Benjamin B. Odell headed the ticket. During his 
lieutenant-governorship Mr. Woodruff was the. 
dominant factor in securing for (he stale tin- Adiron- 
dack and Catskill forest preserve, being the organ- 
izer of the forest preserve board and IN \, resident 
during the six years he served as lieutenant-governor. 
This led to his purchase of a large tract in the 
Adirondacks and the establisliment of his famous 
" Kamp Kill Kare," where Mr. Woodruff lias been 
host to many distinguished gatherings. lie also 
helped secure the great canal improvements, rees- 
tablished the state fair, for the Grange nad aided in 
securing the establishment of state highways. In 
1900 he was unanimously elected chairman of the 
state committee and unanimously reelected in litOS. 
The dominant and characteristic feature of his 
political management has been party harmony. 
Outside of politics and business he has extensive 
social, literary and church connections, being a 
thirty-second degree Mason, president of the trustees 
of Adelphi College, member of the Presbyterian 
church and of the Sons of the Revolution, and 
member or officer in some forty-five other organiza- 
tions, including the Union League, Yale University, 
Republican and Lotos clubs, New York, and the 
Union League, Hamilton, Brooklyn and Montauk 
clubs, Brooklyn. Mr. Woodruff possesses a most 
magnetic personality. He has the power of making 
people believe in him and like him. His advice in 
committee meetings, both in business and politics, 
is keen and impressive, and lias been found by his 
associates to be backed by the best of judgment, 
and it is said that no man has the ability to handle 
a force of employes more effectively than does Mr. 
Woodruff. Yale University conferred the honorary 
degree of M.A. upon Mr. Woodruff in 1889. He was 
married Apr. 13, 1880, to Cora, daughter of Harvey 
G. Eastman, at one time mayor of Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., and founder of Eastman's National Business 
College and had one son, John Eastman Woodruff. 
His wife died in 1904, and he was remarried Apr. 
24, 1905, to Isabel, daughter of J. Estavan Morrison 
of New York. 

DAVIDSON, Anstruther, physician, botanist 
and entomologist, was born at Cogle, \Vatten, 
Caithness, Scotland, Feb. 19, 1800, son of George 
and Ann (Macadam) Davidson. He attended the 
local public school and Wick Academy, and in IsM 
was graduated at the University of Glasgow with 
the degrees of C. M. and M. B. with honors having 
won the premier medals in anatomy, surgery and 
medicine. After a year's residence as interne in the 
Glasgow Western Infirmary he became associated 
with his brother in Thornhill, Dumfriesshire. 
Besides acting as health officer and factory surgeon 
during 1881-88 he conducted a general practice 
over a wide area of country, which gave him an 
opportunity for the study of botany an<f entomology. 
Most of his researches were published in the trans- 
actions of the Dumfriesshire Natural History 
Society, and in his "Complete Fauna and Flora 
of the Parish" (Brown's "History of Sanquahar"). 
In 1887 he received the degree of M.I), by thesis 
and, aftera season in Vienna, moved to l.os Angeles, 
Cal. During 1889-1901 he was surgeon of tin- 
Arizona Copper Co. In his leisure moments he 
continued his study of entomology and botany 
and was one of the small group of scientific men 



118 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




who formed the nucleus of the now important 
Academy of Sciences of Southern California. For 
two years he was president; is now a fellow and 

C resident of the botanical section, and has always 
een in its directorate. His entomological work 
has been chiefly limited to the study of 'the habits 
of the Hymenoptera (bees and wasps), his records 
and discoveries appearing in " Entomological News ' ' 
and "Psyche." He has also discovered several 
hitherto unknown insects which live parasitieally 
among the eggs of various kinds of spiders. 
His botanical researches, which include many 
additions to the flora of the district, have 
been recorded in "Erythea," and in "Plants 
of Los Angeles Coun- 
ty" (1896). Among 
these are: "Immigrant 
Plants of Los Angeles 
County, Cal.," "Cali- 
fornia Field Notes," 
"Revision of the We-t- 
ern Mentzelias," "The 
Delphinii of Southern 
California," and "On 
Malvastrum Splendi- 
dum." Dr. Davidson 
started and became edi- 
tor of the "Bulletin" 
of the Academy of Scien- 
ces in 1901. Re has 
contributed papers on 
medical subjects to the 
public journals, the most 
important being: "Two 
Unrecognized Causes of 
Dermatitis" and "So- 
called Spider Bites "- 

both appearing ill the "Therapeutic Gazette"; and 
"Why does the Foetus present by the Head"- 
"Polyclinic." Dr. Davidson possesses the power 
of keen observation combined with an unflagging 
enthusiasm. He is an associate professor of 
dermatology at the University of Southern Cali- 
fornia, a corresponding member of the Entomo- 
logical Society of America and a member of the 
University Club of Los Angeles. He was married 
in Los Angeles, June 23, 1897, to Alice Jane, 
daughter of R. D. Merrit, and has two sons: Ronald 
A. and Merrit T. Davidson. 

PECK, Adelbert Henry, dental surgeon, was 
born at Hammond, Wis., Apr. 7, 1SH2. His 
early life was spent upon a farm and his education 
was obtained at the village school. Wishing to pre- 
pare himself for a useful career he attended the 
state normal school at River Falls, Wis., and after 
being graduated, became a tutor in the public 
schools. In 1884-85 he held the position of prin- 
cipal of the graded school at Hammond, and was 
also president of the County Teachers' Association. 
In 1886 he entered the Chicago College of Dental 
Surgery and was graduated with the degree D.D.S. 
in 1888, delivering the valedictory address for his 
class. The following year he held the position of 
adjunct professor of operative dentistry in the 
Chicago Dental College. In the spring of 1891 he 
was graduated M.D. at Rush Medical College. 
When A. W. Harlan resigned the chair of dental 
materia medica and therapeutics in the Chicago 
College of Dental Surgery, in 1894, Dr. Peck suc- 
ceeded him, but resigned two years later to take a 
similar chair in the Northwestern University Dental 
School, dental pathology being added to the chair. 
This push ion he held five years. In 1901 he became 
dean of (lie denial department of the University of 
Illinois, which position, in conjunction with the 
professorship of materia medica, 'dental pathology, 



and therapeutics, he field for three years, when he 
abandoned college work to devote' his time and 
energies to his ever-increasing private practice. 
During his college work Dr. Peck was for three years 
chairman of the ad interim committee of the 
National Association of Dental Faculties. In 1898 
he became secretary of the Illinois State Denial 
Society, and five years later was elected president. 
Dr. Peck has been a frequent contributor to the 
literature of the dental profession, and is the author 
of "The Etiology of Dental Caries" (1894), "Com- 
pound Proximal Cavities in Bicuspids and Molars" 
llS'.l(i), "Ahscesse-: Their Cause and Treatment" 
(1896), "Soldering" (1897), "The Essential Oils 
and Other Agents: Their Antiseptic Values: Al-o 
Their Irritating and Non-Irritating Properties" 
(1898), "The Classification and Therapeutics of the 
Essential Oils and Other Agents used in Dentistry" 
(ls:t',H, and "The Relative Toxicity of Cocaine and 
Eucaine" (1900). He is a member of the American 
Medical Association, Chicago Academy of Medcme, 
National Dental Association, and Chicago Dental 
Society. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, and 
a member of the Mystic Shrine. 

McCREERY, Fenton Reuben, diplomat, was 
born at Flint, Mich., April L'l. 1st 16, son of 
William Barker and Ada (Birdsall) Fenton. His 
father, (1836-96), was an attorney and a prominent 
citizen of the state and served as colonel of the 
21st Michigan volunteers in the civil war, being 
wounded six times, captured at Chickamaugua, and 
' eaping through the famous Libby prison tunnel. 
The son was educated in the public schools of his 
native city, and at the military academy, Orchard 
Lake, Mich. He matriculated at the 'University 
of Michigan in the class of 1888, but because of ill 
health was not graduated. His first position was a 
clerkship in the U. S. consulate at Valparaiso, Chili, 
to which he was appointed in 1890 and in the 
following year he became secretary to the American 
legation at Santiago, Chili. During this incumbency 
occurred the revolution of 1891 and the Baltimore 
affair, with the settlement of which he was con- 
nected. He held this post until 1893, serving 
as eharg6 d'affaires in the absence of Minister 
Egan during the last year of his term. In 1897 he 
was appointed secretary of the American legation 
to Mexico, retaining this post after its elevation 
to the rank of embassy in 1899. Here also he 
served as charged'affairesat differenttimes amount- 
ing to a period of two years, under ambassadors 
Clayton, Conger and Thompson, during which 
occurred the marvelous development of that 
country, which made it one of the niost important 
powers having diplomatic relations with the 
United States.' The joint action of the United 
States and Mexico at the time of the disturbances 
among the Central American states in 1907 resulted 
in the Central American peace conference at 
Washington, which established the Central Ameri- 
can Arbitral Tribunal. He was appointed minister 
resident and consul general to the Dominican 
Republic by Pres. Roosevelt, in 1907, and was 
charged with the initiation of the new American 
policy under the treaty of Feb. 8, 1907, which was 
ratified by the Dominican congress on June 17, 
1907. It provided for the collection and applica- 
tion of the customs revenues of the Dominican 
republic by the United States for ihe purpu e of 
liquidating the former's long-standing del.t c.f 
over $30,000,000. Creditors having agreed to 
accept 17,000,000 of this debt, Domini-a issued 
s-jn.iHMuim orth of bonds bearing ."> per cent. 
interc-,1. and dependent upon the backing of the 
United States. The latter government appointed 
a general receiver of customs, who paid monthly 



AMKUICAX 



1!) 



SKIO, 000 against the intercut and amortizal ion of I lie 
bonds, I lie balance of tin' ciillcclniiis being retained 
by i he Dominican Republic. Mr. Mc( 'reel y was 
transferred t" tlic post of envoy extraordinary ID 
Honduras by Pres. Pa ft. Dec. 21, l.iO'.i. 11. s early 
and continue 1 ir. lining in the diplomatic service, as 
well as his knowledge of French and Spanish, enalile 

him torepreaenl his country with fitting lignit\ and 

tact, lie is inriro-'-ied 

FISHER, Lucius George, manufacturer, was 
lion i a I Derby, Yt., A tig- 17, l.XOS, son of ( leorgeand 
Sarali iBarlicr) Fisher. The founder of his family 
in America was Anthony Fisher, Jr., of .->ylehain, 
Suffolk co., England, who emigrated to New Enn 
land in the ship Rose in Ki.'iT, and settled at 
Dedhain, Mass., becoming selectman, county com 
jnissioncr. and deputy to the general court. The 
line of descent is traced through his son I tunic!, who 
was the lirsl sergeant of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Co. of Boston, a representative to ihe 
general court, and for three years speaker of the 
house of deputies, who married Abigail Marriott; 
their son John, who married Rebecca Ellis; their 
son. Major Jeremiah, who married Prudence Crosby ; 
jmd their sun Timothy, who married Abigail Pattee, 
and who was the grandfather of the subject of this 
sketch. He received such education as was afforded 
by the district schools. In the fall of 183(1 he jour- 
neyed west and was one of the earliest settlers of 
Bcloit, Wis., which town he named and where he 
made his permanent home. He engaged in several 
business projects, organizing a paper mill in 1851, 
anil establishing the Beloit "Journal" in 1853. He 
was associated with Morris K. Jesup and Dean Rich- 
mond in tin- construction of a railroad from Council 
Bluffs to Clinton, la., in 1850. In 1860 he assisted 
in the building of the Chicago & Galena Railroad 
from Kockford, 111., to Beloit, and he helped to 
(mild the Hacine A: Mississippi railroad between 
Racineand the Mississippi river. He was a personal 
friend of I'res. Lincoln, who had acted as his attor- 
ney, and in 1801, after Lincoln's election to the 
presidency, lie was appointed postmaster of Beloit. 
Mr. Fisher removed to Chicago in 1806, and shortly 
thereafter erected one of the 
first six-story buildings in that 
city ; it was entirely destroyed 
by the fire of 1871, but was 
rebuilt soon afterwards. He 
was supervisor of Hyde Park 
in Chicago for many years, 
and in 1879 became a di- 
rector and member of the 
executive committee of the 
Union Park Theological Semi- 
nary. Mr. Fisher was closely 
identified with Beloit College, 
which he assisted in found- 
ing. He helped to secure a 
< li.irter, select the location 
of the institution, and devise 
a plan for buildings. He 
served as one of its trustees 
until his death. He was mar- 
ried June 30, 1842, to ( 'aniline 
Amelia, daughter of Deacon 
I'elcr ! icld, a member of the famous Field family 
of < 'onnectieut, and they had one son, Lucius George 
Fisher, Jr. 

FISHER, Lucius George, Jr., manufacturer, 
was born at Beloit, Wis., Nov. L'7, 1S43, son of 
Lucius George and Caroline Amelia i Field) Fisher. 
His father (see above) was one of the early pioneer 
seiilers of Beloit and one of its most active and in- 
fluential citix.ens. He was educated in the private 
schools of Stockbridge, Mass., and at Beloit. Wis. 
After passing the entrance examinations of Beloit 



' 




College, he gave up further studies for a business 
Career ami became an ox-team freighter, taki 
onart/. mill owned by his father lo Colorado 
remained in that state until llie outbreak of the 
chil war. His sympathies were strongly with llie 
North, and although only seventeen year- of age la- 
pat riot ically enlisted upon Lincoln's tirst call for 
troops, bin owing to his extreme youth his father 
senl inn to a relative in New York city, and he was 
placed iii the employ of a hardware linn. M< , 
Blodgetl, Brown A: Co. of lhat city. The spirit of 
pa I riot ism was strong wilhin him, and two years 
later he' again enlisted and 
saw active servire in the 
Shenandoah valley, lie was 
color sergeant of his regimen t . 
Xlth N. Y., which before the 
end of the year was ordered 
to New York and took an 
active part in <|iiclling the' 
draft riots. After the war he 
went to Chicago, 111., and 
entered the service of the 
Rock River Paper Co. He 
was i|iiiek to grasp all the 
details of his duties and won 
rapid promotion, becoming in 
turn receiving clerk, billing 
clerk, book-keeper, salesman, 
and by I S70 was made general 
manager. In the follow- 
ing year he obtained a part 



: 

: 



, 




\ 



interest in the firm of Wheeler & Hinman, manu- 
facturers of paper bags. The name was soon 
changed to Wheeler, Fisner ct Co.. ami in 1X7- lh" 
business was incorporated as the Union Bag A 
Paper Co., with a capital of $500,000. The business 
grew enormously after Mr. Fisher became identified 
with it, and by 1894 several of its competitors had 
been absorbed, and the capital stock was further in- 
creased to S- 1 , 000, 000, Mr. Fisher becoming president 
of the concern. A further change was made in 
1899, when he organized the Union Bag A: Paper Co., 
consisting of the old Union Bag* Pa per Co, How land 
& Co., Samuel Cupples, George West Paper A- Bag 
Co., Western Paper Bag Co., Consolidated S. ( ). S. 
Bag Co., and the William Marshall Paper Co. The 
result of this consolidation brought under Mr. 
Fisher's management one of the largest industries in 
the United States, with a capital" of Sl^.iioii.iioo. 
The company has a producing capacity of 'J(il) tons 
of paper, 175 tons of sulphite, 90 tons of pulp, ami 
25,000,0(10 bags per day. Its employees number 
between 7. (10(1 ami S. 000, including the woodsmen in 
Canada, and the company owns water-power, saw- 
mills, wood-preparing mills, woodlands, ground 
wooil pulp mills, and paper mills, at Sandy Hill, 
Ballsto:i, and Hadlcy, N. Y., Watertown, Mass., 
and Ka ikanna, Wis., and :2,fiOO square miles of 
timber lands in Canada. Mr. Fisher remained at 
the head of the corporation as president mil il April. 
190X, when he resigned active' work and was made 
chairman of the board of directors. He patentcl 
a paper butter dish in Is75and organized the p.i| 
novelty company for its manufacture and sale. I I 
also organi/cil, in association willi Frank Davis of 
Bcloit, in lxs7, a company for tin- manufacture of 
paper pails; he formed the Exhaust Veni 
in IXSl ; and he organ i/cd the Pressed Prism 
Plate Glass Co. of Morgan town, I'a. ia I'.'oj. but he 
has since disposed of his interests in these com p. i 
with the- exception of the last, of which lie i~ still 

vice-president. In addition to his many ma 

fact u ring in I en -Is. Mr. Fisher lias de\ oted con-ider- 
able attention to Chicago real eslale. lie built ,-i 
large warehouse in 1X.YJ. and in 1 S9."> constructed 
the Fisher building, an eighteen-story sir- 



120 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.-EDIA 




which was added a twenty-story annex in 1906. In 
1909 he erected the Dry Goods Reporter Co. build- 
ing, another large office building. He is also largely 
interested in mines, western real estate and irriga- 
tion projects. He is president of the Rio Mimbres 
Irrigation Co. and the Lake Valley Mines Co. of New 
Mexico. Mr. Fisher was married in Chicago, 111., 
April 20, 1870, to Katherine Louise, daughter of 
Rev. Alfred Eddy, and has four children: Lucius 
George Fisher 3d, Alice, Ethel Field, and Kathryn 
Eddy Fisher. 

DASHIELL. William Wailes, manufacturer, 
was born in Somerset county, Md., Mar. 14, 1856, 
son of John Jay and Mary Ann 
(Wailes) Dashiell. Hisorigin.il 
American ancestor was James 
l>a-hiell, a native of France, 
who went to England, and early 
in seventeenth century emi- 
grated from SurTollvshire to 
America. Mr. Dashiell was 
educated in the public schools 
of Maryland, and at Hanover 
Academy. Hanover county, 
Va., but left in 1873. He had 
considerable native ability me- 
chanically, ami now sought an 
opportunity to develop this 
I >ent by spending two years in 
the Baltimore & Ohio railway 
shops. At the end of that time 
(1876) he determined to acquire 
a thorough technical education 
and entering Stevens Institute 
at Iloboken, \. J., took the four years' course in 
three years, being graduated in Is7!l with the degree 
of M.E. He passed the examination for assistant 
engineer, United States navy, but failed of an 
appointment for lack of sea experience. Through 
a schoolmate of his. Ernest Wright, son of James 
A. Wright, president of the Red Star Steamship 
CM., he obtained the opportunity of going to sea 
on one of the company's liners, but after six months 
in the service as a Distant engineer he abandoned 
the idea of entering the navy. He subsequently 
held various positions in the "Red Star Steamship 
Co., and in IssS was placed in charge of the Red 
Star line repair shops in Jersey City. He was 
engineer on the Croton aqueduct with Denton it 
Bruchan and later for Brown, Howard & Co.. 
(Iss7), and afterwards reconstructed the works 
of the Bayonne-Greenville Gas Light Co.. and 
that of the United Gas Improvement Co. After 
being with the Standard Oil Co. fur a time, he 
became general manager of the Sloss Iron & Steel 
CD. He was the first to make- a marine compound 
oil that was satisfactory, the marengine oil, which 
was perfected in 1887. After serving with the 
Vacuum Oil Co., in 1892, he bought out the New 
York Lubricating Co.. and engaged in exploiting 
his marengine oil, the chief feature of which is a 
combination of organic oils with hydrocarbons. 
He was married in 1884, to Catherine Townsend, 
daughter of John Kenton of Xew York. 

BEACH, Harlan Page, missionary and author, 
wa-^ born at South Orange, N. J., April 4, 1854, son 
of Joseph Wiekliff and Mary A. (Walkly) Beach, 
and a descendant of Thomas Beach, a native of 
England who came over in 1652, settling at New 
Haven, Conn. He studied in the public schools of 
South Orange until he was fifteen years of age. 
when he became a bookkeeper. A year later he 
entered Phillips Academy. Andover. Mass., and as 
graduated in 1874, second in his clas : . ; and with 
tins preparation he went to Yale University, 
winning first prize ir. composition and other 



literature prizes, and being graduated there in 1878. 
He at once became instructor of French and 
mathematics at Phillips Academy, but left in 1880 
to take a three years' course of study in the Andover 
Theological Seminary, after which he was sent by 
the American board of foreign missions to Tung 
Chou, China, as a missionary. He was engaged in 
teaching and evangelistic work until 1889. Finding 
time also to do some literary work, he devised a 
system of shorthand for the Mandarin language, 
which was for a time used among students there. 
In 1890 he returned to this country on account of 
his wife's ill health, and for a year and a half 
traveled in the United States as a representative 
of the American Board of Missions, when he became 
pastor of the Lowrie Hill Congregational Church 
in Minneapolis, Minn. He was superintendent 
of the School for Christian Works, in Springfield, 
Mass., during 1891-95, resigning this trust to become 
educational secretary of the Student Volunteer 
Movement for Foreign Missions. This organization 
was the result of a conference called together by 
Dwight L. Moody in the summer of 1886 for the 
study and discussion of Christian work, at which 
100 of the 251 delegates volunteered to become 
foreign missionaries. The movement thus started 
was organized into the student volunteer move- 
ment for foreign missions, under the charge of 
an executive committee representing well-known 
student organizations, and soon became widely 
extended until now it is doing a large w T ork in some 
700 colleges and universities of America. It has 
since been extended to several countries of the 
world. Its ideas are permeating churches and 
missionary boards everywhere, and its example 
has been emulated by sister organizations in England 
and Australia. Its educational department has 
organized over 2,000 classes in the United States 
and Canada for the study of missionary work, to 
which it supplies thousands of textbooks annually. 
The movement's membership includes nearly 
4,000 in foreign fields besides enrolling thousands 
who have volunteered to go. In 1906 Mr. Beach 
was appointed professor of the theory and practice 
of missions at Yale University, a position he still 
holds. He is a contributor to the "Missionary 
Review of the World," "The Congregationalist'' 
and other periodicals, and is the author of "The 
( Voss in the Land of the Trident" (1895) ; " Knights 
of the Labartim" (1896); "Dawn on the Hills of 
T'ang" (China), (1898): "New Testament Studies 
in Missions" (1899); " I'rincely Men of the Heavenly 
Kingdom" (1903); "Geography and Atlas of 
Protestant Missions," 2 vols.. (1901-03); and 
"India and Christian Opportunity" (1904). He is 
a member of the American Oriental Society, a 
Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, a member 
of the Graduates' Club, New Haven, president of 
the American Ramabai Association and secretary 
of the Yale Foreign Missionary Society. He was 
married at Lake Forest, 111., June 29, 1N83. to 
Lucy L., daughter of Samuel Dexter Ward of 
Lake Forest, 111. They have two children, Roderic 
and Selv.-yn Dexter Beach. 

KHOKKKK, Alfred L., anthropologist, was 
born at Hoboken, N. J., June 11, 187.), son of 
Florence and Johanna (Mueller) Kroeber. His 
father was a wholesale dealer in clocks and the 
son was given the best educational advantage-, 
being graduated at Columbia University in 1896, and 
receiving the degree of A.M. in 1897 and Ph.D. in 
1901. He was assistant in rhetoric at Columbia 
1897-99, and during 1899-1900 was a fellow in 
anthropology at the same university In 1 !>((() he 
went to the California Academy of Sciences at 
curator of anthropology and in 1901 was associaieil 



OF AMERICAN 1U< K .1! APHY. 



121 



first as instructor and secretary and later as assist- 
ant professor and curator of anthropology with the 
University of California. The brandies of anthro- 
pology in which he has conducted his researches 
an 1 language, particularly with reference to grain- 
mar, religion in its various manifestations, mythol- 
ogy, art and music, in some cases dealing \\iih 
industrial and social life and physical types. His 
excellent work among the Indian tribes of Cali- 
fornia has given the world a much fuller knowl- 
edge of the aboriginal history of that state. These 
investigations as well as his studies of the Eskimos, 
and the Prairie and Plateau Indians of the United 
.States, were carried on first in connection with 
the American Museum of Natural History, Columbia 
University and the California Academy of Sciences. 
but since 1901 he has worked solely in the interests 
of the department of anthropology of the University 
of California. Besides his researches in anthro- 
pology, Prof. Kroeber has specialized somewhat in 
ethnology and mythology. Accounts of his inves- 
tigations have been published in the bulletins of 
the American Museum of Natural History; the 
"American Anthropologist"; ami the "Journal of 
American Folk-Lore." Prof. Kroeber was the 
founder of the American Anthropological Associa- 
tion, lie has been its councillor since 1903 and a 
member of the editorial board since 1905. He is 
also a member of the American Ethnological So- 
ciety, the Archaeological Institute of America, 
l Jr. 1 American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, the Japan Society of America, the Anthro- 
pological Society of Washington; the American 
Folk-Lore Society, of which he was president in 
1905 and secretary of the California branch 1905- 
ox. secretary of the San Francisco Society, 1905-08, 
secretary of the Japan Society of America, and 
life member of the California Academy of Sciences. 
He was married May 24, 1907, to Henrietta, daugh- 
ter of Hugo Rothschild of San Francisco, Cal. 

LUCE, Harry James, merchant, was born at 
Monroe, Mich., June Hi, 18G1, son of William Euston 
and Sophia (Hayes) Luce. He was educated in 
public schools of Michigan, and he matriculated at 
the University of Michigan in 1885, but in the fol- 
lowing year his father died, and he was compelled 
to give up a college education and embark in a 
commercial receer. In 18S7 he entered the employ 
of the Globe Tobacco Co. of Detroit as a clerk, 
ami subsequently he removed to New York, where 
he became associated with the tobacco firm of 
Powell, Smith & Co. This business was consoli- 
dated with the American Tobacco Co. in 1900, and 
after continuing to direct its affairs for another year 
he became associated with the well-known firm of 
The Acker, Merrall & Condit Co. of New York, of 
which he was elected president in 1902. The Acker, 
Merrall it Condit Co. dates its origin from 1820, when 
Thomas Hope opened a grocery store at Chambers 
street and College place (now West Broadway), 
winch was then the residential part of the city. The 
business was an ordinary one for a number of years. 
Among Mr. Hope's assistants were three young men 
of more than ordinary ability, Messrs. Acker, 
Merrall and Condit, who became fully conversant 
with all the details of the business, and so valu- 
able were their services that when Mr. Hope re- 
tired in 1858 they secured a controlling interest 
and assumed full charge. In order to keep pace 
with the growing population and to supply the 
increased demand for the goods of this company, 
branch stores opened in various parts of the city 
and later on in Brooklyn and outlying suburbs. 
At the present time the company lias twenty-one 
branch stores extend ing as far as Newport, R. I., and 
Baltimore, Md. Besides these retail stores the 



company owns a large warehouse m the hea,i of the 
city, which carries sufficient -tuck l<> keep tin- 
stores supplied with all kinds of food products, 
groceries, liquors, cigars, perfumery and toilet 
articles. It also operates in New York citv a verj 
complete and up-to-date cold-storage plant for 
the purpose cif supplying a full line of fresh ripe' fruit, 
at all seasons of the year, which is an important 
feature of its extensive business. The firm has a 
ell established reputation of being the leading 
retail grocery supply house in the country, not for 
the quantity of the goods Mild but the higli quality, 
which is always the' very pun-si and best that it is 
possible to obtain. In the various establishments tin- 
company employs some 1,500 men and women, and 
the gross annual business amounts to Sill (1110, (100. 
The present officers are: Harry .1. Luce, president; 

Albert E. Men-all, vice-president; J. T. Har I, 

secretary, and Walter 11. Merrall, treasurer. In 
addition to this large business, Mr. Luce is director 
of the Garden ( 'ity Estates and the Union Exchange 
Bank. He is a member of the Metropolitan Club, 
the Racquet Club, the New York Yacht Club, tin- 
New York Athletic Club and the- Mel ropolitaii 
Museum of Art. He maintains a line stock farm 
in Shelby county, Ky., where- he has bred some cif 
the finest Hereford cattle in America. Mr. Luce 
was married in 1889 to Katherine, daughter of 
Sampson B. Moxlcy of Kentucky, and has one 
daughter, Marguerite Luce. 

HERRICK. Elias Hicks, broker, was born in 
New York city, Dec. 27, 1X6(5, son of Elias J. and 
Margaret Louise (Post) Herrick, and a descendant 
of Henry Herrick, the fifth son of Sir William 
Herrick of Loughborough, Leicester, England, who 
came to America prior to 1653, and settled at 
Beverly, Mass. His wife was Editha Larkin, and 
from them the line of descent is traced through 
their son Ephraim, who married Mary Cross; their 
son Samuel, who married Mehitabel Woodward; 
their son Stephen, who married Phebe Guile-; their 
son Joseph, who married Elizabeth Burton; their 
son Joseph, who married Margaret Hicks, and 
their son Elias Hicks, who married Jane Maria 
Taylor, and was the grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch. The 
latter received his education in the 
Holliday school, New Y'ork city, 
and at Princeton College, where 
he was graduated in 1888. He 
then attended the law school of 
Columbia L'niversity, and was ad- 
mitted to the New York bar in 
1890. He began his business 
career in the employ of the Title 
Guarantee & Trus't Co., filling - 
various positions there for five 
years, and then was associated 
with the firm of Colby & Hoyt, 
bankers, for about a year. In 
1896 Mr. Herrick became assistant 
secretary of the Fulton Trust Co., 
formerly the Real Estate Trust 
Co., which position he held until 
1899, when he organized the stock exchange house 
of Welles, Herrick & Hicks, and subsequently the 
firm of Herrick. Hicks & Colby, his partners beim: 
Frederick ('. Hicks and Everett Colby. In l!")'.'. 
Mr. Everett Colby having become a special partner. 
Mr. Henry S Kip was admitted. The- firm does a 
general brokerage and investment business, main- 
taining no branch offices, but having correspondents 
in other cities. Mr. Ilerrick is also secretary and a 
director of the Gerard Development Co . a director 
of the Degnon Contracting Co., and of the Cap- 
Canal Construction Co. He was for many yi 




122 



TIN: NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 




treasurer of the Pert Society, a charitable organiza- 
tion for sailors, and is a member of the University, 
Union League, Racquet and Tennis, Princeton and 
Lawyers' clubs, and of the St. Nicholas Society of 
New York city. While at Princeton he founded 
the Lfniversity Cottage C'lub of Princeton, of which 
he is chairman of the board of governors. He was 
married in April. 1S92, to Adelaide I., daughter of 
William II. H. Moore, for some years president of 
the Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co., and they have 
two daughters. Margaret Adelaide and Louise 
Moore Hprrick. 

DEGNON, Michael John, contractor, was born 
at Geneva, O., Sept. 29, 1856, son of John and 
i 'atherine (Naughton) Degnon. 
His father came to this country 
from Ireland in 1846, and early 
engaged in railroad worl~. Soon 
after the birth of the son the 
family removed to Rockport, 
O., and settled on a farm. 
Young Degnon received his 
early education in the public 
schools, and for two years at- 
tended Baldwin University at 
Berea, O. After spending a 
few years on the farm, he 
started railroading and worked 
mostly in the construction de- 
partment, where he became 
foreman and later superinten- 
dent of construction work. He 
nrxt became connected with 
J. S. Casement & Co., in the 
same line of work, and in 1880 
he embarked in the contracting 
business for himself, devoting 
himself principally to railroad construction. His 
business increased rapidly and in 1895 he formed 
tli Degnon Construction Co.,with $200.000 capital 
with headquarters in Cleveland, O. In 1897 the 
company moved its headquarters to New York and 
increased its capitalization to 8500,000. During 
the last ten years the company's business has in- 
creased with such wonderful stride's that it has 
become one of tht largest contracting companies 
in the country, its volume of business amounting 
to nearly $6,000.000 a year. It employs about 
4,000 men and has an engineering staff of twenty 
men. Among the large contracts scrim -d by Mr. 
Degnon were the construction of the docks and 
terminal for the Wabash railroad in Baltimore, 
as well as the city clucks, destroyed by the fire 
in that city; the construction of the Lake Shore 
railroad from Youngstown to Ashtabula, O. ; tin- 
construction of the \Vaba.-h railroad along the 
Potomac river; the Belmont tunnel under the 
East river. New York; five sections of the New 
York city subway, from city hall to the Battery; 
from Lafayette place to the city hall, a.id from 41st 
Streel and Park avenue to 47th street and Broad- 
way, and the subway loop through Center and 
Canal streets to the Bowery, connecting the 
Brooklyn and Manhattan bridges, costing nearly 
$20,000,000; the caisson and anchorage work of 
the Brooklyn side of the Williamshurg bridge, 
and considerable construction work for tin S 
Fe and Missouri Pacific railroad as far west as 
Colorado. At the present time (1910) he is con- 
structing the MrAdoo Tunnel on Sixth avenue, 
New York city, from Twelfth street to Thirty- 
tliird street, the Pennsylvania railroad terminal 
at Long Island city; nine miles of the aqueduct 
water tunnel in Ulster county. N. Y., and the Cape 
I '"'I canal from Buzzards Bay to BarnstaMe Hay. 
M i Tlir contract for the Cape Cm! canal is for 

^ l,ill)().()0(l. and its building is of great commercial 



importance and value to shipping between New 
York and Boston. The canal is to be fourteen 
miles in length, 100 feet wide and 25 feet deep at 
low tide. Mr. Degnon is a man of unusual executive 
ability and remarkable business judgment, with a 
thorough practical knowledge of his business. En- 
dowed with a powerful constitution and great nerv- 
ous energy, he is a tireless worker, and keeps himself 
thoroughly posted as to progress of work, and all 
details pertaining to cost of materials, as well as 
making the general plans of operation. He is a 
man of the highest personal and business honor and 
integrity, who takes the greatest pride in the reputa- 
tion he has established for efficient work. Besides 
being president of the Degnon Contracting Co., he is 
also president of the Degnon Realty and Terminal 
Improvement Co., which owns about 400 acres in 
Long Island City and Flushing, which are being 
improved for city homes, and president of the 
Degnon Cape Cod Construction Co. He is a mem- 
ber of the Manhattan, Democratic and New York 
Athletic clubs. He was married in 1881 to Mary 
Davis, who died in 1893; and again in 1900 to Ger- 
trude Foxall, and has ten children, William, Harry, 
Norman, John, Myron, Robert, Gertrude, Margaret, 
Catherine and Mary Degnon. 

HARRIS, Merriman Colbert, Methodist Epis- 
copal bishop (missionary), was born at Bellesville, 
O., July 9, 18J6, son of Colbert and Elizabeth 
(Crupper) Harris, of English ancestry. His father 
was a teacher in southeastern Ohio and owned ex- 
tensive farm lands which he also cultivated. His 
maternal grandfather, Elisha Crupper, was a man of 
considerable means in Virginia and as a matter of 
conscience he directed in his will that his slaves 
should be freed. Bishop Harris attended the public 
school at his native town. His teacher, Robert L. 
Morris, possessed a deep religious nature, ami was 
interested in the work of the church in foreign fields, 
ami it was under the influence of this man that he 
entered upon what became his life work. Bishop 
Harris left the high shool at the age of seventeen to 
take part in the civil war, enlisting in the 12th Ohio 
cavalry and serving two and one-half years, until 
hi- regiment was mustered out in 1865. At this time 
he had saved up several hundred dollars from wages 
and bounties, and having resolved to enter the 
ministry, began his theological studies in a seminary 
at Harlem Springs, O., and subsequently the Wash- 
ington (Ohio) Academy. After teaching school for 
two years at Fairview, O., he joined the Pitt-burg 
ront'rrence of the Methodist Episcopal churth in 
1S69, his first pastorate being at Uhrichsvillc, O., 
but he withdrew from the active ministry in 1N71 to 
enter Allegheny College at Meadville. Pa., wheie he 
was graduated in Is7:t with degree of A.B. In that 
yeai lie and his wife were appointed by the general 
conference to be missionaries to Japan, and immedi- 
ate!? left forthat country. They settled at -Hakodat, 
Japan, and were the first Protestant missionari -s 
north of Tokio. During a period of five years they 
built a church and school, and Mrs. Harris founded 
the Caroline Wright School for Young Women, 
through the beneficence of a woman of that name in 
New York state. A new building costing S.'iO.OOO 
wasadded tothe institution in 1906 and it nou . 19HM 
has three hundred pupils. While in Japan, Bishop 
Harris was appointed vice-consul at llakodat by 
Pres. Grant, and on the death of the American 
consul, he served as acting consul for three years, 
lie was transferred to Tokio in 1X79. becoming pre- 
siding elder in the Japanese conferem <-, and travel- 
in L: e\ i en Mvely through central and northern .la pa: -. 
opening missions. He was transferred to San l-'rau- 
cisco in ISM! on account oi the illness of his wife, and 
served as superintendent of the Japanese missions 



OF AMKHICAN HI< >< iU.U'll Y. 



on the Pacific coast and the Hawaiian islands. He 
was earnestly sought by the 1 ye>ung Japanese men 
.-I San Francis<-o tor tliis work for sixteen years. 
During this time he organ i/.eil many missions, 
\\hie-h lal'T became self-supporting ehurehes aiiel 
he opened the work annum the .Japanese in the 
Hawaiian islands. In IS! IS was sent hack to 
Japan ami made his headquarters at Tokyo. His 
work among the Japanese bail attracted a good 
deal of attention, and on his return to Japan 
at this time he was dreorated liy the emperor 
witli the order of the "Saere-d Treasure'." fourth 
class. This was an unusual order to be conferred 
o.i a foreigner, and it gi\e> Bishop Harris many 
privileges. In two years he was advanced by the 
emperor to the third class. At the general confer- 
ence at Los Angeles, Cal., in I'.llll. lie was elected 
missioiiary bishop for Japan and Korea. It is said 
of Bishop Harris that he is peculiarly adapted for the 
work in Japan, he has been unusually successful and 
is highly esteemed there. He speaks the language 
fluently. He was married at Meadville, Pa., Oct. 
L':i, 1S73, to Flora L., daughter of Dr. David Best. 

GARY, Frqnk Boyd, 1" S. senator, was born in 
Cokesbury, Abbeville eo., S. (.'., March <J, 1800, son 
of Franklin F. and Mary Caroline (Blackburn) 
'lary, of English descent. He is a descendant of 
Charles (lary, who removed from Virginia to South 
Carolina about 17(i(i. His father was a physician 
of eminence of Abbeville county, S. C., and father 
and five uncles served in the civil war: Dr. Thomas 
1'. Ciary as surgeon in the Confederate army with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel; M. W. Gary as a. major- 
general; William T. Gary as a staff-officer with the 
rank of major, later judge of the circuit court of 
(ieorgia and U. S. district attorney under Cleve- 
land; Samuel M. G. Gary, a staff-officer with the rank 
of colonel; and John H. Gary as captain of the 
South Carolina college cadets, who was killed at 
Battery Wagner. Frank Boyd Gary was educated 
at Cokesbury Conference School and Union College, 
Schenectady, N. Y., in the class of 1881, but was 
compelled to abandon his studies in the senior 
year through impaired health and was not grad- 
uated. He studied law' in the office of his brother, 
Eugene B. Gary, now associate justice of South 
Carolina and in 1881 was admitted to the South 
Carolina bar. He has since practiced his profession 
in Abbeville, S. C. He was attorney in the case of 
Abbeville Electric Light & Power Co. versus West- 
ern Electrical Supply Co., a case involving service 
of summons upon a non-resident corporation, which 
was carried to the supreme court of the United 
States. In 1890 he was elected a member of the 
South Carolina legislature, serving by reelection 
until 1900, was three times speaker of the state 
house of representatives, anil was a member of the 
constitutional convention in 1895. In 1900 he 
became a candidate for the governorship and in the 
ensuing campaign was the first to advocate local 
option between a dispensary and no dispensary in 
each county in South Carolina. In other words he 
claimed that each county should have the riglit to 
say whether or not a dispensary should be estao- 
lisheel in the county. lie was a staunch supporter 
of William Jennings Bryan and was defeated. On 
se\iT;il occasions Mr. Gary was appointed by the 
governor, upon the recommendation of the chief 
justice, to preside over the courts of South Carolina 
and presided at the murder trial of Lieut. -Gov. 
James H. Tillman for the killing of \. G. Gonzales, 
an editor, a trial which lasted twenty-two days. He 
is at present and has been for several years, county 
Democratic chairman of Abbeville county. In 1906 
he was again elected a member of the legislature 
and upon the death of the Hon. A. C. Latimer was 



rhosen a member of the U. S. senate, March 6, 1908, 
to complete the latter's term, which expired March 3, 

I'.MIII. U'heli the stale I leinocra I ic convention met 
ill Columbia. S. C. in I'.IOS. for llie purpose of 
electing delegates to the Denver convention, iliat 
body suspended the rules and unanimously elected 
Mr. (lary and Senator Tillman as two of ihe dele- 
gates at large. The other delegates were chosen 
by ballot. Mr. Gary is a past potentate' of ( l:i>is 
Temple of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, the 
Temple of the C:irolinas, Charlotte, N. C. He \\.i- 
married Jan. li. 1907, to Maria Lee, daughter of 
Dr. James F.vans of Florence and has one sun, 
I 1 ' rank H. < lary. Jr. 

FORT, John Franklin, jurist and thirty-seventh 
governor of New Jersey, was born at IVmbcrton, 
N. .1.. March 'JO, 1S.VJ, sun of Andrew lleisler ami 
Hannah A. (Brown) Fort, and nephew of George 
F. Fort, governor of New Jersey during Is.VJ ">.V 
His first American ancestor was Roger Fort, who 
came from England in 16X5, and settled in Burling- 
ton county, N. J., in 1705. He received his early 
education at the Permington Seminary, N. J.. and 
studied law first with Kdward M. Paxson. and 
afterwards with Garrit S. Cannon and Kwan Merritt. 
Being graduated at the Albany Law School in ls~2 
with the degree of LL.B. he was admitted to tin- 
bar in the following year and began the practice of 
his profession in Newark, after serving one yeai 
as journal clerk of the New Jersey assembly. He 
was so successful and showed such marked ability 
that Gov. McClellan appointed him judge 1 of the 
first district court of the city of New-ark for five 
years (1878), and at the expiration of his term he 
was reappointed by Gov. Ludlow.. He resigned 
in 1883. He was a delegate-at-large from New 
Jersey to the Republican national convention at 
Chicago which nominated James G. Blaine for the 
presidency. Again in 1896 he placed the name of 
Garret A." Hobart of New Jersey in nomination for 
the vice-presidency. He served as chairman in the 
New Jersey Republican conventions of 188!) and 

1895. In 1894 he was a member of the constitu- 
tional commission, subsequently 

becoming one of the three New 
Jersey members on uniform laws 
t'eir all the states. Gov. Griggs 
appointed Mr. Fort judge of the 
Essex court of common pleas in 

1896, to fill a vacancy caused by 
the resignation of Andrew Kirk- 
patrick. Judge Fort was later 
appointed judge of Essex common 
pleas for the full term. In May, 
1900, Gov. Yoorhees appoint eel 
him a justice of the supreme court 
for the full term of seven years. 
On Nov. 5, 1908, Juelge Fort was 
electee! governor of New Jersey by 
a plurality eif more than s. 000 
votes over his Democratic oppo- 
nent Frank S. Katzenbach. Gov. 
Fort has maele a special study of 
prisons and criminal reformation 

and in 190'J was instrumental in closing the gambling 
houses at Long Branch. Before his judge-ship he 
was president of the East Orange National Bank, 
and also a founeler and member eif llie beiard of 
trustees of the Newark Security Savings Hank, 
lie was a director of the City Trust Co. of Newark 
and I lie Essex County Trust Co. of Easl Orange; 
and president of the' New Jersey Society ol tin- 
Sons of the- American Revolution. He' was married 
April -J-J. ls7li. te> Charlotte K.. daughter of William 
Siamsby of Newark, and has three chilelren: 
Margretta, Franklin W. and Leslie I!. Fort. 




124 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




HAD LEY, Henry [Kimball], composer, was 
born in Somerville. Mass., Dec. 20, 1874, son of 
S. Henry and Martha Tilton (Conant). He re- 
ceived his general education in the Somerville 
public schools, and showed marked ability in 
musical composition before he was twelve years 
old. Under the instruction of his father, who was 
well known throughout eastern Massachusetts 
as musician, conductor, and teacher, he learned 
to play the piano and violin, but he had not studied 
theory before he composed fluently in the lighter 
forms of music. His first studies in composition 
were conducted at the New Eng- 
land Conservatory of Music under 
Stephen Emery and George W. 
Chadwick. At the age of twenty, 
he composed his first serious work 
for orchestra, an overture called 
"Hector and Andromache," which 
was performed in New York under 
Walter Damrosch at a concert of 
the Manuscript Society in Chieker- 
iun Hall. He had carried on the 
study of violin coincidently with 
composition, and in 1893 made a 
tour of the United States as leader 
with the Laura Schirmer Mapleson 
Opera Company. In the following 
summer he went to Vienna to study 
counterpoint with Eusebius Man- 
dyzewski, and while there com- 
pleted his Ballet Suite, No. 3, 
which was heard first at a concert of the Manu- 
script Society, New York, under the late Adolf 
Neuendorf, and was afterwards included in the 
repertory of Sam Franko's American Symphony 
orchestra. Mr. Hadley was appointed director 
of the music department at St. Paul's School, 
Garden City, L. I., in 1895, a position he held 
for seven years. He composed the following 
works during that remarkably fruitful period: 
two symphonies, "Youth and Life," first pro-' 
duced under Anton Seidl at a concert of the Manu- 
script Society in 1897; and "The Four Seasons," 
which won the New England Conservatory and 
the Paderewski prizes in 1902; an overture. 
"In Bohemia," first produced in Pittsburg by 
Victor Herbert; an overture to Stephen Phillips' 
tragedy, "Herod:" a cantata, "In Music's Praise," 
which won the Oliver Ditson Company prize and 
was first produced at Carnegie Hall, New York, 
by the Peoples' Choral Union in Is'.l'.l; an "Oriental 
Suite," produced at a Sunday crmcrt at the 
Metropolitan Opera House under the composer's 
direction; 150 songs, and the incMental music 
to two plays, "The Daughter of Hairilear," and 
"Audrey." Of these the "Four Seasons" sym- 
phony has been the most widely heard, having 
been performed in all the principal cities of the 
United States, in London under Sir Villiers Stan- 
ford, and in Warsaw under Mylinaski. After 
leaving St. Paul's school Mr. Hadley composed 
a comic opera, "Nancy Brown," ami then \\ent 
to Europe again (1904), where he continued com- 
position and appeared in many cities as a con- 
ductor. His tone-poem, "Salome," was performed 
under his direction in Berlin. Cassel, Warsaw, 
Monte Carlo, Wiesbaden, etc., and was also heard 
in the United States, where it was first played 
by the Boston Symphony orchestra April 12, 
1907. In 1908 he "became attached to the Stadt- 
theater at Mayence, where he brought out a one- 
act opera, "Sane." The first performance was 
on April 6, 1909, with Miss Marguerite Lemon 
in the leading role. Meantime his rhapsody, 
"The Culprit Fay," had won the $1,000 prize 
offered by the National Federation of Musical 



Clubs (America), and in May, 1909, the composer 
returned to this country to conduct its first per- 
formance by the Theodore Thomas orchestra. 
He then accepted an appointment as conductor 
of the Seattle (Wash.) symphony orchestra and 
began his duties in October, 1909. His other 
productions are a third symphony (1906); a 
symphonic fantasia (1905); a lyric drama, "Merlin 
and Vivian," for solo, chorus and orchestra 
(1906); a concert piece for viollincello and orches- 
tra (1907); a church service, seven ballads for 
chorus and orchestra, a string quartette, a piano 
quintette, a violin sonata, and other lesser works. 
The very magnitude of Mr. Hadley's output is 
a certain indication of its salient character-spon- 
taneity. This does not imply cheapness, else the 
extraordinary recognition of his ability coi'M 
not have been achieved, and it does not imply 
hasty work. The gift of melody is his in greater 
degree, perhaps, than it is of any other contem- 
porary American composer, and he has the courage 
to write melody in his works without straining 
after recondite and extra-musical effects a.nd 
atmosphere. His music is sane and inspiriting 
always, and marked at times by rather more serious- 
ness than might be looked for in a man of his years 
and incessant industry. It is modern in fresh- 
ness and buoyant individuality, and it is written 
with sufficient regard for established principles 
in art to gratify those whose taste and judgment 
still incline to formal expression. His orchestra- 
tion from the beginning has been skillful and 
certain, and the magnetic, nervous mastery he 
assumes over an orchestra indicates that he will 
make a distinguished mark in the field which he has 
chosen at last to make his life work. He is un- 
married. 

OTIS, Edward Osgood, physician, was born 
at Rye, N. H., Oct. 29, 1848, son of Rev. Israel 
Taintor and Olive (Morgan) Otis, and a descendant 
of John Otis who came to America in 1035 from 
Glastonbury, England, and settled at Hingham, 
Mass. He was the ancestor of many notable 
members of the Otis family. The line of descent 
is traced through his son John, who married 
Mary Jacob; their son Judge Joseph, who married 
Dorothy Thomas; their son Nathaniel, who 
married Hannah Thatcher; their son John, who 
married Prudence Taintor; and their son John 
Thatcher, who married Louisa Pomeroy, and who 
was the grandfather of Dr. Otis. He was educated 
at Phillips Exeter Academy, and was graduated at 
Harvard University in 1871. He studied medicine 
at the Harvard medical school where he received the 
degree of M.D. in 1877, and took a post-graduate 
course in Europe for a year. He began the practice 
of his profession in Boston, making a specialty of 
diseases of the lungs and of climatology, and he 
has added largely to the literature and general 
knowledge of tuberclosis by the many papers upon 
the subject contributed in various medical journals 
and transactions. The tuberculosis department of 
the Boston dispensary, the first of its kind in the 
United States, was founded by him in 1898, and 
In 1 has since been its senior physician, as well as 
visiting physician of the Massachusetts state 
sanitorium for tuberculosis, of which he is now 
consulting physician. Dr. Otis was one of the 
pioneers in this country in the anti-tuberculosis 
movement, and is still one of the leaders in the 
crusade. In the chair of pulmonary diseases and 
climatology, which he has held in the Tufts College 
medical school since 1902, the greater part of his 
teaching is devoted to the study of tuberculosis 
and its early detection. He was among the first 
to advocate many of the measures for the pre- 
vention of that disease, which have now been 



DK AMU'.H \N Blnr.HAI'HY. 



1 _'.-> 



generally adopted. For more than twenty years 
he has been an active member of the American 
Climatological Association which has largely to do 
with tuberculosis and climate as applied to its 
treatment. In recent legislation upon tuberculosis 
in Massachuetts, he has been active, both in 
securing the three state hospitals for consumptives 
and in the Municipal Consumptive hospital in 
the city of Boston. He is one of the trustees of 
tli.- Montgomery colored school, and a member of 
the advisory board of the Dennison Home (settle- 
ment i in Boston. He is the author of "Hospitals 
and Saiiitoria for Consumption Abroad" (1898) ; 
"Thr Significance of the Tuberculosis Crusade and 
its Future" (1904); "Dispensaries for Tuber- 
culosis and Description of the Tuberculosis Depart- 
ment of the Boston Dispensary" (1903); "Duty 
of tin- Si air and Municipality in the Care of Pul- 
monary Tuberculosis Among the Poor" (1900); 
"Struggles Against Consumption" (1902); "Home 
Treatment of Tuberculosis, either in Favorable or 
Unfavorable Climate" (1904); "The Great While 
Plague" (1909), and a series of articles upon 
climate and health resorts was contributed by 
him to the second edition of Wood's "Handbook 
of Medical .Science." Dr. Otis was president of 
the American Climatological Association in 1898, 
and has been president of the Boston Association 
for the Relief and Control of Tuberculosis since 
it- organization. He is also a member of the 
American Public Health Association, the American 
Academy of Medicine, the American Medical 
Association, the Boston Society for Medical Im- 
provement, the Boston Medical Library Associa- 
tion, the Massachusetts Society of the Sons of 
the American Revolution, the University Club 
of Boston, and is a director of the National Asso- 
ciation for the Study and Prevention of Tuber- 
culosis, and corresponding member of the Inter- 
national Anti-Tuberculosis Association, and a 
deacon in the Mt. Vernon Congregational Church 
of Boston. The son of a New England clergyman, 
and a grandson of a revolutionary soldier, Dr. 
Otis has always maintained the old Puritan tradi- 
tions and standards of his race. He was married 
in Boston. June G, 1894, to Marion, daughter of 
William Faxton, and has five children: Olive, 
John Faxton, Edward Osgood, Jr., William Faxton, 
and Brooks Otis. 

ARMSTRONG, John, soldier and congress- 
man, was born in Ireland in 1725. With his 
brother William and sister Margaret, he came to 
America some time before 1748, and settled in 
Pennsylvania. He distinguished himself in the 
French and Indian wars of 1755-50, having com- 
mand of the expedition against the Indian village 
of Kit tanning. Pa., in 1755. destroying their 
settlement and taking the stores sent to them by 
the French, in recognition of which service he 
received a vote of thanks from the corporation 
of Philadelphia and a medal. He was consulted 
by the propietors of Pennsylvania on all mailers 
connected with Indian affairs. On Mar. 1, 177o, 
congress promoted him from the rank of colonel 
to brigadier-general, and he assisted in the defense 
of Ft. Moultrie and in the battle of Germantown. 
He resigned his commission Apr. 4, 1777, in con- 
sequence of dissatisfaction as to rank. In the 
following year lie was sent to congress, "having 
been recommended for that position without 
solicitation by Gen. Washington," served a second 
term in congress in 1787-88, and was one of the 
candidates for the presidency at the first national 
election, and received one electoral vote. Gen. 
Armstrong was the father of Dr. James Armstrong 
(1749 IM'xi ; md Gen. John Armstrong. Jr.. 
(175S-1X43), U. S. senator (q.v.l. He died at 



Carlisle, Pa., Mar. 9, 1795. 

STEDMAN, Arthur Wallace, merchant, was 
born in Boston, Mass., April 11. 1S55, son of Daniel 
Baxter and Miriam White Stedman) Stedman. 
His first American ancestor, Isaac Stedman, cam.: 
from London, England, to the .American colonies 
in lt',:;5 in the ship "Elizabeth" and -etiled first 
at Seituate, Mass., but in 1050 removed to tint 
part of Boston known as Muddy River 'now 
Brookline). The line of descent Ls traced through 
his son, Thomas, who married Mary Watson; 
their son Thomas; their son Joseph, hi> -on 
Joseph, who married Hannah Curti.-, and iheir 
son, Josiah, who married Miriam White Maxler. 
and who was the grandfather of the sulijeci 
of the sketch. Mr. Stedman's father 1X17 '"i 
was an importer and merchant of Boston, and 
served as representative from Dorchester in the 
Massachusetts legislature. The son received his 
early education in private schools at Dorchester 
and'in the public schools of Upham's Corner. He 
was prepared for Harvard College at a private 
school in Newport, R. I., but having decided upon 
a mercantile career did not pursue hi,- studies 
further. He began his business career in the 
service of Rice & Davis, Boston, in KS72; was 
engaged in the shoe manufacturing business from 
1x7,", to 1N91, when he became associated with 
George A. Alden & Co., in the rublx-r business, and 
was admitted to the firm as a partner in Ix:i7. 
This business was founded by the laU J George \. 
Alden in 1855, who began as an importer of hides, 

foat skins, rubber, and East India gums The 
rm name was changed to George A. Alden A: Co.. 
in 1878, when a son, Adelbert II. Alden, was 
admitted, and the firm then remained the same 
until 1897, when A. W. Stedman was admitted. 
On Jan. 1, 1908, G. Edwin Alden (a son), Fmlerick 
W. Dunbar, and J. Frank Dun bar. were admitted 
to partnership, Mr. Alden, senior, having died. 
The firm now controls the New York Commercial 
Co., of New York city, with houses in Manaos and 
Para, Brazil, the New York Shellac Co., of New- 
York city, and the A. H. Alden & Co., Ltd., of 
London and Liverpool, Eng- 
land. The goods handled are 
crude rubber, gutta percha, 
shellac,' balata, and East 
India gums, which are sent 
to the markets of Europe, 
America and Japan, and the 
annual business in all branch- 
es exceeds $30,000,000. Mr. 
Stedman is secretary and di- 
rector of the New York 
Commercial Co., and a di- 
rector of A. H. Alden & Co., - 
Ltd., of London and Liver- 
pool, England. He was for- 
merly a director of the First 
Nati'iial and Massachusetts 
National banks of Boston, 
the Frank G. Alden Co., 
of New York, and presi- 
dent of the Chicago-Bolivian Ruhlx'r I'o. of 
Chicago, 111. He is a member of the Union Club. 
of Boston; member of the executive committee 
of the Brookline Country Club since Ix'.ij; ihe New 
England Automobile Club, of which he was the' lir-i 
president, the Massachusetts Automobile Club, the 
Tennis and Racquet Club, the Norfolk Hunt Club, 
the Eastern Yacht Club, the Victorian Club, the 
Boot and Shoe Associates, and the New England 
Rubber Club, of which he is the present president. 
He is also a delegate to the Massachusetts State, 
Board of Trade. He was married first. Doc. 11, 
1S7S, to Lillian, daughter of A. Claxton Cary, of 




126 



THK NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




Dorchester, Mass; she died in 1881, and he was 
again married, Oct. 4, 1883, to Mary Prescott, 
daughter of Samuel Prescott Shepard of Boston 
and a descendant of Col. Prescott of Bunker Hill 
fame. By the second marriage he has one son, 
Arthur Wallace Stedman. Jr. 

LYMAN, Henry Darius, president of the Amer- 
ican Surety Co., was born at Parkman, O., 
Apr. 12, 1852, son of Darius and Betsey C. (Con- 
verse) Lyman. His first American ancestor was 
Richard Lyman, a native of High Ongar, Essex 
co., England, who sailed from 
Bristol in the ship Lion, in 1631, 
and settled first in Charlestown, 
Mass., and four years later at 
Hartford, Conn. His wife was 
Sarah Osborne, and the line of 
descent is traced through their 
son John and his wife, Dorcas 
Plumb; their son Moses, whose 
wife is unknown ; their son, 
('apt. Moses, and his wife, Mind- 
well Sheldon ; their son, Deacon 
m Moses and his wife, Sarah Hay- 
den (or Heighten); their son, 
Col. Moses and his wife, Ruth 
Collins, ami their son Dariusand 
his wife, Mary B. Judd, who were 
the grandparents of the subject of 
this .sketch, ('nl. Moses Lyman 
( 1743-1829) served in the revolu- 
tionary war. He commanded the guard over Major 
Andr at the time of his arrest and execution, and 
carried to Gen. Washington the first intelligence of 
the battle of Saratoga and the surrender of Bur- 
goyne. Henry D. Lyman received a public school 
education and at the age of twenty-three was 
appointed to a position in the post-office depart- 
mrnt. Promoted to be special agent and chief 
clerk of the contract office, he was active in the 
detection of the famous "star route" frauds in the 
post-office depart meat, and for this service he was 
made second assistant postmaster-general Feb. 4, 
1884. In the following year he entered the service 
of the American Surety Co. as secretary. At the 
time of his resignation the New York "Times" in 
an editorial said: "Mr. Lyman has been one of 
Mr. James's (the postmaster-general) ablest and 
most fearless assistants, and so long as he held the 
chair the members of the 'star route' ring could not 
regain any of the money which Mr. James had 
recovered from them." Postmaster-General James 
in after years spoke of him as the most competent 
and capable man upon that great undertaking, 
and said that in the manner in which he performed 
his duties lie was "absolutely heroic," and it was 
largely his ability that enabled the department 
to cecome self-sustaining. Mr. Lyman was made 
vice-president of the American Surety Co., .Ian. 
12, 1886, and was given complete charge of the 
department in which fidelity bonds are issued. 
He was entrusted with systematizing the com- 
pany's business in all departments. Almost 
immediately he organized a corps of inspectors 
to discover and apprehend defaulters, most of the 
men being former post-office inspectors, of whose 
work and ability he had knowledge, and from that 
time the company's business steadily improved. 
He was elected president April 12, 1899, a position 
he still holds. He is also a trustee of the North 
River Savings Bank of New York; a member of 
the Union League Club, the Lotos Club, and the 
Ohio Society oi New York. He is the author of 
"Selected Problems, Game of Draughts" (ISM). 
He was married Jan. 13, 1887, in Boston, Mass., 
to Laura M. v daughter of Dr. John A. Stevens. 



She died Dec. 31, 1902, and he was again married, 
June 7, 1907, to Louise C., daughter Charles K. 
Judson of Rochester, N. Y. 

SLICER. Thomas Roberts, clergyman, was 
born in Washington, D. C., Apr. 16. 1S47, son of 
Henry and Elizabeth Coleman (Roberts) Slicer, 
and grandson of Andrew and Elizabeth (Selby) 
Slicer. His grandparents were of Scotch descent, 
two ancestors of the name having settled in Mary- 
land about the middle of the eighteenth century. 
His pat?rnal grandfather served in the war of 1812 
and was one of the "old defenders" of Baltimore. 
Mr. Sheer's mother was a daughter of George 
Roberts, an early Methodist minister, who was 
associated with Bishop Asbury in collating his 
''Methodism in America," and his father .\ s 
also a minister with an active career of fifty- 
two years as preacher, organizer and debater in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. The son re- 
ceived his education in private schools in Baltimore 
and at the Baltimore City College, class of iMi.i. 
but his college course was interrupted for a period 
of five years on account of the temporary disability 
of his eyesight. However, he was given the degree 
of M.A. by Dickinson College in 1S!72. During 
a part of the time of his disability of sight he held a 
position with a business house in Baltimore. He 
entered the East Baltimore conference of Methodist 
Episcopal churches when he was twenty years of age, 
mid for ten years filled Methodist pastorates, part 
of which time he served in Colorado and Maryland. 
He was also pastor of the New York Avenue Meth- 
odist Church, Brooklyti, N. Y. He left the Methodist 
church in 1S76. an I accepted a call to the Park 
Congregational Church of Brooklyn. In 1SS1 he 
became affiliated with the Unitarians, and took 
charge of the strong First Church of Providence. 
R. I. From here he went in 1S90 to the Church 
of Our Father in Buffalo. N. Y., and in 1897 was 
called to AH Souls Church, New York where he 
still presides. Aside from his distinctive work as a 
pre idler, Mr. Sheer's literary interests have been 
not 'worthy, lie was literary editor of the Christian 
Union in 1S77 7s. and later was connected with 
the literary department of the Chicago "Advance," 
and of the Providence "Telegram." He is the author 
of several hooks, among which are "The Great 
Affirmations of Religion." " Power and Promise 
of the Liberal Faith," "One World at a Time," 
and "The Way to Happiness." He has for many 
years conducted Browning and Emerson classes 
in his parish house, and with growing success. Mr. 
Slicer is the social man. par excellence, and is in 
great demand as a speaker for occasions. His 
strenuous church and civic activities are inevitably 
helped on by the brilliance of his own personality. 
During his ministry in Buffalo he was a member 
of the Saturn Club and organized the Liberal Club. 
In New Y'ork he is a member of the Authors' Club, 
and was for several years chairman of the "Munic- 
ipal affairs committee" of the New York City 
Club. His interests as a Unitarian minister have 
not stopped with his own parish, but have ex- 
tended to the denomination at large. He is :i 
member of the executive board of the Middle States 
Conference, and served several years as chairman 
of the council of the National conference of Unitarian 
churches. He has lectured extensively throughout 
the country in ai 1 of the establishment of new and 
struggling churches. Outside the claims of his 
church Mr. Slicer has been a civic reformer, and 
a man of no small influence in the public affairs. 
In relation to his energetic efforts to remedy the 
evil of the pool-rooms of Xew York, a district 
attorney said: "I think Rev. Thomas R. Slicer, 
all alone, by his persistent patience, has done more 



UK AMKK1CAN UK IC.KAPIIY. 



127 



to abate thi.s nuisance than the four district at- 
torneys of the counties included iu this greater 
city, and all the criminal courts combined." He 
is very popular as a speaker at the Sunday evening 
meetings of the Peoples Institute at Cooper I'nion, 
where he meets a large crowd of men, who rarely 
en I IT church doors, and whose rapid lire ol questions 
after the address, challenge to the utmost the 
speakers anility for quick retort and ready argu- 
ment. His versatility of gifts make him in de- 
mand as a speaker in many places. A clear thinker, 
with strong convictions.' he has withal a poetic 
imagination, a ready wil, and a liriiliant command 
of language, which place him in the foremost rank 
as a preacher. He was married. Apr. 5, 1871, to 
Vleline K., daughter of Theodore C. Herbert, 
V. S. V 

THOMAS, Augustus, playwright, as born in 
St. Louis, Mo., Jan. X. 1859, son of Elihu B. and 
Imogens (Uarrettson) Thomas. He was educated 
in the public schools of St. Louis. His varied 
and picturesque career began as a page in the 
Missouri legislature during the session of the 
twenty-first general assembly. He then served 
as page in the I'nited States house of representa- 
tives during the session of the forty-second con- 
gress, and for six years was a clerk in the freight 
department of the western railroads centering in 
St. Louis. In the organizations of laboring men 
he was especially active, and was made master 
workman of Missouri district assembly, No. 9, 
Knights of Labor, 1879. The same year he was 
made the Labor party candidate for clerk of the 
circuit court, but failed of election. During the 
season of 1884-85 he traveled as an actor and in 1886 
he was the unsuccessful candidate of the Repub- 
lican party for the state legislature. During 
lsxii-89 he was engaged as a, reporter, special 
writer, and illustrator for St. Louis, Kansas City, 
and New York newspapers, and for a time was 
proprietor, editor, and illustrator of the "Kansas 
City Mirror." His experience as a newspaper 
man led to his final vocation of playwright, and he 
seems to have been successful in that at the very 
outset. In 1882 he wrote a curtain raiser called 
"Editha's Burglar." based on Mrs. Frances Hodg- 
son Burnett's story of that name, and it was 
produced by Charles Frohman. Its favorable re- 
ception encouraged him to go to New York and 
enter the field of dramatic literature. This he 
did in 18X9 with a four-act version of " Editha's 
Burglar." In 1890 he wrote "Alubima," a. 
romantic drama of the civil war, which was 
admirably produced by A. M. Palmar, and met 
with instant and long enduring, suzeess. This 
was followed by the comedy "In Mizzoura," 
written specially for the comedian, Nat Goodwin, 
who was the star. In 1897 he continued calling 
the roll of the states and territories to furnish him 
dramatic material, and wrote "Arizona," a play 
that fascinated auditors and spectators with the 
magic charm of that strange region. Rarely had 
there been known such a realism of local color, 
for the usual tinsel of the stage was transmuted 
to actual gold in the box-office. It was produced 
by various companies all over the United States, 
and five years after its first performance it had 
brought the author a quarter of a million dollars. 
These three plays have been published. Amonghis 
other plays are: "Colorado," ''Man of the World." 
"After Thought," "The Meddler." "The Man 
Upstairs." "Oliver Goldsmith." "On the Quiet." 
"A Proper Impropriety," "That Overcoat," 
"The Capitol," "New "Blood," "The Hoosier 
Doctor," "The Earl of Pawtucket," "The Other 
C.irl," "Mrs. Leffingwell's Boots," "The Educa- 
tion of Mr. Pipp," "Jim De Lancey," "The Em- 



bassy Ball," "The Hanger," "The Witching 
Hour," and "The Harvest Moon." These are in 
varied dramatic styles, melodrama, comedy, an. I 
farce. Indeed, Mr. Thomas is the must versatile 
of American playwrights. In "Alabama" he 
created the American pastoral play, for, though 
set in war time th< suggestion of strife in the 
background only inten-ilie- the pra> of the scene; 
in "Arizona" he lifted western melodrama into 
the plane of true dramatic art; in "The Karl of 
Pawtucket" he produced a comedy that, though 
American in subject, is cosmopolitan and not 
provincial in its dramatic method, as was proved 
by its success in England as well as in America, 
and in "The Witching Hour," a new departure 
from his other work, he has daringly gone beyond 
any contemporary dramatist, t^uro|>ean or American, 
in founding a play on psychic phenomena still 
looked at askance by even the .scientists. "The 
Witching Hour" has also been put in the form of 
a novel. Mr. Thomas is a member of the National 
Ii st tute of Arts and Letters, and of the Century, 
Piay-rs, Lambs, and American Dramatists chilis 
of New York. He was married Aug. Ill, 1X90, 
to Lisle U., daughter of John Peck Colby, of St. 
Louis, and has two children. 

COWDIN, Elliot Christopher, merchant, was 
born at Jamaica, Yt., Aug. 9, 1819, son of Angler 
Cowdin, a revolutionary patriot, who was a. 
member of the Massachusetts state legislature. 
His grandfather, Thomas Cowdin. was captain in the 
revolution, and filled numerous offices of trust, 
including a seat in the state legisature. He re- 
ceived a common school education, and at the 
age of sixteen years became a clerk in a millinery 
house, and by diligent perseverance worked his 
way through the various departments until nine 
years later the firm was reorganized under the 
title of W. H. Mann & Co., and Mr. Cowdin became 
a member. Meanwhile young Cowdin had joined 
the Mercantile Library Association, which was 
practically a club of merchants' clerks of early 
age, and numbered among its active members 
some of the brightest young men of the period 
who afterward became noted in various walks 
of life. His long connection with 
this association and the friend- 
ships he formed there did much 
to develop those strong qualities 
of mind and character which he 
displayed in after life. It was 
he who originated the plan of 
giving a course of public lec- 
tures which proved such a suc- 
cess for so many years, and he 
served as its president for a 
number of years. In the spring 
of 1S53 Mr. Cowdin dis- solved 
his connection with the firm ol 
.Mann & Co., and established a 
new firm in New York city un> ler 
the name of Elliot C. Cowdin 
& Co.. with a branch in Paris. 
France. His business connec- 
tion necessitated many trips a road, and it is said 
that he crossed the Atlantic eighty-six times. 
During five years after his marriage he resided in 
Paris, and he was there during the several revolu- 
tions that occurred between the years IMS and 
187^. Hedelivere I an address at Cooper Union. New 
York, in 1873. entitled "France in 1X70 71." which 
he subsequently published. He retired from active 
business life in 1877, the firm subsequently Incom- 
ing Hanson. Wood & Co., and spent his remaining 
days on a farm at New Castle, Westehester county. 
He was one of the United States commissioners 




128 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



to the Paris exposition of 1867, and on that occasion, 
at the request of the government, published an 
instructive address upon silk culture, a subject 
to which he naturally turned as a dealer in silk 
fabrics. During 1876-77 be was a member of 
the New York assembly. He was a member of 
the Chamber of Commerce, the Union League of 
New York, the New England Society (president, 
1*71-73), and the Century Club, and was a director 
of the Metropolitan Bank, the Hanover Fire In- 
surance Co., and the Woman's Hospital. His 
leading characteristics were his power of applica- 
tion, his excellent talents, good judgment and 
hearty, genial good-fellowship. At the time of 
his death the New York "Evening Mail" said: 
"The one great lesson of Mr. Cowdin's life was 
the fact that he realized and performed the duties 
of a citizen. If New York had twenty such men 
the fight against municipal misrule would be far 
more hopeful. He found in political and public 
activities an unfailing stimulus, a keen delight 
and a self-rewarding toil." He was most apprecia- 
tive of all that was gifted, noble and worthy of 
honor. Mr. Cowdin was married in 1853 to Sarah 
Katharine Waldron, of Boston, Mass., and left 
three sons and three daughters. He died in New 
York city, Apr. 12, 1880. 

VAUGHAN, Sue Landon (Adams), originator 
of Decoration day. was liorn at Meadowdale, Mo., 
Oct. 12, 1835, daughter of Judge John and Margaret 
A. (Gill) Adams. She is a member of the Virginia 
branch of the Adams family, being a direct descend- 
ant from Robert Adams, the first American 
ancestor, who emigrated from England in 1708 and 
settled in Campbell county, Ya..and many of whose 
descendants were at Bunker Hill and Yorktown. 
Mrs. Vaughan's father was a younger brother of 
Sen. Robert H. Adams of Mississippi and James 
Adams, a noted church historian of Rockbridge 
Baths, Va. Mrs. Yaughan was educated at Fielding 
Institute, Lindonwood College and Fulton Female 
College, Mo. The degree of L.H.D. was awarded 
her by the Fulton Female College in 1886. Her 
career has been one of social and patriotic activity. 
She wrote several patriotic sketches but her 
principal literary works 
are: "Wayside and Battle 
Scenes," and "The Gal- 
lant Minnesotans at Ma- 
nila." The incident in 
Mrs. Yaughan 's life, which 
assured her name a per- 
manent place in history. 
occurred at Jackson, Miss., 
when she founded Deco- 
ration day by first deco- 
rating the graves of 
Confederate and Federal 
soldiers alike, in Jack-mi 
cemetery, Apr. 26, 1865. 
The evening of Apr. 25, 
1865, was one of the 
darkest in the Confeder- 
ate struggle. There were 
rumors of disaster and 
defeat. Gen. Lee had 
surrendered at Appomatox; and Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston's forces were surrounded at Golds- 
boro, N. C.; the Federals were advancing from 
Yicksburg to demand the surrender of Jackson, 
and the South realized that her beloved banner 
had fallen in defeat. Just before midnight, Apr 
25, 1865, two Confederate couriers arrived to 
inform their friends that "the Federals were 
coming,'' and that the surrender would take 
place on the arrival of Generals Dick Taylor and 
Canby. Mrs. Yaughan therefore wrote her appeal 




UtjHv 







to the "Daughters of Southland" to meet the next 
day, Apr. 26, 1865, before the surrender, at the 
cemetery, "and garland the graves of our fallen 
braves" in commemoration of their valor and 
patriotism. Thus was Decoration day first ob- 
served. Memorial day in the Northern states was 
first observed, May 30, 1868, but in the South, Apr. 
26, 1865, is still recognized and Mrs. Vaughan's 
claim as the founder of Decoration day antedates 
all other claims by one year. The fact is recorded 
on the state monument at Jackson, Miss. 

ADAMS, Cyrus Hall, merchant, was born at 
Kerr's Creek, Rockbridge co., Va., Feb 21, 1849, 
son of Hugh and Amanda 
iMcCormick) Adams. He 
comes from the Virginia or 
Southern branch of the Adams 
family, as distinguished from 
the Massachusetts Adamses, 
the original American ancestor 
of which, Robert Adams, came 
from England, and settled in 
Campbell county, Va., about 
1708. His early ancestors were 
closely connected with the no- 
bility of England, and their 
descendants ranked among the 
first families of Virginia. This 
branch of the Adams family 
has produced many distin- 
guished Americans, including 
.-talesmen, soldiers in three 
American wars, professional 
and business men The first 
to locate in Rockbridge coun- 
ty was John Adams of Timbcrridge, whose 
son, John Adams of Rockbridge Baths, married 
first, Jane Hutcheson, of Scottish descent, and 
second, Margaret Mcllhenny. By his first wife 
John Adams, of Rockbridge Baths, had eight 
children, whose descendants are now scattered 
largely through the southern and western states. 
Their oldest son James married Sarah McCroskey, 
and their son, Hugh, was married to Amanda 
Johanna, daughter of Robert McCormick. a prom- 
inent farmer and inventor of Rockbridge counn, 
Va. The children of Hugh and Amanda i McCor- 
mick) Adams, were Mary Caroline, Robert Mc- 
Cormick, Cyrus Hall, James William, Sarah Ella, 
Hugh Leander, Edward Shields, and Amanda 
Virginia. Hugh Adams, a merchant (1820-1880), 
moved from Rockbridge county, Va., to Chicago, 
111., with his family in 1857, and in 1859, with 
his brother-in-law, established the firm of Cyrus 
II . MeConnick & Co., grain merchants. This 
house and its successors grew to be one of the 
great grain houses of the western metropolis. 
Cyrus H. Adams, after attending the old Chicago 
University, entered the employ of this house in 
1867, and was admitted to partnership in 1871, 
when the firm name was changed to McCormick, 
Adams & Co., and subsequently to Cyrus H. Adams 
& Co., the latter including his two younger brothers, 
Hugh Leander and Edward Shields Adams. Cyrus 
H. Adams joined the Chicago board of trade in 
1870, and for nearly twenty years was one of its 
most active and influential members. He served 
on its arbitration committee, committee of appeals 
and board of directors, and was offered the presi- 
dency in 1SN2, but because of ill health was obliged 
to decline. He was largely ensured in formulating 
the 'Rules and Regulations" of the board, and 
to him mainly is due the credit of devising and 
establishing its "clearing house and delivery 
system," which almost revolutionized its methods, 
and proved of incalculable value to the trade. Mr. 



01 AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



129 



Adams retired from active business in 1889. He 
was for many years a director of the National 
Bunk of America, and member of the Chicago 
Athletic Club. He is a member of the Union 
League, Onwentsia, and Saddle and Cycle clubs; 
a trustee of McCormick Theological Seminary, 
anil a member of the governing boards of the Art 
Institute and the Presbyterian hospital. In 
politics, he is an Independent Democrat, and 
in religion a Presbyterian. On Sept. 20, 1878, 
he was married to Emma Josephine, daughter of 
Lyinan Blair, and they have one son, Cyrus H. 
Adams, Jr., a graduate of Princeton University 
and the Northwestesrn Law School, and practic- 
ing attorney in Chicago. 

COMSTOCK, Louis Kossuth, engineer, was 
born at Kenosha, Wis., Jan. 8, 1805, son of Charles 
Henry and Mercy (Bronton) Comstock. His first 
American ancestor was William Comstock, of New 
London, Conn., who was among the twenty-six 
men from Wethersfield in the expedition com- 
manded by Capt. John Mason which captured 
the Pequot Fort at Mystic. The line of descent 
passes through ( 'hristopher, Moses, Abijah, Thomas, 
Abijah ami Charles Henry, to Louis K. Comstock. 
His education was obtained in the public schools 
of Ann Arbor, Mich., and at the University of Mich- 
igan, where he was graduated in 1888 with the de- 
gree of Ph.B. He at once began his engineering 
work with the North American Construction Co. 
engaging first in the field and subsequently in 
the engineering department of the company at 
Pittsburg. After serving about three years with 
the North American Construction Company he 
went to Chicago to open his own office as a 
constructing engineer. He was successful at the 
outset of this venture, securing many contracts to 
design and construct the electrical equipments of 
a number of important buildings. This business 
in the years immediately following the panic of 1893 
proved for the time being unremunerative and Mr. 
Comstock was offered and accepted the position of 
superintendent of construction for the Western 
Electric Company. While in this position he had 
the responsible direction of large electrical opera- 
tions in many parts of the United States and in 
Mexico. Three years later he accepted the position 
of electrical engineer with the George A. Fuller 
Company of New York, and in 1900 made New 
York his permanent residence. In the year fol- 
lowing the operating departments of the company 
were radically reorganized and Mr. Comstock was 
placed at the head of a department whose business 
it was to design and install the complete mechan- 
ical and electrical equipments of the modern steel 
frame sky scrapers. During this time he contin- 
ued his private practice, but finally in 1903, sev- 
ered his connection with the Fuller Co. in order 
to organize the present company. As chief of the 
mechanical department of the Fuller Co. Mr. Coin- 
stock luul charge of the design and construction of 
the mechanical and electrical equipments for many 
of the largest steel frame sky-scrapers built during 
that period, not only in New York but also in Phil- 
adelphia, Washington, Baltimore, Pittsburg and 
Chicago. At the beginning of 1904 L. K. Com- 
stock & Co., Inc., was organized in New York. 
This company, with Mr. Comstock as its president, 
has obtained contracts for the electrical equipments 
of about 120 of the largest buildings in New York 
and other cities, such as the 71st Regiment armory, 
the Trinity building, the United States Realty 
building, the City Investing building, the Hudson 
Terminal buildings, the Silversmiths' building, 
the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Consolidated 
Stock and Petroleum Exchange, the Lawyers' Title 



Insurance and Trust Co., the Milliken Steel Plant. 

Siaten Island, the National City Bank, the Farmers' 
Loan and Trust Co., the Emigrant Industrial Sav- 
ings Bank, the Prasada Apartments, and tin- Bel- 
nord Apartments. Mr. Comstock is a member of 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers; 
the Electrochemical Society; the Western Society 
of Engineers; the Engineers, Hardware, Kailmad, 
Machinery and the Michigan University clubs, 
and the Delta Kappa Epsilon Alumni Association. 
He was married Sept. 12, 1902, to Anne Stevens, 
daughter of Dr. Thomas Pardon Wilson of Detroit, 
Mich. 

LINDSEY, William, merchant and author, 
was born at Fall River, Mass. ; Aug. 12, 185.S, son 
of William and Ariadne Maria (Lovell) I.ind-ev. 
His first American ancestor was < liri -.|n| I, IT 
Lindsey, a native of Scotland, who came to America 
in lu'30 and settled first at Salem, Ma.ss.. and 
subsequently at Lynn. The line of descent is 
traced through his son John, who married Mary 
Alley; their son John, who married Klixabetii 
Monroe; their son William, who married Mary 
Wardwell ; their son William, who married Catherine 
Woodbury; and their son Jonathan, who married 
Hanna Esterbrook, who were the grar.dpaie: t ; 
of the subject of this sketch. These ancestors were 
simple New England fanners, merchants, mechai ics, 
and sailors. Mr. Lindsey's father was a native of 
Bristol, R. I., and became a prominent banker 
and manufacturer in Fall River, Mass. The son 
was educated in the public schools, but after 
fitting for college was obliged to change his plat s 
From 1870 to 1S99 he was engaged variously in 
banking, manufacturing and in the commission 
business. At the beginning of the Eriti.-h I HIT 
war he purchased the foreign rights to manufacture 
and sell a patented soldier's equipment for the 
carrying of ammunition, and, with somcll.i: g of 
the romantic daring which inspired tl.e mci i..'val 
merchant, set sail for England with a large quantity 
of machinery and skilled 
labor. His success was 
almost instantaneous. He 
obtained the adoption of 
the equipment by the war 
ollicc, built factories in 
Great Britain, France and 
Germany, with branch offi- 
ces established throughout 
Europe, and supplied the 
whole British army with 
his outfits during the 
South African war. He 
became acquainted with 
many of the leading 
military men in the vari- 
ous continental capitals 
and for five years was 
wholly engrossed in this 
business, the success of 
which enabled him to 
retire in 1904. At an 
early age Mr. Lindsey 
became devoted to literary work. His mother 
was a graduate of Wheaton Seminary and 
through her influence and guidance he read exhaus- 
tively. He began writing stories and verse \\l.en 
a child, but made no effort to publish until ls!l. r >, 
when Copeland & Day brought out a small book 
of verse which was followed in 1890 by a collection 
of short stories called "Cinder-Path Tales " The 
poems obtained immediate recognition and selec- 
tions from them were included in Stedman's 
"Anthology of American Poets." "Cinder- Path 
Tales" were stories of athletics in a more popular 




130 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




-'* 




vein and several editions were printed. After his 
retirement he revived his literary inclinations and 
in 1909 published "The Severed Mantle," a romance 
of the troubadour period. Mr. Lindsey was 
married Dec. 16, 1SS4, to Annie Hawthorne, 
daughter of George Sheen, and has one son, Kenneth 
Lovell Lindsey, and two daughters, Leslie Haw- 
thorne and Dorothy Lindsey. 

SMITH, George Otis, director of the IT. S. 
geological survey, was born at Hodgdon, Me., 
Feb 22, 1871, son of Joseph Otis and Emma (Mayo) 
Smith. His father (1839-1905) 
served in the civil war as second 
lieutenant of the llth Maine 
regiment, was secretary of state 
of Maine during 1881-84, and 
served as insurance commission- 
er during 1885-93. His first 
American ancestor was Rev. 
John Smith, who emigrated from 
southern England in 1630 and 
settled in Barnstable, Mass., 
where, in 1643, he married Su- 
sanna Hinckley, the sister of 
Gov. Thomas Hinckley of the 
Plymouth colony. From them 
the line of descent is traced 
through John, and his wife Su- 
sanna ; Thomas, and his 
i? P wife Abigail - ; Samuel, 
-&smiSf and his wife Bethia CJiipman ; 
Stephen, and his wife Deborah 
Ellis; Dr. Joseph Otis, and his wife Elizabeth 
Coffin; and Barnabas C., and his wife Maria L 
Small, who were the grandparents of George Otis 
Smith. The first of the fam ly to remove to Maine 
was Capt. Stephen Smith, who took part in the 
revolutionary war, and after the declaration of 
peace settled at Machias, Me, where he was ap- 
pointed the first collector of customs by Pres. 
Washington. The subject of this sketch was 
educated in the public schools of Maine and at 
Colby College, where he was graduated in 1893 
He made a special study of the science of geology, 
and took a post-graduate course at Johns Hopkins 
University in that subject, receiving the degree of 
Ph.D. there in 1896. He was at once employed by 
the United States geological survey, first as an 
assistant geologist, and was engaged in geologic 
work in Michigan, Utah, Washington, and the 
New England states. He was appointed a geolo- 
gist of the survey in 1901, and in 1907 he suc- 
ceeded Charles D. Walcott as the fourth director 
of the survey. Since its establishment, the work 
of this organization has greatly expanded, its first 
appropriation being 8100,000 as against 81,727,600 
for 1909. Its activities to-day include topographic 
mapping and geologic mapping and investigations 
in all parts of the United States; work in mining 
geology; geologic land classification and valuation; 
water resources investigations and mapping, both 
surface and underground; exploration, study, and 
mapping of Alaskan mineral resources; technologic 
work, including investigations of the various fuels 
and structural materials resources of the country, 
and into the causes of mine disasters. While con- 
tinuing its pursuit of purely scientific investigations 
as the necessary basis for all economic work, much 
of the present activity of the survey is productive 
of the most intensely practical results. Its land 
classification of the past few years may be in- 
stanced as a striking example of where patient, 
scientific investigation is being turned to economic 
account. The most purely geologic study of the 
western coal fields by the survey stratigraphers and 
paleontologists has made possible the accurate 



classification of these public lands by the coal 
geologists, so that now government coal lands are 
being daily classified and valued, in forty-acre tracts 
on the tonnage-per-acre basis, with great benefit 
to the government. Mr. Smith has written a 
number of reports on areal, economic, petrographic, 
and physiographic geology, all of which were pub- 
lished by the survey. Mr. Smith is a fellow of the 
Geological Society of America and the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, and is 
a member of the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, the American Forestry Association, the 
Washington Academy of Sciences, the Cosmos Club, 
and the University Club. He is also president of 
the Washington Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. He was married, Nov. 18, 1896, to Grace, 
daughter of Stephen and Helen (Miller) Coburn, 
of Skowhegan, Me., and has two sons, Charles 
Coburn and Joseph Coburn, and two daughters, 
Helen Coburn and Elizabeth Coburn Smith. 

STEJNEGER, Leonhard, naturalist, was born 
in Bergen, Norway, Oct. 30, 1851, son of Peter 
Stamer and Ingeborg Catharine (Hess) Stejneger. 
He was educated in youth at the Latin school of 
his native city and was graduated at the Royal 
Frederic's University, Kristiania in 1870; he . 
took post-graduate courses there in philosophy and 
law. Coming to the United States in 1881 he settled 
in Washington, D. C., and in 1882 was sent by the 
Smithsonian Institution on a scientific expedition 
to the Commander Islands and Kamchatka. He 
returned with large collections for the national 
museum in 1883. From 1884-89 he was assistant 
curator of birds in the national museum, and from 
1889 curator of reptiles and batrachians, a position 
he sill holds (1910). He explored herpetologically 
parts of Arizona, New Mexico and Texas in 1889, 
and in 1894 joined one of Dr. G. Baur's expeditions 
to the South Dakota "bad lands." On behalf of 
the United States fish commission he visited the 
Pribylof anil Commander Islands in 1895 to study 
the fur-seal question, and upon his return a few 
months later he was commissioned by the president 
for a similar purpose and appointed a member of 
the United States fur-seal investigation commission. 
As such he visited the Pribylofs, the Commander 
Islands, Kamchatka, the Kuril Islands, Tiuleni 
Island, Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, in 1896-97. 
In 1898 he visited northern and western Europe 
for the purpose of studying various museums and 
attending the 4th International Zoological Con- 
gress at Cambridge, England. A similar trip 
was taken in 1901 when he went as a delegate 
from the Smithsonian Institution to the 5th 
International Zoological Congress held at Berlin; 
and during this period he pursued zoological and 
museological studies in the museums at Hamburg, 
Berlin, Dresden, Munich, Vienna, Florence, etc. 
During the summer of 1904, he undertook a biolog- 
ical reconnaissance of Switzerland, jointly with 
Gen-it S. Miller Jr., and after its conclusion attended 
the 6th International Zoological Congress at 
Bern as a delegate of the United States govern- 
ment, the Smithsonian Institution and the national 
museum. He is the author of " Ornithological 
Results of Explorations in the Commander Islands 
and Kamchatka" (1885); the major portion of 
the volume on "Birds," in the "Standard Natural 
History" (1885); "Contributions to the Natural 
History of the Commander Islands" (1SB3-!!D; 
"Review of Japanese Hirds" (1SS6-94); "Con- 
tributions to the Hawaiian Avifauna" (1887-88); 
"Reptiles of the Death Valley Expedition, 1891," 
(1893) ; " The Poisonous Snakes of North America " 
(1895); "The Russian Fur-Seal Islands" (18%i; 
"Birds of the Kuril Islands'" 1898); "The Asiatic 



OF AMERICAN KK>< IKAI'I I V 



1:51 



Fur-Seal Islands and Fur-Seal Industry" (1899); 
" The Herpetology of Porto Rico" (1901): :in.l "The 
Herpetology of Japan" (1909); ami is joint author 
with (ierrit S. Miller, Jr., of " Plan for a Biological 
Survey of the Palearctic Region," besides several 
hundred minor papers, chiefly on ornithology and 
herpetology in various scientific journals. He is 
a life member of the Bergen Museum; a member 
of the Academy of Sciences in Kristiania, Norway; 
the Washington Acade ny of Sciences; the Biological 
Society of Washington, D. C., of which he served 
us president during 1907-OS; and of the Association 
of American Geographers; a fellow of the American 
Ornithologists' Union and of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science; an honor- 
ary member of the California Academy of Sciences; 
corresponding member of the Zoological Society of 
London; of the British Ornithological Union, and 
of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences; a member 
of the permanent international ornithological com- 
mittee, and of the commission on nomenclature 
international zoological congress. Mr. Stejneger 
received a gold medal at the Paris Exposition of 
1900, for his writings on the fur-seal question, 
and was made a knight of the first class of the 
Order of St. Olaf, by King Haakon of Norway, in 
190(i. He was married, Mar. 22, 1892, in Washington, 
D. C., to Marie, daughter of Jacob Reiners. 

EDGAR, James Clifton, physician, was born 
in New York city, June 14, 1859, son of James Alex- 
ander and Mary Eliza (Coe) Edgar, of English an- 
cestry. His father, together with William A. Booth, 
established the linn of Booth & Edgar, sugar refiners. 
James C. Edgar spent his childhood in New York 
city and Elizabeth, N. J. He attended St. Paul's 
School, Concord, N. H., during 1871-70, and was 
graduated at Lafayette College with the degree of 
Ph.B. in 1882. The degrees of A.B. and A.M. were 
conferred upon him by Lafayette in 1885 and 1886. 
Having decided to follow the medical profession 
immediately upon graduating, he entered the 
medical department of New Y'ork University, and 
obtained the degree of M.D. in 1885, standing first 
in a class of 180 students. He was interne at 
Bellevue Hospital for eighteen months, and in the 
spring of 1888 went to Germany to continue his 
medical studies, giving special attention to obstet- 
rics. While there he served for five months as 
interne in the Royal Frauen-Klinik of Munich, 
where he secured the post-graduate degree, and 
for a short time in the maternity hospital of 
Prague. Returning to New Y'ork, he was appointed 
adjunct-professor of obstetrics in the New Y'ork 
University. Prior to that time he had held the 
positions of instructor in pathology and assistant 
to the chair of obstetrics and during 1887-88 he 
also acted as assistant curator to Bellevue Hospital. 
In 1897 he became professor of obstetrics and 
clinical midwifery in Cornell University, and this 
position he still holds. He is also attending 
obstetrician to Bellevtie Hospital and surgeon to 
the Manhattan Maternity and Dispensary, and a 
member of the New York Academy of Medicine, 
the American Academy of Medicine, the American 
Gynecological Society, the New Y'ork County 
Medical Society, Be'llevue Alumni Society, the 
University Club, the Century Association, the 
Tuxedo Club, and the Rockaway Hunt Club. Be- 
sides publishing several important addresses and 
other articles, Dr. Edgar is the author of "Text 
Book of Obstetrics" (1903); and "Bathing during 
the Menstrual Period" (1904) ; he edited " Winckel's 
Obstetrics" (1889), regarded as the best modem 
book upon this subject, and has been called to 
lecture before various medical colleges. Dr. Edgar 
has a mind well stored with useful information upon 



nil vital questions of the day, as well as with ma 
pertaining to his specialty. Not only has he dis- 
tinguished himself in actual practice', but he has 
contributed much to the advancement of iniihcal 
science in general, many valuable papers from his 
pen appearing from time to time in the standard 
medical works. He was married in New York city 
May 29, is'.m, to Ellen Muriel, daughter of James 
Taylor Soulter. 

PEARSON, Richmond, diplomat, was born at 
Richmond Hill, Yadkin CO., N. ('., Jan. 20, 1S52, 
son of Richmond Mumford and Margaret McClung 
(Williams) Pearson. His father (q.v.) was an 
eminent lawyer, a judge of the superior court ami 
chief justice of the supreme court of North Carolina, 
1858-78; and his mother was a .laughter of J1 i !ol. 
John Williams of Knox," United States senator 
from Tennessee and his wife Malinda White, whose 
father, Gen. James White (q.v.) was founder of 
the city of Knoxville. His grandfather was Rich- 
mond Pearson, who married Elizabeth Mimiford. 
became a lieutenant in the revolutionary army 
and was commander of a company at Cowan's 
Ford when Gen. William Lee Davidson was killed. 
He is also a descendant, through his paternal 
grandmother, of William Brewster, the Pilgrim, 
and among his ancestors of this line was Richard 
Christopher, a judge of the district court in Connec- 
ticut. Richmond Pearson, the subject of thia 




when he delivered the valedictory and the master's 
oration. His chief study having been law, he was 
licensed to practice in July, 1874, and in the fol- 
lowing August was appointed U. S. counsul at 
Yerviers and Liege, Belgium. This post he re- 
signed in 1877 and resumed the practice of law in 
partnership with John D. Davis in St. Louis, Mo., 
until the death of his father, in 1878, called him 
back to North Carolina to administer the estate. 
He soon became interested in politics and affiliating 
himself with the Republican party,was elected to 
the North Carolina legislature 
in 1884 and again in 1886. In 
1894 he was elected to represent 
in congress the 9th Carolina 
district, which had teen Demo- 
cratic for twenty-five years. He 
was reflected in 1896 and again 
in 1898, serving in congress on 
the committee of foreign affairs 
as well as on its sub-committee 
of three, which drafted the resolu- 
tions declaring war against Spain . 
His retirement was soon followed 
by an appointment as consul to 
Genoa, Italy, in 1901, and in the 
following year he became Ameri- 
can minister to Persia. He dis- 
charged the duties of this office 
with such success that Pres. 
Roosevelt cabled his "commen- 
dations for energetic and efficient 
service," and in 1907 he was accordingly advanced to 
the more important post of envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary to Greece and Montenegro. 
Mr. Pearson is a man of great tact and keen judg- 
ment, his legal and social training admirably 
fitting him as an intermediary in international 
questions, and to represent his country with the 
dignity befitting a great nation. He is a member 
of the Metropolitan Club of Washington, D. C., 
the American Whig Society of Princeton, and the 
.Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants. 
He was married in Richmond, Va., Mar. 30, 1882, 




132 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




to Gabrielle, daughter of James Thomas, Jr., of 
Richmond, and has two children, Marjorie Noel 
and James Thomas. 

TRUDE, Alired Samuel, lawyer, was born in 
Devonshire, England, April 21, 1846, son of Samuel 
and Sally (Downs) Trude, both descendants of 
English farmers. His parents emigrated to the 
United States shortly after the son's birth, and 
lived at Lockport, N. Y., Lindsay, Canada, and 
finally in Chicago, 111. The son was educated in 
the Old Union school of Lockport, and was gradu- 
ated at the Union College of 
Law in Chicago in 1870. He 
was admitted to the bar the 
following year, and immediately 
commenced to practice law. His 
first case of public interest was 
the defense of one Thomas Lin- 
don, a coachman, who had 
secretely married the daughter 
of his millionaire employer, who 
sought to annul the marriage 
by law. The court room being 
near the mayor's office in the 
Rookery building, Chicago, the 
^t mayor, happening to overhear 
the argument of the young 
lawyer, became so much inter- 
ested in him that he engaged him 
to prosecute in behalf of the city 
a case against three notorious 
gamblers. This was Mr. Trude's 
first criminal ease and he secured 
a conviction. It marked the beginning of 
his rise to the position of one of the foremost 
legal lights of the United States. The mayor, 
Joseph Medill, who was editor and principal owner 
of the Chicago "Tribune," gave him other similar 
cases, and after retiring to private life and to his 
editorial work on the "Tribune," Medill regularly 
employed him to defend his paper in various libel 
suits and actions of tort. It was always the aim 
of the Chicago "Tribune" to print the truth 
regardless of consequences, particularly as affecting 
men in public life, and for a period of over twenty- 
seven years, during which Mr. Trude defended 
that paper, nearly all the verdicts were " not guilty," 
and no plaintiff ever recovered punitive damages. 
Another of his prominent clients was Wilbur F. 
Storey, owner and editor of the Chicago "Times," 
known as the "fighting editor." He was a 
1 lit i IT enemy of grafters in public office, whom he 
flayed relentlessly in the columns of his paper. 
During a period of ten years Mr. Trade probably 
defended over 500 civil and criminal libel suits, 
and the almost universal verdicts of not guilty 
both justified the policy of Storey's paper and 
indicated the caliber and abilities of his attorney- 
at-law. One of the most important of these cases 
against Storey was tried in August, 1876, when 
Gov. Ludington of Wisconsin sought to extradite 
the editor and remove him to that state for trial 
on the charge of criminal libel against the Milwaukee 
chief of police. A requisition was issued on Gov. 
Beveridge of Illinois, and Mr. Trude in his argument 
opposing the issuance took the position that as 
Storey was not physically present in Wisconsin 
when the libe' was published, he could not have 
fled from that jurisdiction, and therefore was not 
a fugitive from justice. The governor accepted 
this view and refused to extradite. Mr. Trude also 
defended many libel suits against the "Inter- 
Ocean" and other Chicago newspapers. In one 
notable instance his role of defending was changed 
to that of prosecuting, in the case of Lehmann 
against the Chicago "Herald" for libel, and as 



usual he won the case, his client receiving a verdict 
of $25,000, although it was a case bitterly con- 
tested. Mr. Trude has successfully defended in 
Illinois, Michigan, Kentucky and Missouri a large 
number of persons charged with murder and other 
crimes, but he never accepted a retainer on the part 
of a burglar or any professional criminal. At the 
October term of 1901 of the criminal court Trude 
defended Robert E. Burke, the political boss of 
Illinois, who as oil inspector under Mayor Harrison 
was charged with conspiracy in appropriating 
$65,000, $30,000 of which he had returned to the 
city comptroller in fear and trepidation. The 
judicial construction of a defectiv ; ordinance by 
Trude and an obsolete statute warranted the 
three presiding justices in deciding that the total 
sum of $05,000 belonged to Burke, and that he 
unwittingly robbed himself of the $30,000 which 
he had returned to the city treasury. Probably 
the most celebrated case in which Trude appeared 
as leading counsel was that of Patrick Prendergast, 
charged with the murder of Mayor Carter H. 
Harrison, Oct. 29, 1893. He was employed to 
prosecute by the state and family of the murdered 
man. Few cases, if any, had such remarkaole 
ramifications in state and federal courts. Trude 
and his associate, James Todd, successfully con- 
ducted the case to the end. The trial was begun 
before the distinguished jurist, Theodore Brentano, 
and a jury, at the December term, 1893, of the 
criminal court of Cook county, 111. The defendant 
was found guilty and sentenced to die on Mar. 23, 
1894. After the case had nearly run the gamut 
of the Illinois courts, the day fixed for execution 
had passed. A coterie of brilliant lawyers, S. S. 
Gregory, Clarence Darrpw and James S. Harlan, 
petitioned Judge Chetlain to have the question of 
the present mental condition of Prendergast 
determined by the court and a jury. Trude 
objected to the jurisdiction assumed by Judge 
Chetlain, and the case was then assigned to Judge 
John B. Payne, who impaneled a jury, and the 
question of the sanity of the prisoner was again tried. 
He was found to be sane, whereupon he was 
sentenced to die on July 13, 1894. A petition for 
a writ of habeas corpus was presented to Judge 
Peter S. Grosscup of the United States circuit 
court, and a stay of execution asked. Able argu- 
ments were made by the three lawyers for the 
condemned, and a few hours before the time fixed 
for the execution, the court in an elaborate opinion 
refused to interfere and the prisoner was hanged, 
though the legal conflict in his behalf was con- 
tinued up to the gallows and the hour of death. 
Mr. Trude was engaged as counsel in a number of 
important will contests, among them that of 
Wilbur F. Storey, mentioned above, and that of 
Amos J. Snell, in both of which he was successful. 
Mr. Trude was for fifteen years general counsel 
for the Chicago City Railway Co., and for ten 
vears the trial attorney for the Chicago & Alton 
Railroad Co. He has never been an aspirant for 
political office, but served on the board of education 
for eight years (1892-1900), serving as president 
for two terms. He was a delegate to the National 
Democratic convention in 1896, and a delegate at 
large in 1900. Mr. Trude was married Apr. 7, 
1868, to Algenia D., daughter of Daniel Pearson 
of Appledore, Kent, England, and they have five 
children: Alfred Percy; Algenia, wife of Jacob 
Kern; Daniel Pearson; Cecelia Sacre, wife of 
Harold Wilkins, and Walter Scott Trade. 

HILLEBRAND, William Francis, chemist, 
was born at Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, Dec. 
12, 1853, son of William and Anna (Post) Hille- 
brand. His father, a native of Nieheim, West- 



OF AMERICAN HI< KiUAlMI Y. 



1315 



phalia, was a physician by profession and an amateur 
botanist and horticulturist, who wrote " The Flora 
of the Hawaiian Islands," to which islands he 
had removed in 1S50. The son's education was 
begun in private schools of Honolulu. He took the 
course at the College school in Oakland, Cal., 
attended the Punahou College near Honolulu, 
anil Cornell University (1870-72), and then went 
to Heidelberg University, receiving there the de- 
gree of Ph.D. in 1875. He finished his studies 
with one year and a half at Strassburg (1876-77), 
and a year at the Freiberg Mining Academy in 
Saxony, 1877-78. After a year as assayer, in 
Leadville. Col., he became chemist to the U. S. 
geological survey (1880), a position he held 
till 1908. He was transferred to Washington, 
D. C., in 1885. Since 1892 he has also filled the 
chair of professor of general chemistry in the 
National College of Pharmacy, which is now affili- 
ated with the George Washington University 
Prof. Hillebrand began his studies of chemistry 
at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and Hermann 
Kopp, and in addition took up mineralogy as a 
minor subject which subsequently proved of the 
greatest value to him in his work on the geological 
survey. He has made a specialty of inorganic 
and mineral chemistry, and is a recognized author- 
ity upon the chemical side of mineralogy and upon 
the analysis of minerals and rocks. To him is 
credited the discovery of several new mineral 
species and he has added much to the present- 
day knowledge of rare and complex minerals. 
As chemist of the geological survey he has pub- 
lished many papers bearing upon the composition 
of mineral species, the distribution of certain 
elements in nature and on methods of analysis. 
His most important publication is "Analysis of 
Silicate and Carbonate Rocks," a number of 
editions of which have been published and which 
has become a standard work in this as well as 
other countries. On July 1, 1908, he severed his 
connection with the geological survey and became 
chief chemist of the bureau of standards in Wash- 
ington. He has taken an active part on several 
committees of chemists charged with the improve- 
ment and simplification of certain methods of 
technical analysis and has been closely connected 
with the development of the American Chemical 
Society, serving as councillor for a number of 
years as a member of the committee en papers 
and communications and other committees. He 
was president of this society in 1906. He is an 
honorary member of the Colorado Scientific Society, 
and was its president in 1885, is a fellow of the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, memljer of the American Philosophical 
Society, and of the National Academy of Sciences, 
corresponding member of the Konigliche Gesell- 
schaft der Wissenschaften, of Gottingen, and mem- 
ber of the Cosmos Club of Washington. Dr. 
Hillebrand was married Sept. 6, 1881, to Martha 
May, daughter of Sardeus D. Westcott of Perrys- 
burg, O., and has two sons, William Arthur and 
Harold Newcomb Hillebrand. 

NICHOLS, Charles Fessenden, physician, was 
born at Salem, .Mass., Feb. 20, 1846, son of Charles 
Saunders and Amelia Ann (Ainsworth) Nichols. 
His first American ancestor was Thomas Nichols, 
who came to America in 16(57 and settled in Ames- 
bury, Mass. The line of descent is traced through 
Thomas, Thomas, David, Ichabod and Charles 
Saunders. Through his paternal grandmother, he 
is descended from Jerathmeel Pierce, a forbear of 
Benjamin Pierce, the mathematician, and on his 
mother's side he is descended from Edward Ains- 
worth who settled at Roxbury, Mass., about 1647; 



and from Thomas Green Fessenden, the poet and 
author. Dr. Nichols received a thorough education 
in the public and private schools of Salmi, and 
after studying in Germany for two years (1804-60, 
took the medical course at Harvard, where he was 
graduated M.D. in 1870. He served as interne 
in I he Massachusetts General hospital and the 
Carney hospital, becoming house phy-i^ian in 
the latter. He then resumed studies in the 
homeopathic school of medicine with the Wessel- 
hoefts of Boston. In 1872, by invitation of Chief- 
Justice Allen of Hawaii, he went to Honolulu for 
the purpose of testing the merits of the homeo- 
pathic treatment in leprosy and other disease's 
prevalent there. So successful were the results 
that Dr. Nichols numbered among his patients 
members of the royal family, with the leading 
chiefs, missionaries and foreign residents. Re- 
turning to Boston in 1874, he was associated with 
his former preceptor, Dr. W. P. Wesselhoeft. At 
this time he was made editor of the "New England 
Medical Gazette." In addition to his medical prac- 
tice and professional writing Dr. Nichols has evinced 
interest in various branches of natural science, 
contributing papers to " Harper's Magazine," 
"Folk-Lore," "New England Magazine," "Over- 
land Monthly," "Science," "Popular Science 
Monthly" and "Review of Reviews" on tropical 
climates, general climatic subjects, ferns and Poly- 
nesian life. While in the Hawaiian islands he 
made a collection of tree shells of unique interest. 
Before going to Germany he had served as curator 
of coins and catalogs in the Peabody Academy of 
Science (1860-64), and his personal collection of 
American coins, made in Salem and Marblehead, 
consisting of specimens whose genuineness is un- 
questioned, is of much value. During 1891-92 
Dr. Nichols was a member of the editorial staff of 
"Science." His articles at this time on the Koch 
controversy, (1891), created wide interest, a claim 
for the prediscovery, by the homeopathic school, 
of Koch's method of treatment for tuberculous 
disease being enforced by a strong argument for 
the scientific training and status of the homeopath- 
ists. Dr. Nichols has published numerous bro- 
chures urging caution in the use of inoculable and 
vaccinal serums. In articles 
analyzing the hoodoo witchcraft 
("Pule Anaana," "Tabu," etc.) 
of Polynesia, he contributed 
authoritatively to the study of 
the religious and political status 
and events in Hawaii and Poly- 
nesia. Following a paper by 
him in the " Review of Reviews " 
of March, 1895, upon the effects 
of the southwestern climates on 
tuberculosis, the American In- 
valid Aid Society was founded 
with Dr. Edward Everett Hale 
as president and Julia Ward 
Howe and Dr. Nichols as vice- 
presidents. From the time of its 
establishment this organization 
has been instrumental in annually 
sending twenty to one hundred consumptive invalids 
to the high altitudes of the Southwest, with a per- 
centage of ninety permanent recoveries. Dr. Nich- 
ols's relations with Wendell Phillips, Helen Hunt 
Jackson, John Boyle O' Reilly and Edward Ev- 
erett Hale have identified him as a reformer. He 
is a member of the American Institute of Honieo- 
pathy, of Massachusetts, Boston and International 
Homeopathic Medical Societies, the Organon So- 
ciety, New York Society for Humane Medical 
Research (vice-president 1908-09), American Anti- 
Vivisection Society, and the Society of Missions 




134 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 




r 



Children (Honolulu). He was married first, May 7, 
1884, to Grace Belle, daughter of James S. Houston 
of Boston ; and second, June 9, 1898, to Anna 
Jenetta, daughter of Benjamin Von Arenberg. 
He has one daughter, Cherry Elizabeth, and one 
son, Fessenden Arenberg Nichols. 

BALDWIN, James, author and educator, was 
born in Hamilton county, Ind., Dee. 15, 1841, 
son of Isaac and Sarah (Clayton) Baldwin, and a 
descendant of John Baldwin, who died near Deep 
River, N. C., in 1751. A family tradition relates 
that the father of this John 
Baldwin was one of the early 
colonists of Virginia and the 
disinherited son of an English 
nobleman. William Bald- 
win, the son of John, was 
born at Deep River in 1720, 
and became a local minister 
of considerable note in the 
Society of Friends. He was 
the father of twelve sons and 
the great-great-grandfather 
of the subject of this sketch. 
Isaac Baldwin, the father of 
James, was one of the early 
pioneer settlers of Indiana, 
going to Wayne county wit h 
his parents in 1819, and after- 
wards establishing a home in 
Hamilton county, then an 
unbroken wilderness. Sixty 
years ago there was no good 
system of public cchools in Indiana, and James 
was educated chiefly at home and in a small 
school maintained by the Society of Friends. 
From earliest childhood he was a devoted 
lover of books, and all the time that could 
be spared from work was devoted to study 
rather than to play. Although having no definite 
instruction in composition, his first and chief 
ambition was to become a writer of useful books, 
and at the age of eleven his first story, "The 
Two Soldiers, was published in "Forrester's 
Boys and Girls Magazine," New York. He taught 
in the district schools of his own neighborhood for 
four years (1865-69), and then organized the 
public schools at Noblesville, Ind., establishing 
there one of the first graded school systems in the 
state. In 1873 he organized a similar system on a 
larger scale at Huntington, Ind., and was super- 
intendent of schools in that growing city for ten 
years In connection with these schools he estab- 
lished a library of several hundred volumes for the 
use of his pupils. This at first was considered an 
innovation and some doubted its advantages. 
The library, however, soon became a model for 
many others in that, state and elsewhere. In the 
meanwhile, Mr. Baldwin did not forget his early 
literary aspirations, and in 1882 his "English 
Literature" was published, embodying his methods 
of teaching literature and containing illustrative 
criticism from many sources. Like most first 
works of ite kind it was not free from blunders, and 
it never reached a second edition ; but it won 
recognition for its author, and the faculty of De 
Pauw University conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of Ph.D. He was soon afterward offered a 
responsible position in the educational department 
of Harper & Brothers, New York city, and his first 
work was to prepare for that publishing house a 
series of school readers. lie then became an 
assistant editor of Harper's periodicals, serving in 
that capacity until 1804, when he became identified 
with the editorial department of the American Book 
Company. Dr. Baldwin has written, edited, or 



otherwise assisted in the production of perhaps 
half of the school readers now used in the United 
States, and he has won recognition as a leading 
authority on the subject of children's books and 
reading. Besides compiling several series of stand- 
ard readers, he is the author of over fifty volumes 
on a variety of subjects, ranging from a "Fairy 
Reader" for youngest pupils to a "Life of Abraham 
Lincoln" and a manual of "Systematic Readings 
in the Encyclopaedia Britannica". His "Story of 
Siegfried" (1882) and "Story of Roland" (1883) 
are recognized classics, and his "Book Lover "(1884) 
has passed through many editions and enjoys 
a large sale abroad. The sales of his various books 
have for several years exceeded 1,000,000 copies 
annually. The general aim of his writings has been 
to form good literary tastes. Said the Newark 
"News:" "An instinct, apparently unerring, for 
what will interest, and sound judgment as to the 
information needed by children of different ages, 
combined to make his productions entertaining 
and of solid worth. In his long list there seems to 
be no volume which has failed to find its niche 
proof that the author divines desires on the part 
of readers, and satisfies those desires to a marked 
degree." Mr. Baldwin has also been an occasional 
contributor to educational periodicals and the lead- 
ing magazines. 

KIDDLE. Clement, patriot and soldier, was 
born in Philadelphia, Pa., May 10, 1740, son of 
John and Sarah (Owen) Biddle. Descended from 
one of the early Quaker settlers and proprietaries 
of West Jersey, he retained his connection with 
the Society of Friends until the commencement of 
revolution. In early life he engaged in com- 
mercial pursuits. In the winter of 1763-64 he 
joined a Quaker company, organized for the pro- 
tection of a party of friendly Indians who had 
sought refuge in Philadelphia from the band of 
the so-called "Paxton Boys," who had recently 
massacred some peaceful Indians of Lancaster. 
The outlaws threatened to invade the city, but 
the vigor of the military preparations checked 
their progress. When news was received of the 
passage of the Stamp Act in the British house of 
commons, Clement Biddle and his brother Owen 
were signers of the celebrated non-importation 
resolutions in Philadelphia, Oct. 25, 1765 When 
the war broke out, he assisted in forming the 
volunteer company of light infantry known as the 
"Quaker Blues," of which he was chosen an officer, 
in 1775. On July 8, 1776, he was appointed deputy 
quartermaster-general for the "Flying Camp" and 
also for the militia of Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey, with the rank of colonel. He took part 
in the battle of Trenton, and, with another officer, 
\vas selected by Washington to receive the swords 
surrendered by the Hessian officers. He was 
also engaged in the battles of Princeton, Brandy- 
jne, Germantown, and during the winter of 
1777-78 shared the privation of the American 
army in the camp of Valley Forge, where he was 
commissary-general under Greene. He took part 
in the battle of Monmouth, but in 1780 resigned 
his military commission owing to the pressure 
of private affairs, though during the whiskey 
insurection in 1779 he resumed military activity 
for a short time, as quartermaster-general of 
Pennsylvania militia, accompanying Washington's 
expedition for the suppression of the rebellion. 
On Nov. fo, 1780, Pres. Washington made him 
marshal of the court of admiralty of Pennsylvania. 
llj_ ardently supported the slate (-(institution of 
1776, and participated in the organization of the 
federal constitution in I7.S7. Later he held the 
office of notary public, and lieearue known for his 
skill in the adjustments of marine losse- After 



Or AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



135 



Sept. 23, 1788, he was one of the justices of the 
court of common pleas for the county of Phila- 
delphia. He was an intimate friend of Washing- 
ton, with whom he maintained a frequent cor- 
respondence. Col. Middle was married twice. 
Hrdicd in Philadelphia. Pa., .Inly 14, 1S14. 

BEDEL, Timothy, soldier, was born at Salem, 
Buckingham co., N. H., about 1770. He re- 
moved to Haverhill, X. II., and during the l-'rench 
war of 18(10 served as lieutenant in (JorTe's regiment, 
in Canada. On July .">, 177.">. he 1 became a captain 
of rangers, and on Jan. 13, 1770, was commissioned 
colonel of the 1st regiment of New Hampshire 
troops. He served in the Northern army under 
Schnyler, and subsequently was with Montgomery 
at the taking of St. John's, on the Sorel. He 
commanded the force at the Cedars, near Montreal, 
but while he lay ill at Lachine, his force was at- 
tacked by the Indians under Brant, and surren- 
dered without resistance by order of the command- 
ing olheer, ('apt. Butterfield. The blame was 
thrown on Bedel, and he was deprived of his com- 
mand at the instigation of Gen. Arnold, July 30, 
177U. Later, however, he was reinstated, and 
subsequently served as major-general of the 2d 
division of New Hampshire militia. He died at 
Haverhill. N. II., in February, 1787. 

CHAMBERLAIN, George Earle, eleventh 
governor of Oregon ( 1902-00) and U. S. senator, was 
born near Natchez, Miss., Jan. 1, 1854, son of 
Charles Thomson and Pamelia H. (Archer) Cham- 
berlain. His father was a physician. One of his 
ancestors, his father's great-uncle, was Charles 
Thomson, a native of Maghera, Deny, Ireland, 
who was brought to this country in his youth, and 
became noted as a scholar and as a patriot (being 
called by John Adams " the Sam Adams of Phila- 
delphia"), and served as secretary of congress from 
1774-1789. Another ancestor, Dr. John Archer, was 
a presidential elector in 1801, and a member of con- 
gress from Harford county, Md., in 1801-07, and his 
son Stevenson Archer (grandfather of Sen. Cham- 
berlain), represented Harford county in congress 
during 1811-17, and was a justice of the supreme 
court of Maryland from 1823-1848. George Earle 
Chamberlain, after attending public and private 
schools in his native city, became a clerk in a general 
merchandise store, but in 1872 resumed his studies 
at Washington and Lee University, Lexington, 
Va. He was graduated at that institution in 
1870, receiving the degree of B.L. in the law depart- 
ment, and that of A.B. in the academic department. 
Owing to the depressed condition of the South at 
that time, there were no openings for ambitious 
young men and he emigrated to Oregon, reaching 
the state in December, 1876. After teaching in a 
district school near Albany, Ore., for a time he 
settled there, and for two years, 1877-79, served 
as deputy clerk of Linn county. In 1879 he began 
to practice law with Hon. Lawrence Flinn at 
Albany; in 1880 was elected to the lower house of 
the state legislature where he served for one term ; 
in 1884, was elected district attorney for the third 
judicial district and held the office for two years. 
On May 21, 1891, he was appointed attorney- 
general of the state by Gdv. Pennoyer, being the 
first to hold that office, and at the election in 1892 
was chosen to succeed himself by a majority of 
At the expiration of his term of office (1894) 



50U. 



he removed to Portland, Ore., and resumed the 
practice of law, from which he was called in 1900 
to serve as district attorney of the fourth judicial 
district. In 1902 he was elected governor of the 
state for the four-year term beginning Jan. 12, 
1903, and in 1900 'he was reflected for the term 
ending Jan. 11, 1911. At the general election of 
1908, however, he was chosen by the people as 



United States senator. A majority of a Repub- 
lican legislature was thus pledged to elect him, 

although a Democrat, to the- senate as ihe j,,i,|,|e'x 
choice for that position, which it did in Jan. li), 
1909. He took his seal in the following March, for 
the term expiring Mar. :{, I'.II.V Sen. Chamlx-rlain 
is a member of a number of social clubs and of 
Masonic and other fraternities. He was married 
a1 \atchez, Miss., May 21. I.ST'.I, to Sallie Newman, 
daughter of Augustus T. Welch, and ha.s two sons 
and four daughters. 

MARTIN, Bradley, Jr., capitalist, was born 
in New York city. Julv (i. 1*7:;, son ot Bradley and 
Cornelia (Sherman) Martin. His father was born 
at Albany, N. Y., Dee is. 1841, the son oi Henry 
Hull and Anne (Townsend) Martin, and was a 
graduate of Union College, in the class of 1S03. 
He was very popular at college, being a member 
of the Sigma Phi fraternity, one of the most ex- 
clusive social organizations in the college, president 
of the principal literary society, and for a time 
editor of the college monthly. He thus began at 
college the social career in which he subsequently 
attained such a conspicuous place as a leader of 
society both in America and Europe. From 
Union, he entered the Albany Law School, and was 
admitted to the bar soon after. He practiced his 
profession until the increasing demands upon him 
as manager of an extensive estate absorbed all 
his time. He served in the civil war as first 
lieutenant in the 93rd regiment, N. G. S. N. Y. 
He was a trustee of the Metropolitan Trust Co., 
of New York, a member of the American Geograph- 
ical Society, the American Museum of Natural 
History, a patron of the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, and a member of the New Metropolitan, 
Knickerbocker, Union, New York, and Racquet 
and Tennis clubs of New York, the Marlborough 
and St James clubs of London, England, and the 
Socie^ de Sport, de Pile de Puteaux, Soci<H< du 
Polo, and Travellers' Club of Paris, France. His 
son Bradley Martin, Jr., was educated by private 
tutors, and entering Christ Church College, Oxford, 
England, was graduated in 1894, 
receiving the degree of M.A. 
from the institution in 1897. 
He was graduated at the Har- 
vard Law School, in 1897. He 
is a director of the Standard 
Trust Co., the Van Norden 
Trust Co., the Hudson Trust Co., 
of New Jersey, and the Nine- 
teenth Ward Bank. He is the 
author of a number of articles 
on economics, published in the 
"Nineteenth Century Magazine," 
London, which have caused 
favorable comment. His favor- 
ite recreations are shooting, 
fishing, motoring, travelling and 
deer-stalking; he has several 
shooting places in England, 
and his estate, Fetteresso Castle, 
is one of the show places of 
that country. Mr. Martin is a member of the 
Union, Kniekerlxx-ker, Racquet, Manhattan. Metro- 
politan, and Meadow Brook clubs of New York 
city, the St. James, Bachelor, Hurlmgham, Rane- 
lagh and Hastings clubs of London, and the 
Cirque de Bagatelle, L'Automobile de France 
and the Travellers' Club of Paris, France. He 
was married at Beaufort Castle, Scotland, 
Nov. 2, 1904, to Helen Margaret, daughter of 
Henry Phipps of Pittsburg, Pa., and they have 
two sons: Henry Bradley and Howard Townsend 
Martin. 




136 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA 



COOLEY, Edwin Gilbert, educator, was born Iroquois, City, Press, Chicago, Athletic, and 

at Strawberry Point, Clayton co., la., Mar. 12, University clubs of Chicago. Mr. Cooley was 

1857, son of Gilbert and Martha (Hammond) married at Strawberry Point, la., Jan. 1, 1878, 

Cooley, and grandson of Abner Cooley, a soldier to Lydia A., daughter of James B. Stanley, and 

in the revolutionary war. The first of the family has six children: Bertha, wife of M. A. Hansen, 

in America was Benjamin Cooley, who settled in Susie H., wife of G. W. Richardson, Dean S., Bessie, 

Springfield, Mass., in 1641. He was many times Gilbert, and Edwin Cooley. 
trustee of the village of Springfield, and both he 

and his son were officers in King Philip's war. WILLIAMS, Francis Bennett, manufacturer 

' Edwin G. Cooley was educated in the public schools and publicist, was born in Mobile, Ala., Jan. 

of his native place, where his father was post- 18, 1849, son of Charles and Emily (Moore) Wil- 

master after having served as an officer in the liams, and a descendant of Obediah Williams, 

civil war. He later attended the Iowa State an Englishman, who came over in the eighteenth 

University and the University of Chicago, being century, and served as a surgeon in Col. Stark's 

graduated Ph.B. at the latter in 1895. In his regiment in the revolutionary war. He later 

youth he served an apprenticeship in wagon- settled in Watcrville, Me. His paternal ancestors 

maki.ig, and for a few years engaged in selling for four generations were successful lumberman, 

machinery. Immediately after leaving the state the line beginning at Moor's Mills in New Bruns- 

ui.i.ersity in 1878, he began teaching school, wick and continuing on the Kennebec river in 

He became principal of the school at Strawberry Maine in the latter part of the eighteenth century. 

Point in 1882, and at Cresco, the county seat of His father settled in Alabama before the civil 

Howard county, la., in 18S5. Having received war, where he owned and operated five sawmills. 

a state teacher's life diploma in 1889 he accepted He died in 1861, and through the destruction of 

th3 position of principal of the Aurora High School, his estate by the ravages of war, the surviving 

East Side, 111., and two years later, of the Lyons family became dependent upon the son Francis. 

He was educated in the public schools and at the 
Spring Hill College. His first employment was 



Township high school at La Grange, a suburb 
of Chicago. In 1839_he was elected principal of 



ths Chicago Normal School, but before assuming on the Mobile & Ohio railroad, and later he became 

th duties of that position was made superintend- a civil engineer on the New Orleans & Chattanooga 

ent of schools by the Chicago board of education, railroad. As soon as he was able he gratified an 

a position he neld for nine years. During his inherited ambition to be a lumberman by buying 

Licumbency there were about 300,000 school cypress at Bayou Teche mills and selling it in 

stude.its in Chicago, about 6,000 teachers, some Texas. With Capt. John N. Pharr, he formed a 

400 school buildings and 350 supervising offices partnership under the name of Pharr and Williams, 

ui.der the control of the superintendent, and the ex- which built a sawmill in 1875, at Patterson, La., 

pe Jit aies exceeded 813,000, 000 per annum. There and equipped it with the first "steam nigger," 

were schools for cripples, blind, deaf, mute, and the first band saw and the first "shot gun feed" 

(1. l live; fifty evening schools for such as cannot (all important devices now in general use) ever 

att.3 ,d during the day; and cooking, sewing and installed in the South. The firm of Pharr & 

v: i > is kinds of domestic art schools. Under Mr. Williams was dissolved in 1892, and the present 

Coo.sy's administration the district superintend- F. B. Williams Cypress Co., a close corporation, 

e;.t , were not permitted to confine their efforts to was organized in 1902. The two mills owned 

sp?.i.ic areas but were sent here and there accord- and operated by this company, have a joint annual 

ing to their special qualifications for the peculiar capacity of 40,000,000 feet of cypress lumber 



dutias to be performed. The principals were and the company is the largest holder of standing 






organized into a regular body with which Mr. 
C'caley held monthly conferences, and regular 



cypress timber in the South. Mr. 
Williams is reputed to be the pos- 



colleges for instructing the teachers sessor of the largest fortune in 
and haloing them with their daily work were Louisiana, the estate consisting 
estu'ju hed. He established also a rather unusual principally of cypress timber, and 
m.3ril system, by which to make appointments large sugar, rice, and other in- 
and promotions. He pointed out the inadequacy terests. Patterson, long ago made 
of mere civil service examinations as a method of famous by the Williams interest 
discovering fitness, contending that as they do 
not disclose patience, tact, moral courage, observa- 
tio.i, constructive ability, leadership, outlook or 
co. .science, they should be merely auxiliary and 



there, is located on the right 
bank of the Bayou Teche, a 
typical Louisiana waterway as 
immortalized by Longfellow's 



not primary or fundamental. In February, 1909, "Evangeline." Mr. Williams is, 

he resigned to accept the presidency of the publish- a staunch Republican and has 

ing house of D. C. Heath & Co., of Boston, devoted much of his talents, 

Mass. Mr. Cooley was a member of the state wealth, and time to the maiii- 

nornal board of Iowa, 1890-96, and in 1894 was tenancc of his party's organiza- 

electad president of the Illinois State Teachers' tion in Louisiana. In 1896 he was 



Association. He was president .of the department 
of sunerintendence of the National Education 




elected a state senator and served 

four years. In 1900 he was chosen chairman of 



Association in 1904, was elected president of the the Louisiana Republican state central committee. 

association for 1907, and served as its vice-president He is a member of the Boston, Pickwick, and 

Louisiana clubs of New Orleans. lie is a man of 
large views, is enterprising, affable, patriotic, a 
loval friend and one whose distinguished succ 



success 



in the following year. In 1905 he was added to 
the membership of the National Council of Educa- 

tio ., which is composed of the most distinguished ._.,_ _ 

representatives in the nation, and sustains an in life has been the means of a staunch and sus- 

impirtant advisory relation to state and national tain ing bulwark to the development and progress 

systems and projects of education. In 1905 the of his state. He was married at Patterson, La., 

rl-gree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the July 13, 1876, to Emily, daughter of Capt. Isaac 

U. diversity of Illinois, and he was decorate'd by D. Seyburn of the V. S. Navy, and has four sons, 

the Austrian government with the order of Franz Chas. Seyburn, Lawrence Moore, Lewis Kemper 

Josef. He is a member of the Union League, and Harry Palmerston Williams. 



OF AMKRICAX BK )( 1KA l'I n . 



1:57 



BERGENGREN, Anna (Farquhar), author 
and editor, was born at Brookville, Ind., Dec. 23, 
1865, daughter of John Hansen and Frances 
Mary (Turner) Farquhar, of Scotch-English de- 
scent. Her father was a lawyer and congressman, 
who after a short residence in Cincinnati, O., 
removed to Indianapolis, Ind., where he became 
president of a prominent banking house. Here 
the daughter received her early education in private 
schools, showing a decided preference for literature, 
language, and art. She also attended a Maryland 
boarding school for a short time. After the death 
of her father (in 1889) she resided in Boston, 
Mass., where she studied and taught singing, sang 
in a church choir, and edited a periodical devoted 
to music. She also studied music abroad in London 
and Paris, but was finally compelled to abandon 
her intention of a musical career by the loss of her 
voice through overwork. Her spirit, however, 
was not daunted, and she turned to literature as 
a field for the exercise of her talents. Her first 
book was "A Singer's Heart" (1897). It was 
in part autobiographical, in that it set forth the 
ambitions which had animated her in her thwarted 
musical career. This was followed by an anony- 
mous periodical publication "The Inner Expe- 
riences of a. Cabinet Officer's Wife," for the mate- 
rials of which she drew upon her own knowledge 
of Washington political and social life. Although 
her shafts were aimed at types of character rather 
than particular individuals in real life, they were 
so feathered with truth and barbed with satire, 
that they made palpable and painful hits upon 
a number of Washington people, who bitterly 
denounced the unknown author. This was fol- 
lowed by "The Professor's Daughter" (1899), and 
" Her Boston Experiences" (1899), and the " Devil's 
Plough" (1901). It has been said of "Her Bos- 
ton Experience:" "Any good Bostonian who 
doesn't mind a bit of satire at his own expense 
may send this description of his beloved city 
to strangers and foreigners with the serene con- 
viction that they will thus gain a better idea of 
the place and society, than any number of guide- 
books could afford." During 1899-1901, she 
served as associate editor of the " National Maga- 
zine" of Boston, but in the autumn of the latter 
year she retired from all other occupations to 
resume writing. In 1904 she published "An 
Evans of Suffolk," a story of Boston life. Miss 
Farquhar was married on Jan. 26, 1900, to Ralph 
Bergengren of Boston, who has had a varied career 
in newspaper work of that city as cartoonist, art 
and dramatic critic, and editorial writer. He is 
also the author of a very clever book of humor 
called "In Case of Need," (1900), and various 
short stories in the magazines. 

KERN, John Worth, lawyer, was born at 
Alto, Howard co., Ind., Dec. 20, 1849, son of 
Jacob Harrison and Nancy (Ligget) Kern, grandson 
of Jacob Kern, and great-grandson of Adam 
Kern, who emigrated from Germany about 1758, 
and settled near Winchester Va., founding Kerns- 
town. He was educated at the high school at 
Kokomo, Ind., and at the University of Michigan, 
where he was graduated in 1X69 He was admitted 
to the bar at Kokomo in the same year, and served 
as city attorney in 1871-84; was reporter of the 
state supreme court in 1885-89; state senator in 
1893-97; special counsel for the U. S. Government 
in the prosecution of the wreckers of the Indian- 
apolis National Bank in 1893; special counsel for 
the state in the litigation testing the validity of 
the state railroad tax in 1894-95, and city attorney 
of Indianapolis in 1897-1901. Mr. Kern was the 
Democratic candidate for governor in 1900 and 



again in 1901, and received in 1905 the complimen- 
tary vote of his party for the U. S. senate to 
succeed Charles \V. Fairbanks. He was the 
candidate for the vice-presidency on the national 
Democratic ticket in 1908, while William J. Bryan 
was th<; candidate for president. lie received 162 
electoral votes to 321 for James S. Sherman, the 
Republican candidate. As reporter of the supreme 
court, he edited and published seventeen volumes 
of reports (100-116 inclusive). He is a thirty- 
second degree Mason; a Knight of Pythias; a 
member of the order of Elks; a member of the 
University and Century clubs of Indianapolis, 
which has been his place of residence since 1889; 
and president of the Indiana Democratic Club. 
In politics he is an enthusiastic Democrat and 
has done much to maintain the principles of his 
party in Indiana. He has participated in every 
campaign since 1872 and has distinguished him- 
self as an eloquent and forceful leader. As a. 
lawyer he has been recognized as one of the most 
learned and tactful in the state. His uniform 
courtesy and consideration are distinct features 
of his character and are always manifested with 
such grace and generosity as to render him a fav- 
orite with all his associates. Mr. Kern was married 
at Kokomo, Ind., Nov. 10, 1870, to Julia A., 
daughter of David Hazzard, by whom he had one 
son, Frederick, and one daughter, Julia. She died 
in 1884, and he was married Dec. 23, 1885, to 
Araminta A., daughter of William Cooper, M. D., 
of Kokomo, by whom he had two sons, John 
Worth, Jr., and W r illiam Cooper Kern. 

DYER, George Rathbone, banker, was born in 
Providence, R. I., June 24, 1869, son of Elisha 
and Nancy Anthony (Viall) Dyer. His father (q.v.) 
was the forty-first governor of Rhode Island, and 
his grandfather the twenty-second governor of that 
state. He was educated in private schools of Provi- 
dence and at St. Paul's School of Concord, N. H. 
and began his business career in the city of New 
York in the employ of the banking house of Laden- 
burg, Thalman & Co. In 1900 he became identified 
with the firm of C. I. Hudson & Co., and on May 
1st of the following year he was admitted to the 
firm as a partner. This firm 
is one of the oldest brokerage 
houses in Wall Street and one 
with very extensive private 
wire connections all over the 
country. Col. Dyer has been 
identified wilh the National 
Guard of New York state for 
many years, having joined the 
7th regiment in 1889. Sub- 
sequently he joined the 12th 
regiment, and served as second 
lieutenant, then first lieuten- 
ant and then captain. He 
saw active service with his 
regiment in the Spanish-Amer- 
ican war in Cuba. He was 
promoted to be major of volun- 
teers on May 13, 1898, elected ^ 
major of the 12th regiment **""$" 
N. G. N. Y. in June, 1899, and 

colonel on Sept. 7, 1899, a position he still holds. 
Col. Dyer is a member of the Knickerbocker and 
Union clubs of New York city, the Meadow Brook 
Hunt Club and the Seawanhaka Yacht Club, the 
Society of Foreign Wars. Sons of the Revolution, 
and Military and Naval Order of Spanish-American 
War. He is past -commander of Old Guard Camp 
No. 19, Spanish-American War Veterans, and is a 
trustee of the Grant Monument Association. He 
vas married Nov. 7, 1901, to Grace G., daughter of 




138 



THIO NATIONAL CYCLOP.EIHA 



Edward P. Scott of New York city, and has three 
sons, Walter G., Elisha and George R. Dyer, Jr. 

ALLEN, Charles Frederick, first president of 
the University of Maine (1871-79), was born at 
Norridgewock, Me., Jan. 28, 1816, son of William 
and Hannah (Titcomb) Allen, and a descendant 
in the eighth generation of Samuel Allen, who 
came to America in 1635 with his father, George 
Allen, from Braintree, Essex CO., England, and 
settled at Sandwich, Mass. From him the line 
of descent is traced through his son James, who 
married Elizabeth Perkins, their son James, 
who married Mary Bourne; their son Sylvanus, 
who married Jane Homes; their son James, who 
married Martha Athearn; their son William, who 
married Love Coffin, and their son William, who 
was Mr. Allen's father. William Allen, the father 
(1780-1873), was a surveyor and a register of 
probate in Somerset county, Me. The son was 




educated at Bloomfield Academy, and was grad- 
uated at Bowdoin College in 1839. After teach- 
ing at Kent's Hill Seminary four years, he became 
a minister of the Methodist Episcopal church and 
presided over various churches in the Maine con- 
ference for nearly fifty years. Meantime he was 
secretary of the conference for seven years, .'in. I 
a delegate to the general conference of 1864, 1868, 
and 1880. In 1871 he became the first president 
of the Maine State College of Agricultural and 
Mechanic Arts, now the ("Diversity <if .Maine. This 
institution owes its existence to the land grant 
act of congress in 1862, introduced by Sen. 
Morrill of Vermont. The terms of the act were 
accepted by the Maine legislature of 1863, and t\vn 
years later the legislature created a body politic 
and corporate known as the "Trustees of the State 
College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts." 
The trustees organized with Hon. Hannibal Hamlin 
of Bangor, formerly vice-president of the United 
States and an enthusiastic supporter of the act 
when before congress, as president of the board. 
Differences of opinion over various matters, among 
them the location of the college, delayed the open- 
ing of the institution until the fall of 1868. The 
location finally selected was a beautiful site of 
360 acres lying along the bank of the Stillwater 
river, in Orono, eight miles from Bangor. At 
the opening of the college in IsiiS the faculty 
consisted of only two, Prof. Mcrritt C. Fernald 
(below) and Samuel Johnson, the farm superin- 
tendent, and the entering class numbered thirteen. 
Prof. FeniaM was made acting president, in addi- 
tion to his duties as pro lessor. and served until 
Dr. Allen was appointed. In 1S70 the latter re- 
turned to the ministry of the Methodist church, 
acting as presiding elder for three years. He as 
a member of the committee to revise the hymnal 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. In 1872 he 
iv, -rived the degree of D.D., from Bowdoin and 
from Wesleyau Universitv. lie was married in 



1S44 at Bath, Me., to Ruth Sibley, daughter of 
Moses Leland Morse of Worcester, Mass., and had 
four children: Mary Elizabeth, Isabel Sibley, 
William Albert and Charles Morse Allen. The 
last-mentioned son was a teacher of natural sciences 
at Wyoming Seminary, Pennsylvania during 
1882-89, and in 1889 became professor of chemistry 
in Pratt Institute, Brooklyn. Charles Frederick 
Allen died at Portland, Me., Feb. 9, 1899. 

FERNALD, Merritt Caldwell, second president 
of the University of Maine (1879-93) was born at 
South Levant, Me., May 26, 1838, son of Robert and 
Roxana (Buswell) Fernald, and a descendant of 
Dr. Reginald Fernald, who was the first physician to 
settle in New Hampshire, arriving at Portsmouth 
from England about 1631. The line is traced 
through his son John, who married Mary Spinney; 
their son Thomas, who married Mary Thompson; 
their son Thomas, who married Sarah Fernald; 
and their son Dimon, who married Margery Fernald, 
and who was Prof. Fernald's grandfather. He 
was left fatherless at the early age of five years, 
and in consequence his education was acquired 
by the energetic and persevering overcoming of 
obstacles. He commenced teaching when but 
a boy and close application to this work and his 
studies enabled him to enter Bowdoin College at 
the age of nineteen, where he graduated with 
honors in 1861. He received from this institution 
the degrees A.M. in 1864 and Ph.D. in 1881. 
In 1863 he became principal of Gould's Academy, 
Bethel, Me. In the following year he began a 
post-graduate course at Harvard University, but 
in the spring of 1865 accepted the principalship 
of lloulton (Me.) Academy, (now Ricker Classical 
Institute), which he left in 1866 to take charge 
of Foxcroft Academy, Foxcroft, Me. Two years 
later he became professor of mathematics at the 
newly established state college, now the Univer- 
sity of Maine, at Orono, with which department 
was very soon associated that of physics. Courses 
were offered in general science, civil engineering, 
mechanical engineering and agriculture at the out- 
set, and a course in technical chemistry was added 
a few years afterward. For seven and a half years, 
during the presidency of Dr. Allen (above), Prof. 
Fernald devoted himself more strictly to the work 
of his department, and upon Dr. Allen's retirement 
he was called to the presidency, serving in that 
capacity, in addition to his work as a teacher, from 
March. 1S79, to September, 1893, when he was 
obliged to resign on account of ill health. His ad- 
ministration of the affairs of the institution was 
marked by vigor and thoroughness. From small 
beginnings, and in spite of many serious discourage- 
ments, the several courses of study were enlarged 
and enriched, the principal buildings erected, the 
annual financial resources, independent of state 
appropriations, increased six-fold, the institution 
placed upon a firm basis, and its future success 
seemingly assured. It was also his good fortune to 
render timely service in connection with the effec- 
tive efforts made during his presidency to secure 
national legislation in aid of the land-grant col- 
leges. In IS'.Ki with health partially restored he 
resumed a chair in the faculty of the college and 
during IS! is I '.Mis successfully conducting the work 
of the department of philosophy, retiring in the 
latter year from active service. The degree of 
LL.l). was conferred upon him by Boudoin ( 'ollege 
in 1902, and by the University of Maine in I'.MIS. 
lie was married Aug. 2.5, lsii,">, to Mary I.ovejoy 
Heywood of Bethel. Me., and has live children. 

HARRIS, Abram Winegardner, third presi- 
dent of the University of Maine (IS'.iii IMOll, was 
burn at Philadelphia.' Pa., Xov. 7. 1858, son of 



OF AMERICAN" UK )( 11; AI'II V. 



139 



James Russell and Susan A. Harris. He was 
educated in the Friends' school of that city, from 
which hi 1 passed to Wcsleyan University at Middle- 
town, Conn. Upon his graduation, in 1SSO, he 
taught mathematics for one year in the seminary 
:il Williamsport, Pa. lie tlien held for three years 
tin- position of tutor of mathematics in his Alma 
Mater, and after studying a year in Berlin and 
.Munich, supplied the professorship of political 
economy in the same institution. He subse- 
quently became assistant director of the office of 
experiment stations in the U. S. department of 
agriculture in Washington, and after two years 
was made director. In 1S93 he resigned this 
position to accept the presidency of the University 
of Maine at Orono. During his service of eight 
and a half years rapid development took place. 
The faculty increased to fifty-five, and the student 
boily to 111. The institution was broadened and 
reorganized so that it now included a college of 
arts and sciences, a college of agriculture, a college 
of technology, with courses in civil engineering, 
mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and 
chemistry, a college of pharmacy, and a college 
of law. The agricultural experiment station 
established in 1SS5 became a department of the 
college of agriculture. Perhaps the most important 
events during Pre . Harris's administration were 
the passage 1 of one bill by the legislature of 1897, 
making a fairly liberal appropriation for support 
for a period of ten years, and another bill changing 
the name from the State College of Agriculture 
and the Mechanic Arts to the University of Maine. 
This change took place after a bitter fight had 
been made by those opposed to the policy of 
expansion, a policy that had been pursued from 
the opening of the institution in 186S to the present 
time, but which lack of means had prevented from 
assuming prominence until Pres. Harris undertook 
the administr:itin of its affairs. In 1901, Pres. 
Harris resigned to become director of The Jacob 
Tome Institute at Port Deposit, Md. Its affairs 
were in confusion. The school had been furnished 
by its founder with a great endowment, and it had 
erected buildings unequaled in secondary educa- 
tion, but the plans for their use were as yet un- 
determined. In five years, Dr. Harris had defined 
the object of the school, had coordinated its depart- 
ments, had directed the founder's gift into channels 
where it was most generally useful, and had won 
for the school a place among the great secondary 
schools of the country. He left Tome Institute 
in 1906 to accept the presidency of Northwestern 
I diversity. Under his direction, increased growth 
has come to the university. The student body 
numbers over 4,0(10; two new schools have been 
founded the College of Engineering on the Evans- 
ton campus, and the School of Finance and Com- 
merce in the University building in the city of 
Chicago; the endownment has increased more 
than a milion dollars, so that the total value of 
endowments, buildings, and grounds, is more 
than nine millions, and in 1900 two new buildings 
were completed; the Swift Hall of Engineering 
and the Gymnasium, the latter embodying in 
addition to the usual features, some new ideas of 
1hi' president, including a club room for men, 
offices for student enterprises, a ten-lap dirt track 
and a mammoth room with dirt floor which is large 
enough to accommodate a baseball diamond and 
two of the three fields. Dr. Harris is a member of 
jhe Methodist Episcopal Church, and in politics 
is a Republican. He is a member of the bo.- ml 
"I < lucation of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
md also of the Southern Education Society. He 
i- al.-o a member of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, the Association for 



the Advancement of Engineering Education, the 
.National Education Association, the I 'hi Beta 
Kappa Society, the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion, the Masonic order, and the University Club 
of Bangor, Me., Boston Mass.. Baltimore, Mil., 
Washington, D. C., and Chicago and Evanston, 
III., and of the Literary Club of Chicago. He was 
married Feb. 28, 1888, to Clara \ irginia, daughter 
of Joseph Fletcher Bainbridge of Philadelphia, 
and has one son, Abram Harris. 

FELLOWS, George Emery, fourth president 
of the University of Maine (1901- ), was born 
in Beaver Dam, Wis., June 9, 185S, son of George 
and Emeline Electa (Gurnee) Fellows. His father 
(1830-88) was a clergyman of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and a descendant of Samuel 
Fellows, a native of England, who came to America 
in 1629, and settled in Amesbury, Mass. From 
this Samuel Fellows the line of descent is traced 
through his son Samuel, who married Abigail 
Barnard, their son Samuel, who married Sarah 
Webster, their son Joseph, who married Elizabeth 
Young; their son Samuel, who married Molly 
King; their son Jonathan, who married Elen.Jr 
Weeks, and their son Joseph, who married Mary Ann 
Marks and was the grandfather of George 10. Fel- 
lows. He obtained his education at the Academy 
of the Northwestern University; at Lawrence 
University where he was graduated 1879; at the 
University of Munich (1888-89) and the Uni- 
versity of Berne, Ph.D. (1890). Immediately 
after his graduation at Lawrence University he 
became principal of Eau Claire (Wie.) \\Cslevan 
Seminary, and in this position he displayed those 
qualities, as an educator, which have won him 
distinction. He was for two years vice-principal 
of the Ryan high school at Appleton, Wis., and 
then instructor of the Central high school, New 
Orleans, La., until 1888, when he went to Europe 
to continue his studies. After a brief period in 
the high school at Aurora, 111., following his return, 
he was called to Indiana University as professor 
of European history. Four years later, in 1N9.~>, 
he became assistant professor of history in the 
University of Chicago, and continued as such until 
December, 1901, when he became 
president of the University of 
Maine. During the eight years 
of his administration the univer- 
sity made rapid progress in many 
different directions. While the 
entire appropriations by the state 
during the first thirty-six years 
of its existence aggregated only 
$473,718, the state has contributed 
$459,000 in Pres. Fellows' admin- 
istration, and in 1909 the legis- 
lature made an appropriation of 
$100,000 a year for four years. 
The attendance increased from 
411 students in 1902-03 to 888 
in 1909-10, and the faculty 
increased from fifty-five to 
eighty-five. The material equip- 
ment has been increased by 
three important buildings, a mechanical lal>- 
oratory, a Carnegie library and an agricultural 
building, besides others of lesser importance and 
six fraternity houses. Moral development has 

taken pi along all lines, but it is most noticeable 

in the college of arts and sciences and in the coll.-.- 
of agriculture, both of which have become very 
popular under Pres. Fellows' regime. The enlranci- 
requirements have been increased to meet th.xe 
of the Carnegie foundation. Pres. Fellows' work at 
the university has been characterized by line admin- 




140 



Tin: NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



istrative qualities, by constant enthusiasm which 
he imparts to the students, and by great popularity 
not only with members of the faculty and the under- 
graduates, but with people of the entire state. 
His presence at state educational conventions, as 
well as at farmers' institutes and other public 
meetings, has been a source of inspiration to many 
who have listened to his many public lectures and 
papers. He has frequently appeared before legisla- 
tive committees in behalf of public state educa- 
tion, and by his convincing and eloquent argument, 
has won large appropriations from successive 
legislatures for the support of the state university. 
Personally, he is a man of high ideals, and a dis- 
tinct trait in his character is his generous apprecia- 
tion of the work of others. He is the author of 
"Outlines of the Sixteenth Century" (1895), and 
"Recent European History" (1902), and numerous 
articles in various magazines upon the subjects 
of the day. He received the honorary degree of 
LL.D., from Bowdoin College, and L.H.D. from 
his alma mater, Lawrence University, in 1902. 
He is a member of New Orleans Academy of Science, 
the National Education Association, the Quad- 
rangle Club of Chicago, the University Club of 
Boston, the Twentieth Century Club of Bangor, 
of which he has been president since its foundation, 
the National Association of State Universities, 
of which he was secretary and treasurer, and the 
State Society of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion in Maine, of which he was president. He 
was married in Randolph, Wis., Oct. 25, 1881, 
to Lucia, daughter of Hobart Russell of Fondulac, 
Wis., and has two daughters, and one son, Donald 
R. H. Fellows. 

CLARK, John Lewis, clergyman, was born at 
Decatur, 111., Aug. 27, 1865, son of Milton and 
Sarah Ann (Lee) Clark. His father was a prosperous 
farmer in Illinois, and his mother came from the 
famous Lee family of Maryland and Virginia. 
His maternal grandfather, Parker Lee, was an 
officer in the war of 1812. John Lewis Clark was 
educated in the public schools of Macon county 
111., and took a correspondence course in the 
American School of Politics 
of Chicago 111., receiving his 
diploma in 1890. He also 
took the classical course in 
Lincoln University, 111. (now 
the James Millikin Univer- 
sity), where he was graduated 
in 1891, president of his class. 
Meanwhile, having deter- 
mined to follow the ministry. 
~ he supplemented his college 
.studies by a course in theolo 
gy, and after being ordained 
minister in 1889, continued 
his theological studies at the 
Union Theological Seminary, 
New York, and was gradii- 
uated there in 1894. While 
Seminary he 
course 
rsity, from 

which he received the degree 
of A.M., in 1892. He became pastor for strangers 
in the Marble Collegiate Church, New York city 
in 1X95, and in 1898 was called to the First ( 'uiiiber- 
himl Presbyterian Church of Chicago. There he 
remained about two years, during which he served 
as moderator of the presbytery of Chicago, and 
was a delegate to the general assembly which met 
at Denver, Colo., in 1899. Becoming interested 
in the American Anti-Saloon League, he removed 
to New York city in 1X9!I, and accepted the appoint- 
ment of superintendent of that city, and soon after 




(9,/7 <?, /S> attending Union Seminai 

XtW~L *^~-~-^~*~ took a post-graduate cc 

r ~ N in New York University, 1 



became secretary of the New York Anti-Saloon 
League, which position he still holds. He became 
assistant to Rev. J. Wilbur Chapman, D. D., of 
New York in 1902, and the following year was 
made assistant to Rev. Dr. Robert Mackenzie. 
For several years he was actively engaged with 
William Phillips Hall in the twentieth century 
gospel campaign. In 1906 he received a call to 
the Bushwick Avenue Congregational Church of 
Brooklyn, over which he was installed in the 
following January, and during a pastorate of four 
years he introduced a number of innovations 
which have indicated the broadness and liberality 
of the man, one of them being an employment 
bureau in connection with the church, which not 
only has proven a benefit to those seeking work 
but has brought the church into popular favor 
with the toiling masses. Under Dr. Clark the 
church increased from about 400 to about 1,000 
members in four years, and its regular income 
increased five-fold. He also introduced a con- 
firmation service, the major portion of which was 
arranged by himself, this being one of the first 
churches in the city of Brooklyn to hold such a 
service. Dr. Clark is a member of the Delta 
Upsilon fraternity, the Modern Woodmen of 
America, the Knights of Pythias, the Masons, the' 
American Society of Comparative Religions, the 
Brooklyn-Forest Park Golf Club, and the Univer- 
sity Club of Brooklyn. The practical results he has 
achieved are largely due to his strong personality, 
and to the high standard he has maintained in the 
pulpit and in his work as a pastor. The harmony 
in his church is perfect, and practicing as well as 
preaching true Christianity, he present* a worthy 
example to his congregation. He is large-hearted, 
generous and jovial, and as a speaker he has many 
outside calls for his services He was married 
June 2, 1894, to Marie Louise, daughter of Henry 
Camprnan of New York, and has three sons, 
John Dodge, Paul Milton and Lee Campinan Clark. 

FORD, Sewell, journalist and author, was born 
in South Levant, Piscataquis county, Me., Mar. 
7, 1868, son of John Fairfield and Susan (Morrill) 
Ford. His ancestors were pioneer colonists of 
Maine, his great-grandfather being Abner Ford, 
who removed from Massachusetts to Jefferson, Me., 
about 1820, and later became the first settler in 
Fordham, Me. His father served during the 
civil war in the 1st Maine cavalry, and also on 
board the frigate "Brooklyn." The son was 
educated in the public schools of Maine, Kansas, 
Michigan, and Massachusetts. His first position 
was as a reporter on the "Daily Laborer," of 
Haverhill, Mass., after his graduation at the Haver- 
hill high school, in 1XX7. He began his literary 
career as a reporter at the age of nineteen years. 
In this capacity he was on the Baltimore "Globe" 
and Baltimore' " World " during 1S!I(M1, and on 
the New York "Dispatch," during 1WU-93. 
He was subsequently employed in various editorial 
capacities, includin ; that of managing editor of 
the American Press Ass .ciation, until 1903. when 
he decided to devote his talents to the production of 
fiction, and resigned his position with the associa- 
tion. In 1903 he published "Horses Nine. Stories 
of Harness and Saddle," which was well received 
by the critics. It constitutes a powerful argument 
against cruelty to animals, for scarcely any sym- 
pathe ic reader could close the hook without a 
feeling of kinship with the horse. This was fol- 
lowed by " Truegatc of M >gador and other Ceilarton 
Folks" (1907), all stories of the daily life and ad- 
ventures of natives of the New Jersey coast at 
home and abroad, told in the vein of humor that 
pervades all Mr. Ford's literary work. Next 




\ 



OF AMKK1CAX BHxiKAPHY. 



141 



appeared "Shorty McCahe," in which he created 
a character, the tremendous success of which was 
said to rival Dunne's "Mr. Dooley." Like the 
latter, "Shorty" who is a genial, "professor of 
physical culture," is also a philosopher and a wit. 
Another "Shorty" volume, entitled "Side-Stepping 
with Shorty," "followed a year later. In 1908 
Mr. Ford published "Cherub Devine," a humorous 
novel which also had a wide circulation, and in 
l!l()!l appeared " Honk, Honk," being "Shorty's" ac- 
count of his experiences in becoming a motorist. 
Mr. Ford was married at Ilaverhill, Mass., Dec. 11, 
1889, to Lillian Mayberry, daughter of Nathan C. 
Sylvester, of Haverhill, and has two children, 
Hazel Helen, and Torrey Sylvester Ford. He 
is a member of the Salmagundi Club, New York. 

BLACKSTONE, Timothy Beach, president of 
the Chicago & Alton railroad, was born at Black- 
stoneville, a suburb of Branford, Conn., Mar. 28, 
IS'Jsl, son of Capt. James and Sarah (Beach) Black- 
stone. His father was a farmer and served as a 
cu I >tain in the Connecticut militia during the war 
of IS 12. He held various local offices in the town 
and often represented it in the state legislature. 
His influence was wide and always for good. The 
son received his education in the public schools of 
the state, and at the age of seventeen years became 
a school teacher. His railway service began in 
October, 1847, when he entered the employ of 
the engineering department of the New York & 
New Haven railroad as rodman. He was en- 
gaged on the construction of the Stockbridge & 
Pittsfield railroad as assistant engineer during 
184819, and was assistant engineer of location 
in the construction of the Vermont Valley railroad 
during 1849-51. In May of the latter year he 
went West and became identified with the Illinois 
Central railroad as division engineer of surveys, 
location, and construction. He was chief engineer 
of location, construction, and maintenance of the 
Joliet & Chicago railroad during 1856-61, when 
he was elected president of the road. He held 
that position until January, 1864, when he became 
identified with the Chicago & Alton railroad, 
first as a director, and in April of the same year as 
president. He soon became a power in the admin- 
istration of the road's affairs, and although more 
conservative in his management and enterprises, 
his administration was eminently successful. Mr. 
Blackstone retired from the presidency in 1899. 
The road was incorporated as the Chicago & Alton 
Railway Co. He was a large contributor to worthy 
charities, including the town of his birth, to which 
he donated the beautiful Blackstone library, 
one of the finest structures in the country, as a 
memorial to his father. He was married Oct. 
20, 1868, to Isabella Farnsworth, daughter of 
Henry B. Norton of Norwich, Conn., and they 
had two sons who died in infancy. Mr- Black- 
etone died in Chicago, 111., May 26, 1900. 

FORD, Thomas Pownall, manufacturer and 
inventor, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., Aug. 9, 
1856, son of Thomas and Ann (Proddow) Ford. 
His father was a ship carpenter and stairbuilder 
by trade who came to this country in 1836, making 
his home at Greenpoint, Brooklyn, N. Y. He 
invented a ship's berth (patented in 1872) which 
by means of universal joints maintained a level, 
despite the pitch of the vessel, and he designed 
and built the paddle boxes on the old Sound 
steamers, Bristol and Providence, which were 
the first of the kind constructed. The son was 
educated at Cooper Institute New York, and in 
1872 began to earn his own living as ship carpenter, 
but found the trade uncongenial and the work 
too limited in its scope. In 1876 he obtained a 




position with Otis Bros. & Co., elevator builders, 
and remained with thai firm lor eighteen years. In 
1884 he was sent to the London branch, to fill the 
position of superintendent, and during his five 
years' stay tnere obtained several patents on 
elevators, such as noiseless valves, a lever oper.it- 
ing device and a speed regulator. Returning in 
1889, he held a similar position in the New York 
office for four years, and then in 1X93 organized the 
Thomas P. Ford Co., for the purpose of manufactur- 
ing and selling specialties invented by him. These 
inventions include the Ford pump regulating valve, 
the standard device for all 
classes of steam pumps, 
patented in 1893, the chief 
merit of which is its in- 
destructible character, the 
only perishable part being 
a leather cup in the top 
piston; the Ford automatic 
pump governor, patented 
1899, which will regulate 
pumps used for returning 
to the boiler the water due 
to condensation from drying 
and heating coils, radiators, 
or any system of steam 
heating. It is designed to 
regulate the speed of the 
pump, so that it will be 
in exact proportion to the 
amount of condensation 
to be returned. By this 
automatic action all the water which accumulates 
in the system is pumped back to the boiler at a 
very high temperature, thereby effecting a saving 
of fuel. The Ford compound steam trap, patented 
Apr. 30, 1901, which is the only one containing large 
outlets on all pressures ; the Ford controller, patented 
Apr. 19, 1904, which fills a requirement created by 
the general increase in the height of buildings and 
the use of electric pumps for supplying open tanks. 
It is a positive pressure device, superseding the 
method of wiring from the pump up through the 
building to a float and switch in roof tank. The 
Ford by-pass valve, combining the principles of a 
number of patents designed to connect the delivery 
and suction pipes of pumps which are used on 
closed systems, such as power, gas engine and 
electric pumps, and where it is desired to maintain 
a uniform pressure. The pressure can be varied 
by adjusting the weight in the top-lever. Among 
his other inventions are a controlling device 
which effects a positive shut-off and prevents the 
"creeping" of large pumps, and a consequent loss 
of steam; a damper regulator; a forced draught 
regulatiig valve for controlling positive pressure 
blowers, which admits the full volume of steam, 
or closes tight on variation in the pressure; a 
back-pressure valve used to regulate the pressure 
on the exhaust when used for heating; the Ford 
regulating valve, which controls the admission of 
steam to the pump in proportion to the variation 
in the water-pressure on the discharge end of the 
pump; an open tank controlling system, an arrange- 
ment of the Ford regulating valve and balanced 
tank valve, which insures a constant, steady 
house supply; a forced draught regulating valve; 
a pump governor; a pump regulating valve; a 
rheostat regulator; high and low pressure reducing 
valves, the one capable of maintaining reduced 
pressure as high as fifteen pounds, the other capable 
of reducing high pressures down to any point 
above fifteen pounds; a water-pressure reducing 
valve. Mr. Ford was married in Toronto, Canada, 
May 10, 1881, to Elizabeth Frances, daughter 
of James Crossen of Cambellford, Ont., and has 



142 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



three children: Thomas Burton; E. Norma, and military treatises, among them: "The Company 
Ford His eldest son, who is associated Clerk" (1863); "Customs of Service for Non- 
in business with his father, patented a speed 
regulator for automobiles at the age of twenty- 



Commissioned 



four. 



on- 
Officers and Soldiers" (1864)- 
"Customs of Service for Officers" (1886); and 
''Operations South of the James River" (in "Battles 
and Leaders of the Civil War"). He died at Seattle 
Wash., Sept. 4, 1895. 

KAtFTZ, Albert, naval officer, was born at 
Georgetown, O., Jan. 29, 1839, brother of August V. 



KAUTZ, August Valentine, soldier, was born 
at Ispringen, Baden, Germany, Jan. 5, 1828, son 
of George and Dorothea Kautz. His parents emi- 
grated to America in the year of his birth, settling 
near Ripley, Brown Co. O., where they engaged Kautz. Appointed acting midshipman' unde7"the 

in tanning, and where the son was educated. At nlH law Sent, os is-u v, ^^t^^^A +!, TT a XT i 

the outbreak of the Mexican war enlisted as a 
private in the 1st Ohio volunteers. He served 
until its close, and returning home in 1848 he 
entered the U. S. military academy, West Point, 
and was graduated in 1852. He was then assigned 

to the 4th infantry as 2d lieutenant, and during _._ 

the next few years served in Washington and Savannah and the sloop-of-war 
Oregon territory, gaining distinction as an Indian Saratoga. He was promoted 
fighter. He was wounded during the Rogue river passed midshipman, Jan. 19, 
hostilities of 1853-55, and again on Puget Sound 1861; master, Feb. 23, ISGl' 
in 1856 He traveled in Europe in 1859-60, and ,.-,, ,,' 

on his return was appointed captain in the 6th 

U. S. cavalry (May 14, 1861). With this regiment _, , , 

he served through the peninsular campaign of 1862, unusual instance of rapid ad- 
was commissioned colonel of the 2d Ohio cavalry, vancement. In Mav, 1861, he 
Sept. 2, 1862, and from December of that year till served on the I". S. steamer 
April, 1863, he had command of Camp Chase, Flag, of the North Atlantic 
He was then assigned to the command of a 



old law, Sept. 28, 1854, he entered the U. S. Naval 

Academy, Annapolis, Md., and 

was graduated in 1.S5X. From 

that date until July, 1860, he 

served in the home squadron, 

as it was then called, on the 

frigates Colorado , Roanokeand 



and lieutenant, April 21, 1861, 
thus making the three steps 
in as many months, a most 



Ohi 

brigade of cavalry, with which he took part in the 
capture of Monticello, Ky., by Gen. Samuel P. 
Carter, May 1, 1863, and was engaged in the pur- 
suit and capture of the confederate raider, Jo 



blockading squadron, and in 
the following month was 
placed in command of the 
prize brig Hannah Balch, off 
( 'harleston,S. C , with orders to 




Morgan, whom he prevented from crossing the Ohio proceed to Philadelphia. Misfortune now overtook 
near Parkersburg, July 19. He served with the him, as the brig was captured. June 25, 1861 within 
army of the Ohio as chief of cavalry of the 23d sight of Cape Hatteras, by the privateer Winslow 
corps, and being transferred to the east, was made Capt. Thomas Crosson. Taken into port in North 
brigadier-general of volunteers and given command Carolina, he was placed on parole for two months- 
of the cavalry division of the army of the James *"- L '~ ' ' ' '" * 
(May 7, 1864). On June 9, 1864, he attacked 
Petersburg with his small cavalry force, for which 
action he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, and 
took part in the four days' battles, June 12-16, 



then, his parole being withdrawn, he was confined 
in Henrico county jail, Richmond, Va., by order of 



Pres. Davis, in retaliation for the imprisonment of 
captured confederate privateers in the Tombs 

.. . , prison, New York city. Here he remained until 

IS64, in winch his efforts were seconded by the October, 1861, when he was released on parole, and 

colored troops under Gen. Hinks. He took part permitted to go to Washington for the purpose of 

in Wilson s raid in June, encountered Wade Hamp- effecting his own exchange. In Richmond he had 

ton at Sycamore Church,' in September, and as an interview with the confederate secretaries 

commander of the 1st division, 25th army corps, Benjamin and Mallory, and, in Washington, with 

he participated in the movement Pres. Lincoln and Sees. Seward and Welles, and 

leading to the surrender of the with Capt. John L. Worden and Lieut. George L. 

confederates at Appomattox and Selden. He was exchanged for three confederate 

led his division of colored troops lieutenants Nov. 14, 1861, who were sent south 

into Richmond, April 3, 1865. under a flag of truce. The same exchange included 

He was brevetted colonel in the ' 

regular service for gallantry in 

the action on the Darbytown road, 

Va., Oct. 1, 1864, and brigadier- 

L'eneral and major-general forfield- 

services during the war, March 13, 

1865. The same year he served 




350 confederate prisoners, captured at Hatteras 
inlet in August, 1861, for whom were returned 350 
federal soldiers captured at the battle of Bull 
Run in July, 1861. This was the first exchange of 
prisoners authorized by Pres. Lincoln and his cabi- 
net in the civil war. In January, 1862, Kautz was 
ordered to the flagship Hartford and served on Far- 

on the military commission to try ragut's staff while commanding the first division of 
the conspirators in the assassina- great guns in the engagements with forts Jaekson 

ami St. Philip, the Chalmette batteries, and in the 
capture of New Orleans in April, 1862. He had 
command of the howitzers, under Capt. Henry Bell, 
in New ( (rleans, and here figured in another historic 



tion of Pres. Lincoln. On July 
28, 1866, he was appointed lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 34th infantry 
and in 1869 was transferred to 



the 15th infantry, commanding the regiment during event, hauling down the lone star flag from the city 
the expedition against the Mesealero Apaches, hall, which Mayor Monroe had refused to strike, 
whom he succeeded in establishing on their reserva- and afterwards hoisting the stars and stripes on 
tion (1870-71). He was promoted colonel of the the custom house. Kautz continued on the Hart- 
Nth infantry, June 8, 1874; commanded the de- ford during the engagements with the batteries at 
partment of Arizona from 1875-77; was stationed Vicksburg in June and July. 1862, but in August 
at Angel Island, Cal., from 187S-S6, and then at he was seized with in.-daria'l fever and sent North 
Niobrara, Neb., till 1890. On April 20, 1891, he on sick leave. En 1863 he served in the Juinata, of 
was appointed brigadier-general, and on Jan. 5, the West India squadron; and in 1864-65 was 
1892, was placed on the retired list of the army, first lieutenant of the sloop of war Cyane in the 
Gen. Kautz published several small works and Pacific. He was promoted lieutenant^commander 



OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



143 



May 29, 1805 ; served on the Winooski, of the home 
squadron, and the flagship Pensacola, of the Pacific 
squadron (January, 1 SCO-August, 18(18); was on 
the receiving ship New Hampshire, Norfolk (Decem- 
ber, ixr.s May, ixii'.i); on duty at the Boston navy 
yard i.May, 'l 809- August, 1871). and was light- 
house inspector at Key West, Fla. (April, 1X72- 
October, 1873). Being promoted commander 
(Sept. 3, 1872) he was assigned to the Monocacy, 
of the Asiatic squadron, there continuing during 
the next two years (1873-75). He was lighthouse 
inspector in Cincinnati, O. (January, 1876-July, 
1880) ; in command of the Michigan on the lakes 
(August, 1880-August, 1883); on duty in the 
bureau of equipment, navy department (March- 
July, 1884); equipment officer at the Boston navy 
yard (July, 1884-October, 1887), and on leave 
traveling in Europe (November, 1887-December, 
1888). After his promotion as captain, June 2, 
1885, he served at the Portsmouth tN. H.) navy 
yard; was president of the naval examining and 
retiring board ; commandant of the Newport (R. I.) 
naval station and on other shore duty, and on the 
receivii:g-ship Wabash in Boston. He was pro- 
moted commodore, April 6, 1897, and ordered to 
the command of the station in Newport, R. I. 
There he continued until placed in command of the 
Pacific station, in October, 1898, with the Phila- 
delphia as his flagship. Upon the retirement of 
Rear-Adm. Bunce, Oct. 24, 1898, he was advanced 
to rank as his successor. In March, 1899, the 
condition of affairs at Samoa, which had been seri- 
ous for some months, reached a, climax. The 
German consul at Apia had been at odds with the 
British and American consuls and the chief-justice, 
in supporting the claims of Hataafa against those 
of Malietoa-Tanus, the newly-elected native king. 
The Philadelphia was accordingly ordered to Apia 
to protect American rights under the Berlin treaty. 
On his arrival Adm. Kautz found a state of anarchy 
which culminated in the murder of an American 
guard at the consulate and a British seaman by 
native adherents of Mataafa, encouraged, as was 
alleged, by an incendiary proclamation issued by 
the German consul. A conference between the 
American and British consuls, Adm. Kautz and the 
commander of a British warship in port resulted in 
the bombardment of the native positions at Apia 
under control of Mataafa, and the concentration of 
the followers of his opponent in the struggle for the 
kingship. The U. S. government sustained Adm. 
Kautz in the position he had assumed, and the Brit- 
ish government concurred in endorsing her own 
commanders, but while no official utterance from 
the German emperor defined his position in the 
matter, the press throughout the empire bitterly 
denounced the bombardment as brutal and unneces- 
sary. The affair was further complicated by alle- 
gations that shells and weapons of German make 
had been used by the Samoan insurgents. Upon 
his return to the United States Adm. Kautz was 
retired, having reached the age limit. He died, 
at Florence, Italy, Feb. 5, 1907. 

CRAIGHEAD, Edwin Boone, third president 
of Tulane University, was born at Ham's Prairie, 
Callaway cp., Mo., Mar. 3, 1861, son of Isiah Oliver 
and Francis J. (Payne) Craighead, of Scotch de- 
scent. He was educated at Westminister College, 
Fulton, Mo., and at Central College, Fayette, Mo. 
While at the latter institution he showed marked 
ability and won medals both for oratory and scholar- 
ship. He was graduated in 18S3, and after spend- 
ing several months selling books, he became a 
school teacher at Neosho, Mo. During 1884-86 
he was a student at Vanderbilt University, and 
also taught in Nashville college for women. He 
next spent two years studying in Europe, one 



in Leipzig, and one in Paris, France. In 18SS-89 
he taught Greek at Emory and Henry College. 
Emory, Va., and in the latter year was eleeie.l 
president of 1'ryor Institute of Jasper, Teim. 
In 1X110 he was called to WolTord College, Spartan- 
burg. S. ('., when he taught languages, but re- 
signed in 1893 to accept the presidency of the South 
Carolina Agricultural and Mechanical College at 
cleinson in the same state. Four years later 
(18117) he was elected president of Central College, 
succeeding Dr. Tyson S. Dines. After ably filling 
this post for four years, he was called to the presi- 
dency of the State Normal School, Warrcnsburg, 
Mo., whence in 1901 he was elected president of 
Tulane University to succeed Edwin A. Alderman. 
Under his administration Tulane has become 
one of the largest and the best endowed univer- 
sities in the South, having in equipment ami 
endowment $8,000,000, a student body number- 
ing 1000, and 192 professors and instructors. It 
has the following colleges: the colleges of arts 
and sciences and engineering, having an endow- 
ment of $1,500,000; the medical department, 
having an endowment of approximately $1,000,000; 
the law department, not endowed; the dental 
department, not endowed; the Newcomb College 
for Women, with resources of approximately 
84,000.000, and the teachers college, established 
in 1909, and at present without endowment. 
Dr. Craighead was an original member of the 
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of 
Teaching, and is a fellow of the American Scientific 
Association. The University of Missouri con- 
ferred upon him the degree of LL.D., in 1X98, 
and the University of the South the degree of 
D.C.L., in 1907. He was married at Fayette, Mo., 
Aug. 6, 1889, to Kate, daughter of Dr. B. F. Johnson, 
and has two sons and one daughter. 

DOHSE, John, manufacturer, was torn in 
New York city, Feb. 26, 1857, son of John and Mine 
(Altmann) Dohse. His father came to the United 
States from Rostock, Germany 
in 1855 and settled in New 
York city. John Dohse was 
educated at the Parish School 
of St. Mark's church, Free Ger- 
man school and public schools 
of New York city and attended 
the College of the City of New 
York for two years (1869-71). 
In 1871 he entered the employ 
of A. Keppelman in the dye 
stuff business in New York 
city and in 1880 he became 
bill clerk with John W. Masury 
& Son. When this concern was 
incorporated in 1883 Mr. 
Dohse was made secretary, 
and in 1880 he became its 
general manager. Upon the 
death of Mr. Masury in 1895, 

Mr. Dohse was made president i 

of the company, a position he / 

held until his death. The 
company prospered from the beginning, and 
became one of the largest paint concerns in 
the country. Mr. Dohse was president of the 
Paint, Oil* and Varnish Club of New York, 
and of the Paint Manufacturing Association of 
the United States. He was a director of the 
Assurance Company of America and of the 
Terminal Bank of Brooklyn. He was married in 
New York city, Nov. 14, 1889, to Alice E., daughter 
of Charles Quin of Brooklyn and had two children, 
Elsa and John, Jr. He 'died in New York city, 
Sept. 2, 1902. 




144 



THE NATIONAL CYCLOP.EDIA 




DREW, Morrill Newman, lawyer, was born in 
Fort P'airfield, Me., May 17, 1862, son of Jesse and 
Clarissa (Wellington) Drew. His earliest American 
ancestor was John Drew, who sailed from England 
to Plymouth, Mass., about 1660. From this John 
Drew and his wife Hannah Churchill the line is 
traced through Nicholas and his wife Abigail 
; Nicholas and his wife, Bathsheba 
Kempton ; Stephen and his wife, Jerusha Bryant, 
and Stephen and his wife, Anna Bisbee, who were 
Mr. Drew's grandparents. Jesse Drew was in the 
custom service for about twenty years; he held 
various town offices and 
was a member of the 
Maine legislature. Mer- 
rill N. Drew fitted for 
college at the Nichols 
Latin School, and was 
graduated at Bates col- 
lege in 1885. After a 
course at the Boston 
University Law School, 
from which he received 
the degree of LL.B., he 
finished the requisite 
legal reading in the office 
of Powers & Powers at 
Houlton, Me., and was 
admitted to the bar of 
Androscoggin county in 
1885. He opened a 
law office at Fort Fair- 
field and was not long in acquhing an extensive 
practice. He was county attorney for Aroos- 
took county during 1887-90. He represented 
Fort Fairfield in the Maine house of represen- 
tatives in 1891-94 and served on important 
committees. In the summer of 1893 he moved to 
Portland, Me., and from that time on practiced 
his profession in that city. In 1902 he was elected 
a representative from Portland to the 71st Maine 
legislature, serving on the committees on the judi- 
ciary and the committee on rules. In 1904 he was 
reflected to the legislature and was chosen speaker 
at the session in 1905, having a large majority over 
his principal opponent for that position. He mane 
an able and popular speaker, being thoroughly 
posted in parliamentary usage, absolutely impartial 
in his rulings and possessing a clear, strong voice. 
Able, popular and energetic, Mr. Drew succeeds in 
what lie undertakes whether business or polities. 
He served as a director of the Presque Isle 
National Bank; he organized and was the first 
president of the Fort Fairfield National Bank, and 
he is now vice-president and treasurer of the United 
States Trust Company recently organized in Port- 
land. He is president of the Stan ton Club, a mem- 
ber of the Portland Athletic and Country clubs, Sons 
of the American Revolution, Society of Colonial 
Wur.s, trustee and treasurer of the Westbrook 
Seminary, president of the Maine State Universal- 
ist convention, member of the Maine State Bar 
Association, the Masonic fraternities and the Shrine. 
Mr. Drew was married Dec. 30, 1892, to Louise S., 
daughter of Jesse Davis of Lisbon, Me., and has 
one son, Jesse A Drew. 

BALDY, John Montgomery, physician, was 
born at Danville, Pa., June 16, 1860, son of Edward 
Hurley and Henrietta Cooper (Montgomery) Baldy, 
and a descendant of Jacob Baldy, who came to 
America about 1730, settling in Berks county, Pa. 
On the maternal side he is descended from Thomas 
Cooper, the eminent scientist (q.v.). The subject of 
this sketch was educated in St. Paul's school, Con- 
cord, N. H., and in the medical school of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania where he was graduated M.D. 



in 1884. In the following year he engaged in the 
practice of his profession at Scranton, Pa., specializ- 
ing in gynecofogy, in which branch he became a 
recognized authority. He was appointed pro- 
fessor of gynecology at the Philadelphia Polyclinic 
in 1891 and still retains that position. He was 
connected with the gynecological department of 
the Pennyslvania hospital in 1893-1905 the St 
Agnes hospital, 1891-94, and the Philadelphia 
dispensary, 1885-89. He has been surgeon to 
the Gynecean hospital since 1891, and consulting 
surgeon in the Jewish hospital since 1906, and the 
Frederick Douglass Memorial hospital since 1903. 
Dr. Baldy has made a thorough study of his special- 
ty, the results of which are embodied in his "Amer- 
ican Text-book of Gynecology" (1895). He is a 
founder member of the International Gynecological 
and Obstetrical Society of which he was vice- 
president at its meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, in 
1896. He is a member of the American Gynecolog- 
ical Society and served as its treasurer during 
1895-1907, and as president in 1908, and a member 
of the Philadelphia Obstetrical Society of which 
he was president in 1907-08. He is also a member 
of the American Medical Association, the Penn- 
sylvania State and Philadelphia County medical 
societies, the Southern Gynecological and Surgical 
Society, the Philadelphia Art Club, and the Society 
of Colonial Wars. During 1881-84 he was a mem- 
ber of the National Guard of Pennsylvania, attain- 
ing the rank of first sergeant in Co. F of the 12th 
regiment and being honorably discharged in the 
latter year. Dr. Baldy was married in Philadel- 
phia, Aug. 5, 1896, to Edith Lyndsey, daughter of 
George W. Turner of Washington, D. C. 

BURGESS, [Frank] Gelett, author and illus- 
trator, was born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 30, 1866, 
son of Thomas Harvey and Caroline Matilda 
Brooks (Tupper) Burgess, and a descendant of 
Thomas Burgess, a native of England, who landed 
at Salem, Mass., in 1630 and settled at Duxbury, 
Mass., in 1637. From this original American 
ancester and his wife Dorothy - , the line 
of descent is traced through their son John who 
married Mary Worden ; their son Samuel and his 
\\itV Elizabeth - ; their son Thomas and 

his wife Mary Covill; their son Steven